Skip to main content

Full text of "The handmaid to the arts [by R. Dossie.]."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 













i. A perfeft knowledge of the 
materia pidoria : or the na- 
ture, ufe, preparation, and 
compofition, of all the vari- 
ous fubftances employed in 
painting ; as well vehicles, 
dryer?, l^c, as colours : in- 
cluding thofe peculiar to en- 
amel and painting on glafs. 

II. The feveral devices em- 
ployed for the more eafily 
and accurately making de- 
iigns from nature, or de- 
pided reprcfentations ; ei- 
ther by off-tracing, calking, 
redu6lion, or other. means : 
with the methods of taking 
cafts, or impreffions, from fi- 

gures, bulls, medals, leaves, 

III. The various manners of 
gilding, filvering, and bron- 
zing, with the preparation of 
the genuine gold and fdver 
powders, and imitations of 
them, as alfp of tlie fat oil, 
gold fizes, ^nd other necef- 
faty compofitions :— the art 
of japanning as applicable 
not only to the former pur- 
pcfes, but to coaches, fnuff- 
boxes, ^c, in the manner 
lately introduced :— nnd the 
method of llaining different 
kinds of fubltances with all 
the feveral colours. 

The whole being calculatxid, as well for conveying a 
more accurate and extenfive knowledge of the matters 
treated of to artifts ; as to initiate thofe, who arc 
defirous to attempt thefe arts, into the method of pre- 
paring and ufing all the colours, and other fubftances 
employed in painting in ciiy miniature^ enamel^ varnijh^ 
ziidfrefcci ^s zX(o \n gildings ^c. 


Printed for J. No u r s e at the Lamb oppofite 

Katherine'Street in the Slrand. 



1 4 


» I 



Noblemen and Gentlemen, 

Members of the Society for the Encduragement 
of Arts, ManufiKftures, andComtoerc^ 

My Lofxis 


THE coffe^ondefjce betwkl the defigft 
of this Work 2ind the views, on which 
you have formed yottrlBrjts into l fociety, na- 
turally points out to fne, towhbm it mfty be 
addrefled wMi the greateft propriety : and thd 
fenfe of th« gratitude »duc to you from my(yf 
and every other member of the community, foi* 
your zealous application to promote the na- 
tional intereft, in fome of the moft important 
though mtith negle(fted matters, gives me a 
pleafure in embracing this opportunity of ex- 
prefling my ackiiowledgitients of it. 

The furnifhing means of eftablifliing and 
improving ufefol arts, efpecially thofe which 
relate to confiderable manufav!tures, and the 
creating incitements and motives to the exer- 
cife of thofe means, (however minute and tri- 
vial fome neceffary particulars of them may 
appear to thofe w^ho have not duly weighed the 
nature and corifequence of fuch affairs,) ar>5 

A 2 yet. 


yet, to a country that owes its riches, power, 
and even domeftic fecurity to commerce, of 
the greateft concern and moment : and it is 
more peculiarly meritorious in thofe, who in 
a private capacity exert their utmoft endea- 
vours on theie accounts; as fuch perfuits feem 
to take up a very little fhare of the regard 
of the public here, at a time, when all the 
neighbouring governments (and efpecially that 
of our rival France) make them ^ principal ob- 
jed: of their attention and care. To you, there- 
.fore, I dedicate this book : as it is not only in 
your power, but intirely within the fphere of 
your profefled intentions, to inforce, in a more 
?xtenfive and publicly beneficial way, the 
practice of many particulars taught in it ; 
and as it affords me an occafion of declaring 
that high eftimation of the undertaking of your 
fociety, and confequential refpe<3: for the mem-- 
bers of it, which is entertained by 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 
Your moft obedient, 
and humble Servant, 



That" the national improvement of Jkill 
and tajie in the execution of works ofdc-- 
fign is a matter of great importance to any coun^ 
trjy not only on account of the honour which is 
derived to civilized nations by excelling in the 
polite artSy but likewife of the commercial ad^ 
vantages refulting from itj will be allowed by 
ally who have not very lingular notions with re-- 
fpeB to thefe matters: though ^ in what degree 
fuch improvements are ejfentially interejiing to us 
at prefenty is fcarcely conceived by any^ unlefs 
thofe who particularly concern themf elves iir fpe^ 
culations of this nature. The Jirong difpojitiony 
that prevails not only in the European countries^ 
but in the refpeElive fettlements of their people in 
Afia and America^ for ufng thofe decorations 
and ornaments in drefs as well as buildings and 
furniture^ that employ the arts of dejign, giv^s 
at prefent the foundation to fever al of the mofl 
conjiderable branches of trade : which are daily 
increa/ingy with the luxury^ thatfeems removing 
from the Eajty and fpreading itfelf over thefe 
JVejiern countries and their colonies^ in fuch 
manner as will probably foon render fome articles 
of this kind equals in the return^ tQ the moft 
A 3 fiaple 


fiaple and extenfvwe of thofe of the former eofHh 
, merce. Andj as feveral circumjlances both oj 
mr oeconomical and political condition^ by in- 
hancing tf> a 'very high degree^ the price of com-- 
mm necejariesy and inttoducing more expenfive 
modes of lije^ are depriving us of the fhare we 
bad of the gr offer manufactures that depend on 
labour y it peculiarly behoves us to exert ourfehes 
in cultivating th^ of a more refned nature ; 
iphere Jkill and tafie (in "whi^h we by no means 
feem naturally wanting) ar^ required t<f give a 
higher vahie /« the worky andjiand in the place 
of a greater praportion of manual operation. 

It mu/l be with regret^ tberefbrey we fee tie 
French h^ve got greiily the fiart (f w in this 
very nmterialperfait: andtbat the encouragement 
given by the government^ t6getber with the op- 
portunities afforded by a well infiituted academyy 
has diffujed fucb a judgment and tajte in defign 
among allclajfes of the artifonSy as render France 
at this time the fource of nearly all invention ef 
fHpnons\ and neceffsn'ily occqfion an extreme 
great demand from her for all tbofi artichsy in 
the produBion of which fUch talents are exer^ 

^e advtintagesy which France has new over 
us in thefe concerns ^ are net ksmeverfo well fe- 
QUredy that we Jhould defpair of being abky in 
timfy to wrefi them out oj her hands : for where 
the mechanical party either as it depends on ma- 
chines or manual dexterityy is in quejliony we 
have given on all occajions the proofs of fuperior ' 
ainlities ; and whenever y there/ore, the improve^ 




ment tf f^cy and propriety in the de/igmng uf 
modek and patt€rm Jfxm be jo far advanced here^ 
as to put m neatly on a level with her in th^ 
p^nts^ we Jbali^fim become as formidable a ri^ 
val to ber^ in what Jbe no^ confiders her pccu- 
6unfi, as Jhe has in a parallel maimer been before 
to usy in the woollen trade, from our advanced 
price of labour. 

The meafiireSy by which this i^ery defrable end 
m^ be attained^ confiji of three particulars : the 
founding a well regulated academy y where not 
onfy youth Of^ novices may have an opportunity 
of being well initiated in the principles ^dcfign i 
hit where e^en artifis themfehes may havm the 
means of and inducement to further Jiudy^ in order 
to tbejirongeji exertion of their genim ; -^tbe creat-^ 
ing jueh incitements, hy pecuniary rewards or 
honorary diJlinciionSy td excel in ihefe artSy and 
more ejpecially in the applicixdon of them to the 
perfe&tng tbofe manuf azures, to which, they bavt 
any re lotion y as may Simulate the more indolent, 
and raife greater emulation among the forward, 
to apply their utmoji powers to excel \— and the 
diffii/ing a more general and accurate knowledge 
of thofe fecondary or auxiliary arts that are r^-» 
quifte to the praBifing deiign ; or to the exeai^ 
tion (f works dependant on it. Thefrji of thejit 
meoHSy viz. the e^e&ing an academy ofdj^tSy we 
mufi hopey when the goFoernment^ Jhall be freed 
from the embarrajjing concerns of a wary will be 
thought an objeSl worthy their notice and care -, 
fnce it is too apparent y from the failure of the 
attemps already madey that nothing eje^ual 

A 4 with 

V r' f\ r /% ^ K. 

jrv in jhifin ^yf/;/«7' i .•, -xjf//, /// /;;;//•, he ade-^ 
qftnftl<: pir,rfiftf1 /^y flw hvuifihlf niHcavom's oj thi. 
fffirix ff,nllifttf',1 fn fhif (fh1\ /fih) irhichy from 
ihi tnnii'iunl nncllir,n /-/ mrpfihns^ frrws to prO'^ 

r^i/' /A f'jri-f/-r>7 f,j tuvph' fuv^U f nv (be purpojc: 

ih, 1,7^1 nrr ;■•/.»', /v/ In hr lupplivii h\ fbis tVOrk \. 
hff ',f^-fh ir^h-rf iiflr ir. \vtrffs^ / rnvfl Ic/TOC it tO 

fhr 'V/Vr**''"''' r / ihr pffhl'w to <ivf ermine : ovh I 
trill vr^ /'»' l'f\"[\ o1 Ibt^oini^ ffimi^vhat more 
e\pf'i'''\ h ',\ ft; irr/vi/ p/riifrNl/ir mtivvcr it is 

p7',zf^^-h\} fr A cMjfhfC'^iv fr- thi< rfj/i. 

fh,' ^--'J \;.-,' ■ 7. '.'»,'■•.■ fh,- n/ifit'/i: hflfn^'w /**'"/)/7»*/'- 
^.V'V, "\- ;/'■'. rr' r/'T /'J?/v fh,' luhlhTViW- n^ -Ik-hiH 

.•■>*■ ' 



/ourSy from the fordidnefs and ignorance of the 
yewSy and other low people concerned in the pre^ 
paration of them ^ is a di [advantage of the high- 
ejl moment tofuch as painty even with the greats 
eft Jkillj either in oil or water ^ and what they 
can find no appofite remedy againji without fome 
aid of this kind. For^ as the preparation of co- 
lours is kept a fecret in the hands of thoje few 
who manufaSiure them^ either here or abroad^ 
and confequently is very little known to modern 
painters y and a much greater Jkare of knowledge 
in natural hijiory^ experimental pkilofoph\\ and 
chemijiryy is required^ to the underjtanaing the 
nature of the JimpleSy and principles of the com-- 
pofitionj in a fpecnlative lights than is confjlent 
with thefudy of other fuhje£ls more immediately 
necejfary to an artiji ; there remains no means of 
furmounting this difictdtyy but by being fuppliedj 
by fome perfon^ whofe application could he more 
properly direBed to the attainme?it ofthisfcience^ 
with Juch afyftem of the theory and praBice of 
every thing relating to the Materia PiBoriay as 
may enable them either to prepare the colours 
themfeheSj where not to be otherwife obtained 
perfeB'y or to judge critically with fame certainty 
of the goodnejs offiich as they procure from others. 
This I have therefore attempted en their behalf: 
and I hope not in vain 3 as not o?dy a general ac- 
qiiaintance with thepraBice of the fever al branches 
of the chemical arty but a very large experimental 
inquiry into the nature of ikefe fubjedls in par-- 
ticulary form my pretenfions to fome knowledge 
of them. 


Ai the depravity of the manner of prepara-* 
tim has alfo extended itfelf to the wry priming 
^cktbsfor grounds of paintings (a work truJU 
ed too negleUfidly at prefent to the care ofcohur-^ 
men), from whence great inconvenience to the 
fainter and detriment to the piSiures^ are pro- 
ducedy I have fubjoined a method^ by which 
thofe^ who are really in earnefi about the merit 
of their performancesy may procure cloths to be 
made without either Jlijeningy cracking., or 
caufing (as it is called) the colours to £bk in : 
andy as this has an apparent utility with reJpeSi 
ta painters in the caje of new piiluresyfo the 
improvements offered in the methods of cleanings 
prefrving^ and mendings tbofe of older date, 
are' not kfs obvioii/ly beneficial to (ihers pojfeffed 
^former works. The art of cleaning p^ures 
veing indeed of the utmofl confequence to the in- 
ierejt of tafte : as no lover of the polite arts can 
refeBy without the utmoft regret^ on the va/l 
bavock made in the works of all the great mqfiers^ 
by erroneous and faulty management in this points 

A complete fyftem of the theory andproQice of 
enamel painting forms the next article : the va^ 
lue of which will be bejl underjlood by thofo^ for 
whofe ufe it is intefided: for as this art is of 
late introduclion among usy and the manner of 
conducting ity with refpeSi to the preparation 
and compoftion of the colours^ faixeSy a^idgroundsy 
has been carefully concealed in the places abroad 
where it has been higer ejlablijhedi a very f mall 
Jhare of knowledge in the preparation of the co- 


kwrs^ and yet lejji (fftbat of the grtmnis dndfwctSy 
is the wbok hitherto gained by the artijis of this 
4»untty: who are mojily obliged to empby a 
'white enamel prepared at Venice f» their 
grmnd\ to pick up the remains of a kind ofglafs 
formerly made there for a fiux\ and to proeurt 
the colotirs^ either in a more perfeS or faukt 
fiate as they can meet with them s except in tie 
cafe ofthdfe who have recipes for fme kinds which 
they prepare y btit with that precariouMs of the 
qualities^ that attends the blindly fmonmng re^ 
cipes^ without any comprehet^on either of the ge-^ 
nsral properties of the ingredients^ or principles 
of the (Rations. From which circumjlances^ 
uncertainties in tbejicccefs and embarra/fments in 
the W9rk are the frequent refult ; as well from a 
want of under/landing the nature of the fubfanees 
they tfe-^ as the not being able to procure what ie 
good of each kindy or ft for their particular pur^ 

2^ a/^ing in the cultivation of the- art of 
enamelling here was indeed one principal obfcM 
of the defgn of this book : as . that art is very 
znaterialfy interefiing to us at prefent-^ being 
- become the bafis of a manufaBurey from which 
we may expeSl great advantages \ fnce we already 
fee it carried fuddenly to fuch a degree of p^^ 
feBion with refpeSl to the facility of workin^^ 
as to raije a demand for the produce in foreign 
markets \ mtwithjianding the long praiiice Md 
cheap living of the people of Geneva, who had 
been in poffejjion c^ this branch of commerce 


xii P R E I^^ A C fi. 

for a con^derMe time^ gave them origindlly the 
greatefi advantages in it over us. 

T^he painting on glafs with vitreous colours is 
not a matter of equal importance with enameU 
ling : hut, as it is confdered as one of the arts 
of which the myjiery is at prefent loji to us, 
(though J on the contrary^ being in faSl nothing 
more than painting with tran^arent enamel co- 
lours on glafs grounds by much the fame methods , 
the modem improvements made in the art of en- 
amelling hafve given us an equal fuperiority in 
this,) I thought it a necejfary part of the work ; 
and have accordingly entered on an explanation 
of the whole of it-, availing my f elf never thelefs, 
if its affinity with enamel paintings fo as to refer 
fir mofl particulars to what was bejore laid down 
en that f core ^ and inlarge only on fome points in 
which a difference is found betwixt them. But 
I flatter myfelf that^ notwithfianding the brevity 
of the manner^ any perfon may^ by a proper at^ 
tention to what is delivered on this heady eafily 
make himfelf mafler of every thing pecidiar to 
painting on glafs. 

The gilding enamel and glafs h vitreous co- 
lours J and annealing, was a necejjary appendage 
to the art of painting in enamel : but there is 
yet another circumfiance which made the commu" 
nication of the befi methods of doing this of fome 
confequence to the public. It is the great demand 
now fubfijling for drinking glaffes with gilt edges, 
which ere mofily^ at prefent, either imported 
from Germa?iyy or fraudulently imitated here by 
gilding with gum water or fizes that will not 


PREFACE. xiii 

hear moijiure : though^ were the means well im- 
derjioody they might tJi large parcels^ with very 
little more expence or trouble^ be done in the 
genuine manner. 

The method of taking off mezzotint o prints on 
glafsj which makes the next article^ is not d 
matter of any great momejit : butj as the prac- 
tifing it is very alluring^ by the produSlion of 
piBures even without being able to draw^ it may 
be an inducement to fome to apply themfelves to 
painting and thejiudy ^/'defign ; fnce thofe will 
not Jong reji fatisfea with this manner of exer-- 
cijing their fancy ^ who have a genius for greater 

Tthe art ofwajhing maps and other print s^ is 
however of more general uje : and requires no 
apology for holding a place in the work. 

The devices and mechanical means employed 
for the more eafly and accurately obtaining out- 
line fketches of defigns after nature or works of 
art^ which begin the Jecond party are of the 
greateji afijlance and fervice to all who paint 
or draw : and though moji of them are known to 
artijis of larger experience \ yet beginners are to 
learn them^ and moji frequently want an adequate 
opportunity \ on wkofe account therefore- they 
were necejfaryfor the anfwering the full intention 
of this book: and perhaps even fuch as are 
more verfed in thefe matters ^ may meet with 
Something not unacceptable to them in a colleBion 
of inventions of this nature ^ fo copious as that 
here given. 



^I%e methods &/ C€^ing in large ^ which foU 
hw in this party will be much lefs exfen/ivefy 
ufifid\ as it is pradtifed only by few j iznd the 
managing it in more difficult cafes mt eafify re^ 
dwible to rule : but fime notice of them were 
wanting to render the fyftem complete ; efpecially 
as they are conneSled, Jo as not to bearivell afe^ 
paration from them^ tvJfh tho/e ofcafting medals 
and other fmailer pieces^ and the manner of tak^ 
ing off imprejfms from various fubjeSts ; both 
which are articles of very general utility. 

The diff laying the feveral methods of gilding y 
which is done in the third party will be found a 
convenience to numbersy who would occafionally 
praSiife themy if they had the means in their 
power : and the application of the art of japan- 
ning to fo many purpofeSy where a mixture of 
gilding is required y as the introduSlim of papier 
madu^ has occafioned lately y makes this commu- 
nicotian particularly Jea/onable at prefint. 

Silvering and bronzing have mfb their utility y 

though in a lefs degree than gilding j and there-- 

fare properly claim to folhw it : as they are in 

faSi only different applications of the fame means. 

Ihe knowledge of the methods of japanning is at 
prtfent more wanted than that of any other of th^ 
myfierious arts whatever ; as it is now demanded 
to be pradHfed on coaches and other vehicles in a 
very large and expenfve wayy by thofe who till 
lately were utter frangers to it. Information 
aftms kindy fitch ai is intended to be conveyed in 
the fourth chapter of this party is in a peculiar 
manner requijite to them ) that they may the more 
I eafily 


e^ and readily execute thafe defigns they have 
Jhevon ibtml^hxi capable of makings (wbm Jup^ 
Jicientiy paid to ^crd the due application J wtth 
a tqfte imdjudgnmit^ that prwes them to be not 
greatly inferior to the French^ in tins Jpecies of 
performance^ though fi lately undertaken by them. 
Laquering had too great an affinity vntbjapan^ 
fungy not to be joined with it in this ^ork ; 
though it is of lefs confequence Havingy how^ 
every been carried by Jome to much greater per- 
feBion here^ than in any other country y even to 
the rivalling gilding in its effediy the communis 
eating the befi compofition of laquer to num^ 
berSy nd>o are either compelled to purchafe what 
they ufe of particular perfons that have tbefecrets 
of preparing ity or to employ a very inferior 
kind rf their own proJkiBiony is not without fuch 
advantagesy as may make it to be properly con^ 
fidered as one means of improvement in the more 
elegant mamfaBures. 

^Hm means ffjiaining papery parchment y woody 
ivory^ boney horn, andfimes of arty kindy with 
all the variety (f colour Sy make the lafi contents 
of this work \ and willy Ihopey for purpofes of 
real t^e as well as amufementy be found agreeable 
to many, ^hcir greatefi relation to the arts of 
difign lieSy howevery in the article of gaining 
fhms'j from the fre^entoccafonsflatuariesy and 
ntbers who work in marble and alabaflery have 
to give artifdal colours to them : the method of 
doing whicby in a more perfeSt manner ^ isy nc-^ 
^^dfeiefs^ known to very few at prefent. 



TTjcJc are the particular topicks of injlrudlion 
by which this book is intended to promote the im- 
provement of the artSy and the more curious 
kinds of manufaSlures : and excepting engfav^ 
ingy etchings and fcraping mezzotintoSy they 
comprehend moji fubjeSis that have any imme^ 
diate relation to them : though fome are touched 
upon in a more copious y and others only in a brief 
manner y according to the importance of the mat- 
tery or the room given for an advantageous in-- 
largement on it. 

^e articles of engraving and etchingy ejpe- 
daily as far as regards the compofition and ap^ 
plication of the two kinds of varnijh or groundy 
and the refpeSlive forts of aquafortis y did very 
properly belong to the work ; and were originally 
propofed to have been comprized in it : but in 
feeking after the latefl improvementSy a favour- 
able opportunity offered of procuring fuch a quan- 
tity of ufeful matter refpeSling the prefent prac- 
tice of thefe arts in France y where they have been 
much more cultivated than hercy as wouldy with- 
cut fupprefjing fome valuable party have fwelled 
the volume beyond the expedient bulk ; and in- 
hanced the price of it in fuch a manner y as might 
hofve fniftrated in fome degree the end of the pub- 
lication ofit'y by preventing its reaching the hands 
of many of the lower artifanSy for whofe ufe if 
was in part intended. It was therefore judged 
more proper to referve what was propofed to have 
been given on thefe headsy together withfeveral 
other articles that might have been acceptable to 
particular fets of peopky but were of lefs gcne- 
I ral 


rul utility y and remoter amneSlion with theprin^ 
cipal "view than tbofe at prefent infertedy for a 
Jupplemental work. 

It may probably be imagined y that the ends pro^ 

pofed by this treatife may be anfwered by the writ^ 

ings (f others already publiJJoed : as there is more 

than one book in our own language y which pre^ 

tend to pkns not greatly different from that on 

which it is formed y befdes a multiplicity of others 

that profefs to teach particular arts : but on a 

ckfer examination lam afraid it will by no means 

be found that all the volumes which have been 

compiled on thefe heads taken together y and much 

kfs any Jingle one of the number y have effeSiually 

provided tjbe information wantedy or even gone 

any confiderable lengths towards it. One could 

fcarcely believey neverthelefsy without having 

perufed themy that abnoji every book already writ^ 

tenon thefe fubjeSisfo generally interejlingjhould 

be egregiouJUyrdefeSlive in matter, formy and 

ver(Kity ; and yet this is almoji equally the cafe 

ofallwb^e they are treated of in a more copious 

and extenfive manner. But it will appear Ufs 

txtraordiw^y when weftndy that the authors were 

far the .mofi part unacquainted in an experimental 

way with what they took upon them to teachy and 

not better qualified with any fpeculative knowledge 

that could enable them to judge critically of what 

they prpcured on the authority of other Sy andthere^ 

fore either blindly copied afer former writers y at 

addedirnplicitlyfucb additional articles as the re-^ 

ports of living per fons they inquired of furnijhed 

tkemmtki wd vitrf perbfips .fis ojten deceived 

a by 

xviii PREFACE. 

by the defign as the ignorance of thofefrom whom 
they fought information y being themjehes pojjibly 
not always veryfollicitous,fo much avout the value 
as the quantity of what they collected. 

With reJpeSi to the preparation of painter'* s co^ 
tours^ Neri, in his treattfe on glafs^ feems to have 
laid the foundation for all the cdleSlions of recipes 
of that kind publijhed here -J probably from its be- 
coming known by means of Merrefs iranflatim^ 
to the writers^ whofe reading was not extenfive 
enough to lead them to an acquaintance with 
BirelluSj or the parages in Matbiolus, JVormius^ 
Cefalpinus, and others who have occafonally touched 
on this head. 

Caneparius in his book de atramentis gave a 
more extenfive view of the preparation andcompo^ 
ftion of pigments far painting ; by adopting what 
Neri had given, (though he has never quoted hi ^ by 
name) and adding feveral other particulars omit- 
ted by him ; as likewife a variety of other prac^ 
tices relating to the arts ; but mixt with many er- 
roneous andfalfe accounts both of theproceffes and 
the produce of them. 

Merret an Englijh phyfcian tranflated Neri 
into our language, and gave notes upon him : but 
not having, as appears,, the leaji light to direSl 
him in his opinions, but what hd borrowed from 
* other writers, his obfervations neither illuftrated 
nor augmented in any material degree the contents 
of Neri' shook. 

Kunkel republifhed in the German language 
Neri's work with Merrefs notes ^ and his own ob^ 
fervations on both : and be alfo infer ted as well 



there as in bis- other difertations on the an of 
making glafs^ feveral procejfes for the preparaticn 
of painters colours much better than thofe of Neri 
$r the others before him ; as likewije many other 
ufeful recipes refpeSiing the arts and myfterictis 
trades : but bejeems to be the only writer^ who 
has treated tbefe fubjeSis in a more diffufioe 
manner^ that was experimentally converfant with 
what he undertook to teach. 

After this Salmon in his Polygraphices took 
upon him to give inftruSlions for the praSlice of 
almoji all the arts and myjierious trades : and by 
the ajfiflance of thejormer writers^ and private 
information^ got together a larger body of mat^ 
ter refpeSiing thefe fubjeSls than any before him 
had done : bis colle^ion would indeed have bad 
conjiderabh merit at th^ time it waspublijhed, if 
the valuable parts bad not been confounded with 
jucb a heap of abfurdjluff andfalfities as ren- 
dered every pajfage Jujpicious ; and dijpofed in a 
manner fo void of all order and method^ that (an - 
index being wanting likewifej it was impraSiica-^ 
ble^ without turning over and carefully examin* 
ing a great number of pages^ to find any article 
required ; though feveral are repeatedfour or five 
times over in different places : which dijiculty of 
finding what was wanted^ and uncertainty whe^ 
tber what might be found would prove a jufi ac^ 
count of the matter^ or fome extravaga7it blun- 
der or impoftiony difcouraged thofe who might 
have profited by many of his recipes and infruc^ 
tions^ fromfeeking any affiftance from him in 
matters of a more nice or uncommon nature. 
a 2 But 


But this conduSi in digejiing with fo little care^ 
and debafing with impertinencies andfaljhoods^ 
the proper matter of that work is no great ground 
of wonder in the cafe of a writer^ who, after he 
found this book met with a good reception from 
the public, was capable of confpiring with book-^ 
fellers to blend a long difcourfe of chiromantical 
fignaturesy or the means of telling fortunes by the 
lines of the hands, and a mafs of the mojl riS-* 
culous nonfenfe that has been written on the phi^ 
lofophers Jlone^ with the contents of a treatife 
profefjing to convey a practical knowledge of the 
ufefularts, for the fake of enlarging the volume j 
in order to raife the price ^ under pretence that 
' valuable additions had been made to the work. 
The lajl performance of this kind was pub^ 
lifloed under toe affuming title of the School of 
Arts : from which name one might have hoped^ 
if not for a complete fyflem of knowledge oj this 
kind^ at leafi for fomewhat better than the eat-^ 
Her writers had produced: efpecially as many 
amendments of the former fraStice^ as well as 
the introduSion into ufe of feveral important 
inventionSy had furnijhed much ampler matter. 
But the author in/lead of fhunning their errors^ 
or availing bimfelfofthe advantages the prejent 
Jtate oJ things gave him over them^ adopted 
with great augmentation all the defeSls and 
faults of thofe who had gone before him ; and 
formed his work on a plan that deprived him of 
all opportunity of profiting of the greater ad^ 
vance towards perfeStion tf the modem praSlice. 
1 For^ 


PifTj being a German^ (as I angeSure from 
his manner of changing the EngUJh idiom) j he 
feems to have conceived^ that nothing could be 
added to the labours of bis cmntrymen: and has^ 
therefore^ with refpeS at leaft to thofe topics be 
has touched upon in common with this work^ 
confined himfelf to tranjlating and compiling 
from Kunkel, and other Germans-, who being 
of older date could notfupply him with the im^ 
prowments and inventions of the prefent time. 
In confequence of which conduSl^ obfolete and in-- 
fufficient methods are t aught y injiead of the modem 
and effeBual : and many of the mofi material 
articles whoUy omitted \ as, in the in fiance of ^ 
gilding, aH the infirudiions are confined to me-- 
tals*i and with regard even to them, relate 
only to means now exploded: and many im-^ 
fortant makers Jhifffy conneSled with his 
plan, are not once mentioned in the book*, 
white othrs <ff much lefs confequence^ as the 
method of chryfiallizing fiver under the re- 
femblance of a tree^ are repeated four or five 
times emer. hike Salmon, he gleaned aljb toge^ 
tier ail the extravagancies he could lay hold of 
in order to increafe the fze of the work to the 
bookfellers unreajonabk flandard : and therefore 
injerted in his frfi volume, a mofi prepofterous 
and tyiw account of the breeding filk worms by 
putrefied veal, and producing fir ange ferpents by 
equivocal generation I and in his fecond volume^ 
a differt^tion on the catching^ breeding, feeding, 
and teicbing nightingales, which takes up fix^ 
teen pages \ with a multiplicity of other fucb 
a 3 wretched 

xxii P R E F A C E. 

wretched abfurdities in botb^ as greatly dtfgrace 
the title ^School of Arts ; and conduce indeed^ 
from their having been Jo often admitted into 
them^ to make ivorh of this kind in general 
contemptible. But ichat is/lill mojl unhappy in 
the caje of this auth:r^ he appears neither to 
have underjiood the language he tranjlated jrom^ 
nor that he wrote in : from whence the recipes 
and objervations be has given are fo ill deliver^ 
edy by his mifiaking the fenfe of technical terms^ 
and putting the name of one thing for another^ 
nvith refpeB even tojkbftancesy as^ together with 
the alterations he has had the vanity to make in 
^ them ^ from the manner they were given by thofe he 
took themfrom^ according to his owngrofs mtfcon- 
ccptionsy render them frequently unintelligible ; 
and not to be depended upon in many injiances. 

T^he pretenjions of the ojlentatious works^ the 
Cyclopedias^ and Encyclopedias, and other fucb 
Dioiionaries^ have not been ^ however -^ much more 
made good than thofe of the School of Arts : for 
indeed it is furprifmg how Jfjam^ully jtlent 
theje books ^ which profefs to comprehend every 
thing relating to fubjeSls of this kind, are with 
refpeSl to mojl of the ejfential articles-, even thofe 
where the writings of others had they been indu'- 
firiovjly confulted, would have furnijhed what 
was required : nor is the French DiBionary ntnv 
puhlijloing^ in the leaji an exception to this ; for^ 
on examining it, in order to have informed my^ 
felf of the methods praSiifid by the French with 
refpecl to certain particulars in which they ex^ 
eel, I-Jiasfurprijedtojindy that^ infome cafes^ 


PREFACE. xxiii 

every thing cmceming them was intirely omitted-, 
and in others^ recipes, or other paffages, taken 
from fome of the old books with the moft injuH^ 
cious choice^ ft^ppH^d the place ofthejujl account 
of the improved methods obtained from the ableli 
praSlitioners of the federal arts^ whicb^ in the 
propofals for this work, were promifed to have 
been given. There is, among many others, a 
glaring injlance of this in the article Carmine ; 
which pigment, being prepared at Paris in much 
greater perfe&ion than any other place at pre^ 
fent^ and of the greatejl confequence in painting 
with water colours^ was well worth the attention 
of the compilers of this work : but^ inftead 
of any account of the modern and efficacious 
praSlice of the preparation of carmine^ which is 
not moreover a fecret in the hands of a Jingle 
perfon^ but known to fever al who make it to^ 
get her with other colour s^ all, that is infer ted on 
this head^ conffis of three recipes taken from the 
old writers-, two of which contains only direc- 
tions for doing what will be barren of any ufeful 
produB i and the other a badprocefs taken from 
Kunkelfor making lake of Brazil wood, which 
is, neverthelefs, praifed as the comrhunication of 
an excellent method of making carmine. I was 
indeed dif appointed in my expectations from that 
worky with relation to this important article i 
as it has never been in my power to dif cover by 
experiments, or procure by information, the 
knowledge of the means of preparing carmine 
of equal goodnefs with that of the French : but 
chufe much rather to acknowledge my ignorance 
a 4 /« 


in this foitit, iharij like the preceding writers^ 
to cbtrude abfird and Jrnitlefs procejes on the 
fublic, in the place of the proper and effeSiual. 

I am fenjibky I run fome hazard of a retali- 
ationy in canvajfing thus freely the performances 
cf others \fmce doubtlefs my own is not exempt 
frcm errors and dejeBs. But I thought it a 
necfj/ary vindication of theje kinds of writings^ 
and f n:y oivn undertaking in particular y to 
fke^ii\ that the caufe oj the difregard or even 
contempt, in which the great eji parts of the books 
of this kind are held by the more judicious^ did 
net arife from the nature of thefubjeB^ but the 
jculty manner of treating it\ through the infuf- 
ficicncy and penality of the authors. And ivitb 
refpcSi to my own mijcarriages, I am fo little 
cc7:fcicus of having occafoned them, either by neg- 
hify cr a mercenary conduSi^ that I am not in 
the Icofi diffident cj trujUng my work to the can- 
d(nr of the im parti al^ who wtll excufe fome mif 
tckes andomiJfionSy which in taking fo great ajccpe 
of ftihjeSi it is almcft impojfible to avoids on the 
fcof e of fo many ufeful articles as will be found 
to be inferted : Jor, with refpeSi to the far 
great efi part^ 1 can vouch them to be authentick 
and jufiy either from my own experiments and 
cbfervaticns^ the information of per/ons of un- 
doubted veracity who have praGlifed them^ or 
clear deditSf ions from uJiqu^Vonable principles. 




Of the Matenal^idork: or the n^f 
ture, prepa^tidn j and \l{e of ft^ 
the various fubihnces employed m 


CrtAP. L 

F the fUbftaiicfcsr ih general ufed in 
painting. -*. 

CHA?. IT. 

Of colours* 

SECT. I. Of cohtdrs in gentroL p. 3 

SECT. 11. Qftbeulenjib, inkriaunts, &c. 

Jubjeroierit to the makings am prtparing oh 

Jours. I a 

SECT. III. Of the gener^ {Rations fub^ 

firvient to the making cr preparing cohurs. 29 
3 E C T. IV. Of the nature^ and preparation 

of particular colours. 4^ 




Of the vehicles, dryers, and other fubftanccs, 
ufed in painting, for the laying on and bind- 
ing the colours. 

S E C T. I. Of the vehicles^ dryers, 6cc. in 

generate P* ^34 

SECT. II. Of oils in general 139 

SECT. III. Of particular oils. 144 

SECT. IV. Of particular dryers. 14^7 

SECT. V. Of the fuhftances ufed for ren- 

dering water a proper vehicle for colours. 1 ^4 

SECT. VI. Of the fubjiances ufed to render 

fpirit of wine a vehicle for colours. 1 58 


Of the manner of compounding, and mixing 
the colours with their proper vehicles, for 
each kind of painting. 

S E C T. I. Of the colours proper to be ufed 

with oih\ and the manner of compounding and 

^- 'mixing fhem with the oils ahd dryers. 162 

S E C T. 11. Of the colours proper to be ufed 

in painting in miniature ^ or with water ; with 

• /* tbenianner of mixture^ or compofition of themy 

' with iheir proper vehiclesi 166 

■SEC T.' III. Of the colours ft to be ufed in 

frefcOy or painting with ftze 'y and the manner 

- of mixing and compounding them with the pro- 

per vehicles. \ 74 



SECT. IV. qf the colours proper to be ufed 
in vamijh painting j and the manner of mixing 
and compounding them with the proper vehi- 
cles, p. 176 


Of the nature and preparation of paftils ot 

C H A P. VI. 

Of the grounds for the feveral kinds of painting. 

SECT. I. Of the grounds for oil paint- 
ing. 201 

SECT. II. Of the grounds for water co- 
lours. 205 

SECT. IIL Of grounds for frefco paints 

ing. 207 

S E C T. IV. Of the grounds for varnifi 

painting. 208 


Of the methods of varnifhing and prcferving 
pictures and paintings. 209 


Of mending and cleaning pi6hires and paintings. 

8 E C T. I. Of mending pieiures. , 216 

SECT. 11. Of cleaning piBures and paints 

ings. 218 




Of thc5 nature, preparation, and ufc, of the 
Icvcrul fubflunccs employed in enamel 

S I- C T. 1. Of the general nature of enamel 
pjintiiig. p. 228 

S K r T/ II. Of the apparatusy orfet ofuten- 
fih fr tlv pn faring ond laying en the grcuyids 
mhII ivht$rs in en.r*nel fain:i?it^. 2 •; 3 

S K t^ l\ 111, 0/^ :bc i^ern^aJ f:r.tun\ anJcp^ 
/;;,\j//iW ct .'xv /;..';;,;v/,v /./,.: ;/; r\:*r:i pJ:.':> 

S K C T, IV. Or:tk cv -^ v;.::\: j::J/repjr^ 

iV..... z — 

S F v.^ r. M t: ■' .'X- . . - r • . -• -: V .r.-i -- 



SECT. I. Of the general nature of painting 
on glafs with vitreous colours, p. 309 

S E C T. . II. Ofglafsy as a ground for paint- 
ing 'witb vitreous colours, «r ly burning, 311 

SECT. HI. Of the fiuxes and colours toAe 
uftd in painting on gJafs by burning. 3^ 3 

SECT. rV. Of ^tnanmr of laying ibe<o- 
kurs on ghfs grounds ^ and burning tbm. 34 8 


Of gilding enamel and glafs l^ burning, 320, 


Of the taking off mezzotinto prints on glafs 5 
and painting upon them with oil, or varniih 
colours. 325 

CHAP. xni. 

Of colouring or wafhing maps, prints, &c. 327 

PART ir. 

Of tiie fcveral arts ufed in making outline 
Sketches of defigns from nature, or de- 
vpidled reprefentations,; and of the mcap§, 
^f taking cafts, and impreffions, from fi- 
^guresi bufls, medals, leaves, &4:. 




Of the devices employed, for the more eafily 
obtaining a juil outline in making defigns 
from nature ; and the various methods of 
tracing, calking, 'and reducing pictures, 
prints, or drawings. P- 33^ 

CHAP. 11. 

Of the means of taking cafts, and impreffions 
from figures, bufts, medals, leaves, &c. 349 


Of gilding, filvering, bronzing, japanning, la- 
quering, and the ftaining different kinds of 
mbftances with all the variety of colours. 

Of gilding. 

S E C T. I. Of gilding in generaL . 3 67 

SECT. II. Of the inJlrumentSy which are 

common to the oily burntjhy and japanners gild- 

ing. 370 

SECT. III. Of the manner of oil gilding ; 

mtb the preparation of fat oil. 372 


C O N T E N T S. ""^ 

SECT. rV. Of bumijh gilding -, with the 
preparation of the proper fizesy &c. p. 377 
S E C T. V. Of japanners gilding. 384 
S E C T. VI. Of gilding paper, and velbm 
or parchment. 390 

SECT. VII. Of gilding leather. 398 

SECT. VIII. Of gilding glafs without an- 
nealing of burning. 399 

Of filvering. 401 

Of bronzing. 494 


Of japanning. 

SECT. I. OJ japanning in general. 406 
SECT. II* Of japan grounds. 410 

SECT. III. Of painting japan work. 42 1 
SECT. IV. Of vamijhing japan work. 423 
SECT. V. (^ Riding japan work. 428 


Of lacquering. 


■ ■ •■ i 


(^ o^ N ar E N T ^. 


Pf ftaining wjoocj^-r^ivwy, t)one, and honjj— 
,. paper, and pardiment, — alabafter, mvble, 
and other ^pnes, of yaripus colour^. 

SECT. I. .Qf^ainwgwood. p- 434 

SECT. II. Ofjiainijtgivory^ bom, or hone , 


SECT. III. Ofjiaining papery or parch- 
ment of various colouri. 445 

5 E C T. rV. Ofjiaining alabafer, marble, 
and 9tberJloneSi of various colours. 447 


IF any word occur in the contents of the follow- 
ing pages, jvbicb may oot bc^nd^rftopd by the 
reader ;. on confulting the ind^, a reference .wiU be 
kiways.found to fomepiace-wbpre it is fully e^pl^ia- 
cd: this work being intended, along with other pur- 
pofes, to anfwer that of a gloflSiry to -the -technical 
words and expreflions, relatiqgtothefubje&s>treated 
of, peculiar to painters and otber artifts. 





The nature, preparation, and ufe of all 
the Various fubftances employed in 

C H A P. L 

Of the fubftances in general ufed in 

TM E principal kind of fubftances ufed 
in painting is the COi O UR S : by 
which, is to be underftood, all the 
various bodies employed by painters, for pro- 
ducing the difference of hue or teiht : but, as 
feveral of. thefe are of a folid confiftence, and 
an earthy, or incohering texture, it was necef- 
fary, as well for the laying them on, and 
^reading them properly, as for the binding 
and making them adhere to the grounds on 
which they arc laid, that, in many cafes, 
fomewhat of a fluid natue fhould be added to 
give them an unftuous confiftence while ufed, 
and proper degree of tenacity when again dry : 

B and, 

2 Or THE Substances 

and, to this end, many difFeient kinds of bo-» 
dies have been applied; from whence proper 
VEHICLES ha^ tfeen formed, which^ 
at the fame time, anfwer the double purpofe 
of reducing the t:ok)ifrs to a ftatb fk for meir 
being worked with the hrufli or pencil, and of 
cementing them to each odier and the ground 
they are laid upan ; as alfo of defbading 4hem 
from being eafily injured by accidents. 

The fubftances ufed in painting may be 
therefore all confidered as of thefe two kinds ; 
Colours and Vehicles. For, though there are 
feveral ufed occafionally, whic3i are not imme- 
diately fubfervicnt to the principal intentions of 
vehicles ; yet, being employed to remedy the 
defefts of diofe whidi arc, they muft be confi- 
dered as fiibordinate to them ; and ought, con- 
fequently, to be clafled with fuch as compofe 

The nature of thefe fecondary intentions, 
I fhall, thterefore^ point out in its due pkce ; 
and reduce &e fubftances ferving to them to 
their jproper claiTes accordingly : as it is necef- 
iary, m order to underftaijd critically and com- 
pletely the art of preparing ^tnd ufing the 
various articles of the materia pidoria, ta 
comprehend clearlv die general intentioa vot 
which each is ufed, as well as to know the- 
particular purpofc to which it is= applied. And^ 
for the fame reafon, as alfo for the toke othtm^ 
intelligibly concife, 1 ihall treat of the whole 
under fuch methodical diftindtions as refer to 
thefe intentions : adopting, neverthelei, oa 


*fery ofecafloii, die terins of art in comrtiott 
Uft ; ttftd ekplaining tfaem, according to thd 
fiiduriihg they beat when applied with any 
propikty or preciiion, by the particular rela-> 
Um they have td tbefe intentionsi 

■'•>■• Iff 

Of Colours, 

SECT. I. Of colours in general. 

or fluids. BypigmentSy is meant all fuch 
folid bodies as require to be mixed with fome 
fluidi as a V^ick, befdre they be ufed as paints^ 
(except in the cafe of crayons^ where they are 
iJfid dry.) Thefe mal^e the faf greateft part 
of die whole i the fluid colours being only a 
fi&all nUinber employed along with water to-^ 
loitfj) ihA ^^ialtum, which is fonfietim^ em- 
pbj^d ifi oil painting. 

Ccrfobrs are diftinguiihed into ieveral kindSi 
^cordii^ €0 die vehicles in which they are 
WorkcMl } as oil colours, water colours, enamel 
ttiiami^ &€. As the &une ibrts of pigmeAts^ 
howerer, are, in maAy infl:ances, employed ia 
more d^tn one kind of paintings as vermilion 
and fcdbe in feveral, and ultramarine in all. X 
iball not diflribufe them info clafles, in thati 
view, till I come to fpe^ of their particular 
ap{)lkatiim > but threat ^ prefent c^ ^em pro^^ 

B z mif« 

4 * Of THE Substances 
mifcuoufly in teaching their general nature and 
preparation ; dividing them according to their 
affinity in colour only ; lince this method of 
arrangement will not only render each article 
more eafy to be found ; but, at the fame time, 
exhibit to the artift together the whole ftock of 
every kind from whence he muft take what he 
wants on each occafion : by which, he will be 
the more enabled, to chufe what may beft fuit 
his particular purpofe. For the fame reafon, 
alfo, this method is certainly more expedient 
than the difpofing them in clafles, according 
to their natural relation to each other, as earths, 
minerals, vegetables, &€-, which would lead to 
the like kind of confufion and repetition. 

The principal' qualities in colours, confi- 
dered with regard to their perfeftion or faulti- 
nefs, are two j purity of colour, and durable- 
nefs : purity of colour is, by the painters, called 
BRIGHTNESS ; and the defeft of it FOUL- 
NESS, or fometimes the BREAKING THE 
COLOUR : durablenefs is called STANDING ; 
and the negation or want of it FLTING or 
FLTING OFF', which terms, for concifenefs, 
I (hall ufe in fpeaking of thefe qualities, 

Brightnefs znAJianding well are the only pro- 
perties, wmch are neceflary to the perfection of 
every kind of colours ; and they equally relate 
to all J but there are others, which are effen- 
tial to many forts, with regard only to pardcu^ 
lar purpofes and ufes : fuch of them, however, 
as do not fall within the general confideratiorx 
of the nature of colours, will be treated of in 




Aofe parts of the work where the particular 
ufes 01 colours come in )g[ueftion. 

The moft confiderable of the more general 
properties of colours after pi^ity and durable- 
nefs, or brigbtnefsy zndjianding welly are tran- 
sparency and opacity ; for according to their 
condition, with refpcft to thefe qualities, they 
arc fitted to anfwer very different kinds of pur- 
poies« Colours which become tranfparcnt in 
oil, fuch as lake, Pruflian blue, and brown | 
pink, are frequently ufed without the admix- 
ture of white, or any other opake pigment ; 
by which means, the teint of the ground on 
which Aey are laid retains in fbme degree its 
forcei; and 'the real colour, produced in the 
painting, is the combined effeft of both. This 
is called G£/-/^Z/iVG, and the pigments in- 
-ducd wi!h fuch property of becoming tran- 
Iparent in oil j are called glazing colours. The 
lame holdsf-^od alfo of fuch colours as are 
tranfparetlt in water ; only when they arc 
there ufed in this manner, they are not called 
glazing but JVA SHING colours. When 
colours have no degree of fuch tranlparency in 
the vehicle in which they are ufed, as vermilion. 
King's yellow,- and feveral others, they are faid 
The property of glazing or wajhing is of fo 
much importance, both in oil and water, that 
no other method can equally well produce the 
iame effeft in many cafes, either with regard 
to the force, beauty, or foftnefs of the co- 
louring : and it is therefore very eflential tb 

B3 the 

^ Of the Substanp^s 

the perfeftipn of feveral kinds of pigments, 
that they (hould poflfefs this property in % cofn-r 
plct? degree; but, \n otJicrinftances, the qfing 
colours witji a ftrongbody is not lefe neceffary^ 
cfpecially fq: thf grounding or liffyit^ jin, ^s j^ 
^ c^Ued, pf many o]y]t&s tp be p^t^. 

Jhej:^ is another pat^rial qijfility l^ cplours,, 
that relates only to their ufe in oil, wjiichis thp 
<irjuW well and (as it is called) notfattening. By 
PAfTENjpjG is meant, a coagi^^tion pf t^O 
oil, that frequently happens on its ^pmmbcturf^ 
with fev?ral fc nds of pigment^, by the efl^fl: they 
Jiave upon it j from whence, aft^ j[bme timp 
Jceeping, it is rendered of fo vi^id or gli^tinovi^ 
a coi^fiftence, as to b? wholly ii>capabk of Ihp-^ 
ing worked with cit}i?r bru(Ji oy pencil. This 
quality, when foqnd ii> them, deftroy^ almc^ 
wholly the value of fudi pigmef^ts fof thp 
purpoffes of the colqurmpn ; wh?^ ^U ? gre^t 
part pf them ground with pll, and tifd up in 
pieces of bladder, \vhere they arc kept ftU 
there is ^ demand for them j which fir^qyent- 
ly do?s not happen foon ; and, t^ierefor^ gives 
time for their ipoiling in qonfequence of thi? 
quality. 3ut to painters, who vmjfi the cor 
lours for thenifelves, on their pallets, with th^ 
oil, this property is not an eqyal inconve-^ 
nience, when in a lefler degree ; only, in 
g^eral, it mufl be obfervcd, that cplpiirs, ia 

{)rpportion to their ten4ency tp fatten, are flow 
n drying ; and when the oil once contrails this 
flate, it will be a very long time b^|bre it will 
li^come dqly hard and fi^n in the paiptings. 


vpw^ IN Paint I NG^. y 

There aM- twoother quaMidies of colour in 
^M€mtd^ rttate cmlytathdr t^iotor hue; W 
which render them neverthelcfs fit or impro^ 
pcr, in a very material dcgrqc^ for different pur- 
pbfes. They arc diftingmihed by the names of 
fFjiRMTH^^dCOOLNESS: terms which 
indeed are. ufed very freq^uently by painters ; 
but, for the moft part, very indefiinitely, and 
without any precifc or okv iwamng. What 
is meant, when properly ufed, by nvarmtbj is 
that fiery effedb. which a finalt addition of yel- 
low gjweS; tQ. ^ true red, and that glowing ap- 
pearance which red impacts to dtber yellow or 
blue. By warmth^ therefore, in red, is to be 
underfk)od a fmall inclinat^ towards orange; 
by the fame term, ^|plicd to y^tUow, a like 
tendency by the admixture of ircd.s and, by 
the fame, agaija in. ^ cafe of tJniis, muft he 
underflood its flightly verging eea the purpfe/' 

By coohefsy is to be underftood, the oppo- 
fite to warmth; but this* t^im^ i$ ielldom u&d, 
except in fpeaking of yellow and blue ; and 
there it means, either d>^ n,Qgatipn of that 
which caufes warmth, ora tcndeucyto green, in 
cither colour, by a flight adStn&tuf^of the other. 

The fenfe of the wor^ wvmtfe, when ap- 
plied to colouring or the cijinbimd appearance 
of various teints, mufl not be cpnfound^ 
with that, which it haa'iiike&^^eakiing of par- 
ticular colours ; for there it relates to the pro- 
ducing a (brong effe(9t \j ^. di^ofition or 
contrdl of the coloitfs^, or Ae greflnefs of the 
teints, and not the qij,a^^f;^ peculi^il to, or in- 
hePBnt in the colours themfelves. 

B 4 The 

8 Of THiD Substances 

The colpurs ufed in all the imral kinds of 
painting, except ibme peouliv to.enamell^ are^ 
as follow?. 


Class h 

Native cinnabar. 
Red lead. 
Scarlet oker. 
Common Indian red. 
Spaniih brown. 
Terra dc fienna burnt. 

Rofe pink* 
Red oker. 
Venetian red 

Scarlet or tending 
^to the prange. 


Crif/^on 9r tending 


Class II. 

Ultramarine afhes. 
Pruflian blue. 
< Cendre mve or funders blue* 
^Litmus or lacmus. 

Class III. 
King's yellow. 
Naples yellow* 
Yellow oker* 
Datch pink. 
Englifh pink« 
Light pink» 
fELlOW. <Maflicot. 

Common orpiment* 
Gail ftone. 

Terra de iienna unbumt* 
Turpith mineral. 
Yellow berry waflu 
Turmeric wafli. 
^Tindurr of faffixm» 


USED IN Painting^ 




Class JV. 

\ Diftilledycaidigriib, or duyftajis of verdigrift^ 
< Pruffian green. 
I Terra vcrte. 
CSap green* 

Class V. 
i Orange lake^ 

Class VI. 
f True Indian red. 
^ Logwood waflu 

Class VII. 

Brown oker. 
fiROWN. '{ Umhrc. 

Cologn earth. 


Spanifli jmce or extraft of liquorice. 

Class VIII. 
f White flake. 
White lead. 
Calcined hartihom. 
Pearl white. 
Troy white. 
^Egg-fhell white. 




Class IX. 
Lamp black. 
Ivory black. 
Blue black. 
Indian ink. 

Thefe are all the colours at prefcnt in ufe, in 
this country, in any kind of painting, except 
iuch as are peculiar to enamel ; in which kind 
pf painting, as but fc\y of thefe are capable of 


s,IO CXb the. SuaSTAKCEJ 

combining with glafs, and enduring the ncccf- 
iary heat without changing tfaeif nature, or 
bemg de{lroye4, otWs are employed more 
fuitable to vitrification : for ^idb rcafon, as 
the compositions for forming iHsfA «ait«iel colours 
are very various, and bear oo particular names, 
and the management of them has ^vejy little 
relation to other kinds of painting, I fhall omit 
fpeaking of them till I cojsne ta treat particu- 
larly of enamel painting* 

Of the above enumerated cofeufs, but few 
are in univerfal ufe ; mbft painters having only 
a feleft fet out of them, and beitig, in general, 
unduly prejudiced againft^ tbofe tltiey reject : 
and fome of the beft of theip^ *5 ftarlet oker, 
terra de fienna, terra verte, true Indk» red 
and umbre in oil painting, aijii hift-re and gall 
ftones ift ^^p ^^m^ng% V9^ «6her through 
their fcarcity, or the jigijo^wnce which prevails 
concerning their qualities, at pr^nt very little 
regarded ; though fbme of tb«m were formerly 
in common ufe ; and att ef then* ijiight hfi ^ 
with great advantage to the. ^^ 

It is no little impediment to tbeiir improve- 
^ ment in the profeflion, that, painters are not 
more extenfively acquainted wi^ aU the fub- 
ftances fit for their purpofes^ apd more naiavife^ 
ly informed of the good as ^K^Ui »s the bad 
qualities of what colours they might ufe : for 
many-labour under gres^ diiadvantagcs^fei-want 
pi zixiGSt cppious^ choice, and Ae not bein^ 
feetter apprirod of feme of tfeofe w^ieh fek 
Acit own partfetjter manner of w©d^ and 


^SBO IN Painting. ii 

which would, in many cAfes, remove difficiri* 
ties out of liieir way, 1^ cpabting them to oror 
duce efFeds l^ more fimple methods, andluch 
as arc yet more corrci|)ondeAt to their maimer^ 
diaii thofe they are now obliged to per&ie from 
their dele^ of proper coIodts. 

Asi cdours are obtained from very vanous iilb» 
ftances, the means qf pireparing tnem are, eon- 
(equently, very various : Ibroe being of a fim* 
pie nature, and requiring only to be purified, 
and wduped to a proper confiAence or texture ; 
and others being oompophds of different bo^ 
4ies, to be formed only by complex and ela* 
bgratf procefiea. h is therelbre very dij|lcuU 
^ g^ve iuch general directions, i^r the making 
every fort of colour, as {pay be {mettigible to 
all ) the utenfils to be employed^ as well as the 
methods to be perfued, being fuch as belong 
to differenl art^ ^n4 traces : bijt 99 tbc greater 
part may be 4one jnoft comipodiqufly by ad- 
opting the rnethods ufed fpr perfbr^ning the 
^ommo^ chemical proeeflfes, k Is the moft ex- 
pedient way to treat of them corro^jjdiently 
to fuch a vie^y : as, by that means,, any whp 
may make themfelves acquainted with' Ae com- 
mon praftice of chemiftry, for whifeh there ar? 
a number of books that aJffbrd fufficient affift* 
anee, may eafily underftand the v^rple art of 
making colours whe^i taught in tl^is manner. 
For Ae felce, however, of thofc, y^ho m?y 
vrant leifure or difeofirion to proceed by this 
method, I will prefix fbqh a d^fcpption of th? 
ipftrumepts, and explanation of the general 

^» nature 

12 Of the Substances 
nature of the operations, as together with the 
particular direftions given in each procefs, may 
enable even fuch as are wholly ignorant of 
chemiftry, if they give a due attention, to get 
over this difficulty : as indeed, without fuch a 
previous knowledge of the nature of the in- 
Uruments and operations, it would be imprac- 
ticable to attempt to, prepare feveral of the 
nxoft valuable colours.: 

Where, neverthelefe, fimple means j and 
the ufe of fuch utenlils as are generally known, 
may be fufficient to perform what is wanted ; 
I fhall avoid all techniqal terms, and more 
complex methods of operation ; confining my- 
iclf to fuch a manner. of inftrudion, as may 
be univerfally intelligible. 

S E C T I O N II. 

Of the utenJiU^ inftruments^ &c. fub- 
• fervient to the making and preparing 

THE apparatus or fet of utenfils, 6f^, 
neceflary for making the feveral co- 
lours ufed hj painters, confifts of, a furnace 
for fubliming vermilion-^another for fublim- 
ing King's yellow— a third for calcining ultra- 
marine, the coal for Pruffian blue, okers, 
fi^c— fublimers — a pewter, boiler with its 
proper furnace — a balneum mariae — filters- 
boards for drying the pigments— levigating 

j^l mills, 


USED IN Painting* ij 

mills, ftones and muUars — with feveral other 
fmaller implements fubiervient to thefe* 

As feveral of thefe implements are in com* 
mon ufe for other purpofes, and confequently 
to be had ready made of a proper conftruc- 
ture, I (hall only enumerate them, without 
entering on any particular defcription of them: 
but wim refpeA to that part of the apparatus, 
which relates to the more fecret arts of making 
feveral of the colours, and has any thing pecu- 
liar in its fabrication, I will endeavour to give 
ludi a concq>tion of the proper figure of every 
particular, and fuch directions for their con- 
ftruftion, as ihay enable any to procure them 
to be made by proper workmen. As, without 
this previous information of the neceilary means^ 
of performing them, the giving the recipes or 
proceffes alone for making the colours would be 
of very little confequence : and as, by this me- 
thod, I avoid the neceffity of repeating frequent- 
ly the inftruiftions for thofe particulars, which 
when given in a more general way will ferve 
efFedually for a multiplicity of occafions. 

Of furnaces. 

The furnaces are of the moft difficult con- 
ftruftion of any part of the apparatus for 
making colours ; being moft remote firom 
common experience and conception : and yet 
it is indifpenfibly requifite, that they ihould 
be completely adapted to the purpofe they are 
intended for. I fhall therefore be moft parti- 
cular in my direftions concerning them : but, 


14 Op rnt StJBsrAUctS 

bdbre I enter on that tafk, it may bt pftvi^ 
oufly neceflkry, to teach the manner of inak^ 
kg a compowim, whkh I fhall have ocaifioii 
K direct me afe of frequently in my mffaruc-^ 
tioffi for the building them, at wdi as on 
Other occaikms. I mean the lute for making 
good the junifbares that fufFer a great heat, and 
ftcuring bodies of a tenderer nature from the 
eiflfe^ of the fire $ which I (hall call here, as 
is done eUewhere, thc^e-iute: the coinpofi^ 
don of which is as follows. 

« Take of green vitriol, or copperas, any 
^^ quantity ; and put it into an earthen pipkin^ 
•* of which it may fill cHily dirce parts, and 
^ fet it on a common fire ; taking care that it 
" may not boil over} which will be very lia- 
" ble to happen if the fire bum too briikly* 
^ When it has almoft done boiling, throw iti 
" more of the vitriol, the quantity at firft 
** thrown in being now fhrunk and contraft* 
•^ ed ; and let that alfo boil to drynefs ; and 
^ repeat this till the pipkin be near fall of the 
** dried matter : raife the fire then round it ; 
^* and let it continue in as flrong a heat as can 
* be conveniently made, till the whole contents 
•* become of a red dolour ; after which take it 
'* out of the fife J and, being cold, break the 
^* tttpkin, and feparate the calcined vitriol froii* 
^ It. Take then of this calcined vitxkl pow^ 
** dered two parts, of the fboria or clinkers of n 
•• fmith's forge, finely levigated,— Sturhridge 
^ clay orWindfbr loom dried, and powdered,*-- 
^ and fiftc &Ad| each o^ie part : v^^ them well 

" togedicrj 

vsED IN Painting, 15 

*^ together^ and then temper thetx^ with the 
'' blood of any beaft, till they become of the 
'^ coniQftence of xsiortar ; a twentieth part of 
*^ the weight of the whole of ihort hair being 
<' beaten up with them." 

The furnace for vcraiilioii, as well as the 
G|>eiatxon to be performed in it, are of the 
moftnice nature of any ot^eds relating to the 
art of xaaking colours : it is indeed fo difficult 
a thing to manage well the mamil^ure of ver*^ 
nuIion,^iat itis given up in general in this coun^ 
try, even when the price of «[uickfilver would 
make it very profitable; and the greateft part, if 
not die whole of t^e confumption, is Supplied 
fnom Holland : but if any wdil prepare well the 
apparatus as here dire^ed, and execute properly 
the procefs given belowi they need not doubt^ 
with fome experience, but to be able to carry 
on. this manufa^re as well as the Dutch. 
The manner of conflru<3;ing the furnace may 
be as follows. 

The firft ftep muft be to procure the proper 
iron-work, wWch conlifts of bars for bearing 
the fewelji— ^ frame, — dcx>rs for feeding the 
fire,— a ftrong plate for fupporting the brick- 
work over them, — ^an iron frame and ftopper 
for feeding the fire, — and an iron ring for lay- 
ing over the top of the furnace, for the better 
hanging the bodies or fubliming veiTels in it. 

The bars fliould be of hammered iron, eight 

in number^ eight inches in length, a quarter 

of aa indi in breadth, half an inch in depths 

and fixed firmly by each end, at the diftaiioe 

1 of 

i6 Of the SuBSTANCfiS 

of a quarter and a half quarter of an inch froiicf 
each other, into two ftrong crofs^bars ; whidi 
crofs-bars nmft be fiifficiently long to admit of 
tfieir fufFering the brickwork to have goodl 
hold of them j and muft be made flat at their 
ifinds, on that account. 

The frame and door toufl be alfo of ham- 
mered iron. They muft be of the length of 
the area or fire-place as formed by tht bars j 
but need not be more than four inches high. 
They may be of the ufual form of! thofe made 
for the furnaces of coppers, but ftronger ; and 
it is better to have the latch bigger than is 
common, and carried acrofs the whole door ; 
which will give it ftrength to refift the weight 
of the fewel, that, otherwife, when the iron 
is fbftned by violent heat, is apt to force thd 
middle part outwards. 

The iron bar to lay acrofs the frame of the 
door may be three inches in breadth ; and at- 
bout three inches longer than the frame itfelf : 
it may be either of caft qr hammered iron, 
as {hall be found moft eafy to be procured. 

The frame and ftopper for feeding the fire 
fhould be alfo of hammered iron : the fi-ame 
may be four inches long, and three inches 
high. It may be formed of four plates of a 
moderate ftrength -, of which thofe of the top 
and bottom muft flope downv^rards towards the 
fire in a parallel ; diey muft alfo projed: be- 
yond their joining vdth the fide plates ; in or- 
der to their being fixed in the brickwork. 
The ftopper muft be formed of five plates, put 


USED IN Painting. 17 

. together in fafhion of a box; (as in the doors 
of portable iron furnaces ;) and of fuch figure 
and proportion, as to Hide into the hole formed 
by the frame, and fill it up exadtly, fo as to 
render that part of the furnace intire, when it 
is not taken out occafionally to feed or ftir the 
fire. The hollow of this box or ftopper muft 
be turned towards the fire ; and filled with 
fire lute ; and a handle muft be fixed in the 
middle of the outward part, for the more com- 
modious ufe of it when hot. 

The iron ring for hanging the bodies or fub- 
Jiming- veflels in the fire muft be made of caft 
iron. It (hould be of about four inches depths 
and of a conic form, converging outwards. It 
ihould have an outward rim, or margin turn- 
ing ofF from the ring horizontally ; in order to 
its lying on the brickwork of the furnace. 
The diameter of the ring muft be in propor- 
tion to the fize of the fublimers to be hung in 
it: it fhould be about two inches wider in the 
tower part than their diameters ; and muft 
diverge or inlarge itfelf upwards half an inch. 

The iron work being thus prepared, and a 
proper quantity of Windfor bricks, and the 
loom they are made of, or Sturbridge clay, as 
well as common bricks, and coal-afli, and 
cottution mortar, provided, the dimenfions of 
the furnace muft then be thus fettled. 

Take the diameter of die greateft fublimer 
intended to be worked in it, and add to it two 
inches to allow for the lute, if any fliould be 
ufed round it j then add tWenty-two inches, and 

C it 

i8 Of the Substances 

it will give the diameter of the whole area of 

the furnace. 

The dimenfions of the furnace being dius 
fettled, the ground plan mdk be made in the 
following manner. 

A round of bricks muft be laid of the dia- 
meter of the area of the whole febric as fettled 
above, and the bars muft be laid in the center 
of it, in their proper pofition ; and a line drawn 
clofe at the back of the furthermoft crofe-bar> 
which muft begin a quarter of an inch beyond 
the infertion of the outermoft of the long bars 
on one fide, and extend to a quarter of an inch 
beyond the outermoft bar on the odier fide. 
From the extremity of diis line, two others 
muft be drawn, parallel to the fides of the 
outermoft bars, and extended to the circular 
line which njarks the area of the whole fiE^bric» 
The ground'plan being fo marked, a cylinder 
jof brickwork muft be raifed in this circle 
leaving a hollow fquare within the lines formed 
as above for the area of the fire-place and afh- 
hole. This cylinder muft be carried up about 
eight inches 5 and may be built of common 
bricks and coal-afti mortar : but they muft be 
laid iblid, that the whole mafs may not fhrinlc 
when fubjedted to a great heat. When this 
cylinder of brickwork is raifed, the bars of 
the fire place muft be laid over the innermoft 
part of the vacuity left for the afti-hole ; and 
the door, with its frame, muft be alfo placed 
in their proper pofition, in the front of the 
bars : which will not be, in this manner of 


tJsEb lU pAiUttud. ig 

ediiiftnidUon, on a level with the exterior fur-* 
fece or front of the furnace, as in thofe of the 
common kind, but dnly half the length of the 
bars from the center of the whole fiimaces* 
The brickwork muft be then again carried up 
fix inches higher, in the fame manner as be- 
fore $ oAly it muft be made to take proper hold 
both of the crofs-bars of the fire-grate and the 
fiame of the door : but, in this part of the fa- 
bric, the courfes next the fire fliould be of 
Windfor bricks ; and laid in Windfor loom, ot 
Sturbfidge clay. 

The febric bemg raifed to this heigjit, the 
iron plate prepared for that purpdfe muft be 
laid over the opening of the brickwork, from 
the top of the door fi^me to the exterior fur- 
lace of the fabrick : that the brickwork may 
be carried intirely roiind above : and the cylin- 
der of brick muft be again proceeded with as 
before ; only it muft be now continued intirely 
round, forming only an area in the middle } 
which muft be made floping from that which 
is to hold the fewel j and muft inlarge itfelf in 
fuch manner* that, in raifing the furnace eight 
inches higher, the diameter of the cavity may 
be equal to the diameter of the fubliming vef- 
fel, with the addition of fix inches, to allow 
for the fpace in whkh the fire muft come 
itound it on each fide. 

In the laft courfp of bricks which raife the 
fabric to this height, the whole muft be left for 
fixing the frame that is to form the opening 
for feeding the fire ; whkh muft be acfcprd- 

C 2 ingly 

20 Of the Substances 

ingly placed in it, in fuch manner, that the Hope 
formed by the upper plates, which compofe it, 
may incline towards the fire. The proper fi- 
tuation for this hole is in the front of the fur- 
nace, over the opening leading to the door of 
the afh-hole. 

From this height the brickwork muft be 
carried up, forming a hollow cylinder, fox; 
four inches more 5 when a courfe of bricks, of 
which the inner ends are cut floping, muft be 
laid fo as to contrad: the circle of brickwork 
to the diameter of the iron ring for fupporting 
the fublimer ; which muft be then let into this 
opening left at the top of the furnace, and fixed 
with fire-lute ; the bricks furrounding it being 
well pointed with the fame. This part of the. 
furnace, from the fire-place to the top, fliould 
be intirely built. of Windfor bricks, laid with 
Windfor loom or Sturbridge clay. 

In the laft courfe of bricks muft be left an 
opening of four inches length, for venting the 
fmoke into the chimney: over which opening, 
an iron plate muft be laid, and carefully pointed 
with fire-lute ; that the air may have no accels 
to fpoil the draught. The chimney may be a- 
bout fixteen or eighteen feet high; and the 
hollow about fix inches fquare, or of an area e- 
qual to that; and need not be built of a greater 
thicknefs of bricks than is neceffary jin order to 
its fupporting itfelf. 

' The furnace for fubliming King's yellow;, 
muft have a fend-pot ; as the heat of the 
naked fire would be too great; This pot may 
.2 ^ be 


USED IN Painting, 21 

be of a greater or lefs fize, according to the 
quantity of the King's yellow prcpofed to be 
made-: but, where there is no particular con- 
venience in varying from it, the ordinary fize 
will be found moft commodious. 

The fand-pot being procured, as likewife 
the reft of the iron work, according to the pre- 
ceding directions given for the furnace for ver- 
milion, except the iron ring for the top of the 
furnace, which in this cafe muft be changed 
for a flat rim of caft iron of four inches breadth,' 
with a groove to receive the pot, and fupport 
it hanging in the furnace, the plan of the fur- 
nace muft be made out in the following man- 
ner. The diameter of the pot being firft taken, 
fix inches muft be added to it, for the cavity 
to admit the fire to come round the pot, and 
the length of two bricks to allow for the 
thicknefs of the fides of the furnace : thefe 
being put together give the diameter of the 
whole furnace. To find the due height, the 
depth of the pot muft be firft taken ; to which 
muft be added ten inches for the diftance be- 
twixt the pot and the bars 5 eight inches for 
the diftance of the bars from the ground, with 
the height of a brick, for a courfe that muft be 
carried round the edge of the pot; which, being 
all put together, give the height. The build- 
ing may be then carried on, in the fame man- 
ner as was before advifed for the furnace for 
Vemiilion, till all be completed but the laft 
courfe ; and the rim muft be then laid on the 
top of the brickwork, and well pointed with 
". C 3 fircf 

22 Of the Substancei 

fire-Iutc : after which, whenthefe partp oft 
furnace are fo dried as to hold well togeth 
the pot fhould be let down into the furna^ 
where it will hang by its margin or turn 
edge, refting on the groove made for it in t 
iron rim : and another courfe of bricks m^ 
then be raifed, in a continued line with t 
fides of the fand-pot, that part of them whi 
touches the pot being laid in fire-lute. 

The furnace for calcining the Pruffian bl 
oker, ultramarine, CSc. may be conflxudled 
the following manner. Firft prepare a fet 
bars, which may be a foot in length, and i 
teen in number, with a ftrong frame and d< 
pf which the breadth muft equal that of 1 
bars, and the height be a foot, as alfo a pla 
or two ftrong flat bars, to fupport the brie 
w^ork over the door frame, and another 
fupport the brickwork oyer the afh-hole. 
foundation or pedeftal of bricks muft then 
raifed, about three feet and a half high, a 
two feet four inches fquare 3 which may 
done with common bricks and mortar s a 
need only, indeed, be four walls j the hoili 
formed by which may be filled up with n 
bifti, and floored over with bricks or tiles, i 
this pedeftal, raife three other walls 5 one 
each fide, and one at the furthermoft end, 
the whole brick thicknefs, forming an area 1 
uvixt them, of the length of a foot, and 
the breadtli of ten inches 5 of which area t 
frcmt will neceflarily be open fi-om the dcfa 
pf ^p fourth wall. Over this opening, m 1 


USED IN Painting. 23 

front, lay the bars In the center of tl>e brick- 
work; and place ak)ng with them a plate^ that 
will reach from dieir edge to the extremity of 
the furnace, to bear the brickwork which muft 
lie over that part of the hollow. Then carry 
up the fides as before, but with four walls in- 
flead of three, to inclofe th^ area of the fire- 
place intirely 5 taking care, that the firft courfc 
have good hold of the flat ends of the crofs- 

This part muft rife eight inches above the 
bars : and then the door and frame muft be 
fixed*, and the other fides carried up as before. 

When the building is carried to the height 
of the door and frame, the ftrong plate muft 
be laid to bear the brickwork over it : and the 
hollow muft then be made to converge, till it 
become fo narrow as to form a chimney : of 
which the area of the cavity may be fix inches 
fquare ; or it may be turned into a funnel, or 
flew, to communicate with any other chimney, 
if fuch there be fufficiently near. But, as the 
wind-furnace demands a very confiderable 
draught, if the flew be made from it into the 
chimney of any other furnace, which may not 
happen to be at work when there is occafion 
to ufb this, care muft be taken to ftop the 
chinmey of the other furnace, below the ad*.- 
oasBion of this flew into it, to prevent a falfe 
drmight which would otherwife intirely de- 
. ftroy its eflfeds on the wind-fiirnace : and for 
this end, regifters fhould be always put to the ' 
dfSW^fX chimneys below where the flews enter, 
■-.•; .\- ; ' " ' C 4 of 

24 Of THE Substances 

of each furnace, whenever two or more vent 

themfelves into the fame common funnel. 

Sublimers muft be of glafs, and may be 
generally had ready made of a proper figure at 
the glafs-houfes, where glaffes are blown for 
the common chemical purpofes. They muft 
be inquired for under the name of bodiesy or 
cucurbits ; which name they bear when ap- 
plied to medicinal ufes. They (hould be cho- 
fen of a fpheroidal form ; neither the coni- 
cal fhape in which fome, nor the oval in which 
others are made, being fo commodious for fub- 
liming colours, as a longifh fpheroid : but, 
where they cannot be obtained of this figure, 
an oval may be difpenfed with. 

The magnitude of the fublimers muft be 
determined by the quantity of matter to be 
fubiimed ; and the dimenfions of the furnace : 
but thofe ufed in fand-pots ftiould be always at 
leaft two inches lefs in the diameter than the 
pot in which they are to be placed : and thofe 
ufed in the naked fire fhould never be more 
than four inches lefs in diameter than the iron 
ring of the fiirnace in which they are to be 

Where vemiilion is made in great quanti- 
ties, earthen fublimers arc ufed ; but we fhall 
(peak of them in their proper place. 

A pewter boiler is nccefTary for boiling co- 
chineal, brazil or other woods, French ber- 
ries, Gfc, for making lake, brown pink, Pruflian 
blue, and many orficr pigments. It is rcqui- 
fitc tliat tliis metal fiiould be ufed for it, be- 


USED IN Paint I NO. 25 

<^ufc iron and copper, as they will neceffarily 
be corroded in a greater or lefs degree by the 
faline fubftances requifite to be ufed for making 
leveral forts, are extremely injurious to the co- 
lours ; and fliould, therefore, never be fufFered 
to approach the finer kinds. 

The form of this boiler may be cylindripal, 
with a bottom making a fedion of a foherc. 
Its dimenfions may be three feet in depth, and 
one diameter : but this may be varied, as the 
quantities of colours propofed to be made may 
vary the occafion. At the height of about two 
feet, muft be joined to it, a ftrone margin or 
rim, by which it may be hung in the furnace 5 
and a little above, muft be two bow handles 
oppofitc to each other, by which it may be 
lifted in and out of the furnace. The whole 
muft be wrought ftrong ; as there mil be fre- 
quent occafion to move it, when containing a 
confiderable quantity of fluid. 

The furnace for this boiler muft be con- 
ftruded in the following manner. 

A rim of iron, fuch as was before diredled to 
be ufed for hanging the fand-pot, together with 
the other iron-work, muft be firft procured^ 
The diameter of the boiler being taken, as alfo 
its depth below the rim by which it is to hang, 
the proceeding in the fabrication may be the 
fame as that of the furnace for the fand-pot, 
till the iron rim is to be fixed ; when the courfe 
of bricks, which is raifed upon the rim in that 
kind of fijirnace, muft be in this wholly omitted. 
It is not improper, however, to allow two inches 


28 Of THE Substances 
bloom or filtering paper : but care muft be 
taken in the dloice of it ; for it is difficult to 
find, in common ftationers fhops, fiich as will 
even moderately well anfwer the end. 

For coarfe colours, fuch as rofe pink, flan- 
nel bags may be employed, for expedition* 
They mould be made in the form of pudding 
bags ; and are called, when applied to this pur- 
pose in medicine, Hippocrates's fleeve. They 
ihould have proper fi-ames for fixing them ; 
which may be made of three flicks or wooden 
ix)ds, fixed together at fuch a diftance, that 
the bag, being hung upon them by three loops 
j^ned to it, may have its mouth or opening 
fiibtended to a due width for pouring in the 
matter to be filtered. 

Long boards muft be likewife provided for 
drying colours. They fliould be made of found 
wood J and very well plained, and it will be 
yet better, if the furface be made ftill fmoother, 
by varnifhing them with feed lac. 

Chalk-ftones are alfo proper on fome occa- 
6ons, for expedition, for the drying ultrama- 
rine, Pruffian blue, waflied okers, and feveral 
other kinds : but they muft never be ufed for 
lake, carmine, or any colours made of vegeta- 
ble matter ; for their alkaline quality of chalk 
may \be very detrimental to fuch colours. 
Where Pruffian blue is made in very great 
quantities, there is a particular apparatus ufed 
for drying it : but we (hall fpeak of that in its 
proper place. 


trsED IN Painting.' zg 

The levig^tion of colours, being of the moft 
general ufe of any operation, is likewife re- 
quired in many cafes to be moft perfedly per* 
£oraied; and, therefore, proper inffanments 
fubiervient to it are extremely requliite. Hand* 
inills, and ibmetimes even horfe-mills, are u(ed 
for grofler forts of pigments, or where very 
large quantities are to be diipatched : but, as 
they are to be had of the proper workmen, 
iluly conflm^fled, it is nereis to defcrlbe 
them here. The muUer and ftone are gene«»^. 
rally ufeful; and ihould alone be depended on, 
at leaft for conipleting the levigation after the 
grinding them in the mills, whenever the co- 
lours are of any greater, value or nicer ufe, 
Bafons jQiould likewife be provided for wafh- 
ing over the colours according to the manner 
below defcribed. 


Of the general operations fuhfervtent to 
the making or preparing colours. 

THE operations fubfervient to the making 
and preparing colours are fublimation,— 
calcination, — folution, — precipitation, — filtra- 
tion, — and levigation. 

As the pradice of moft of thcfe operations 
is confined at prefent, in a great degree, to the 
purpofes of chemiftry j and therefore, very little 


3© Of tni SlTBSTANCtS 

tti!Kferftcod by any, except thofe who concerff 
ifeemfelves in thit art, 1 fliall endcjlvour to ex- 
plain them, as far as diey relate to the prepair a^ 
^ofi and treatment of colours 5 and to give foch 
general direflions for Ae performng mem^ m 
iftiay take away the iiieceffity of repeating^ oft 
et^ety occafion, Aofe particulars, which oc6ur 
iA tflmoft all the ptocefles that partake of the 
feme nature : but with refped to fuch opera^ 
tions, a^ are mote commonly known and prac* 
tiled, I (hall only touch on them, in a more 
general way, without entering into minuter 
confiderafions regarding dienk 

Of fublimation. 

Sublimation is the raifing folid bodies im 
fumes, by means of heat : which fiimes ard 
afterwards collected by condenfation, either in 
die upper part of the fame vefTel where they 
are raifed, or in others properly adapted to it 
for that purpofe. 

The endof fublimationis, either tofeparatc 
fubftances from each other in order to the pu- 
rification of one of diem, or to mix them more 
perfedlly than can be effedted, without fub- 
jedting them to fuch a of degree heat as will 
neceflarily render them volatile. 

The means are, to put die matt^, whether 
fimple or compound, into a proper veffel or 
fublimer, and there give it a due heat, by 
placing it in a fand-pot, or the cavity of fome 
furnace where the naked fire is required : in 


USED IN Painting. 31 

ddng which the following particulars arc the 
moft material obje&s of attention. 

The firft care muft be to provide glafleS of 
Ac kind above mentioned, p. 24, and of a due 
fize, which muft be regulated as was before 
mentioned by the quantity of matter to be fub- 
limed, and by the dimenfions of the fand-pot, 
or cavity of the furnace where they are to be 

The fublimer ufed for making King's yellow, 
or for any other operation to be performed in a 
&nd-pot, need no previous preparation. But 
thofe to be ufed for vermilion, which muft be 
placed in the naked fire, fhould be firft well 
coated with the fire-lute -, and a rim of the 
lame matter muft be worked round the coat at 
about two thirds of the height of the fiiWimer, 
to fupport it in the iron ring when let down in-- 
to the cavity of the furnace. This coat of lute 
ihould be laid on of fuch thicknefs, that it may 
be about half an inch thick when thoroughly 
dry: and, if it be laid on at feveral diftances of 
time, fo that the firft covering of the glafs may 
be pretty dry before the fecond be put on, it will 
be the better ; but great care (hould be taken, 
diat the whole be of fufficient drynefs before 
the fublimer be let down into the furnace ; 
and that the rim of lute fit well the iron rim ; 
for otherwife ill fuccefs will moft likely attend 
die procefs of the operation. In default of the 
fire-lute the following may be fubftituted in its 
place, for the coating fublimers ; and is indeed, 
on account of its cheapnefs, moft cQ/nmonly 

ufed 5 

32 Of THE Substances 

cfcd ; though greatly inferior to the other with 

rcfpedl to the fecurity of the glafles. 

" Take of Windfor loom, or, if very good, 
*^ common loom, finefand, and dung of horfes 
:** which feed on hay, each equal parts. Tem* 
" per them, with water, or the blood of any 
f^ beaft ; and beat them well together*" 

In fixing the fublimers in the fand-pots, an 
inch and half, or two inches of fand, muft be 
firft put into the pot ; on which the fublimpr 
mull be gently fet. The pot muft then be filled 
with fend up to the brim -, and the matter to 
jbe.fublimed muft be put into J the. fublimer, 
through its neck or mouth ; which muft be 
afterwards covered by a piece of tile, or flat 
glafs, laid loofely upon it. 

The fublimers ufed without a land-pot muft 
be fixed, in the cavity of the furnace, by let- 
ting them through the ring of iron on the top 
of die furnace, till they hang by the rim of lute. 
After which the joint formed by the rim and 
ring muft be made good by pointing with; the 
fire-lute; which muft, however, be of dryilh 
confiftence ; and ufed fparingly, left it moiften 
the lute of which the rim is made, and, caufing 
it to give way, occafion the fublimer to flip 
through, and fall into the furnace. 

The fublimers being fixed the fire muft be 
lighted 5 but muft be kept in a moderate de- 
gree till the lute be thoroughly baked ; when, 
being increafed, the matter will rife in fumes; 
and form itfelf, in a cake, on the upper part of 
-the glals : and this may be urged forwards by 
^ raifing 

USED IN Painting. 33 

f alfing the fire, as fltohgly as it will bear to be 
^thout forcing the fumes out of the mouth of 
the fublimer : which, if it appear to happen, 
muft be remedied as quickly as poflible by a- 
bating the heat ; but proper care muft be taken, 
tfiat the mouth of the glafs or fublimer be not 
choaked up by the fubliming matter; for which 
reafon, the tile, or piece of glafs, which covers 
it, fliould be lifted up at proper intervals, and 
an opening made, with the end of a tobacco- 
pipe, into the cavity of the fublimer. On the 
negleft of this caution, theglaffes are very lia- 
ble to be burft, by the rarefaction of the fumes, 
on the fires burning briikly. When no more 
fumes arifei which may be known by the a- 
batement of the heat in the upper part of the 
fublimer notwithftanding the. fire be equally 
ftrong, the operation may be concluded to be 
Completed ; and^ the furnace being fuffered to 
cool, the fublimer muft be taken out, and 
broken ; and the cake of fublimed matter in 
the upper part of the glafs collefted : obferving 
carefully, that it be kept free from the drofs 
or caput mortuum left in the bottom. 

Of calcination. 

Calcination is the operating on fubftancee, 
by means of heat, fo as to produce fome change 
either in their texture or colour. 

Calcination is fometimes performed, by ex- 
pofing fubftances to the fire with as great ex- 
tent of futface as poflible : as in the cafe of 
D lead 

34 Of the Substances 

. lead for converting it into the red lead ox mi- 
nium, and antimony to prepare it for its con- 
verfion into glafs : in other cafes, it is per- 
formed, by putting the fubllances into a cru- 
cible, or other fuch veflel, in a more colle<5lcd 
body; and furrounding the veiTel with fire : 
and there is a cafe indeed, viz. that of the 
. malVicot, where bringing it near the fire will be 

The red lead, red oker, and antimony fdt 
. making the glafs, being calcined in large quan* 
tities by thole, who make it their fole bufi^ 
nefs, and have large furnaces like ovens con- 
flruded for thefe particular purpofes, I fhall be 
lefs explicit with regard to them ; as it will be 
fcarcely worth while for any, but thofe who 
carry it on as a grofs manufafture, to concern 
themfelves with them, unlefs as a fpeculative 

The calcinatien of other fubftances for the 
preparation of colours may be performed, by 
putting the matter into a crucible, and placing 
it in a conimon fire; or, where greater heat or 
room is required, in the wind-furnace defciib- 
ed p. 22 where the fire muft be raifed round 
it; and continued of fuch a degree, and for fuch 
a duration, as the occslfion may make necefiTary. 
This may be underftood to be all that is re- 
quifite, where calcination is ordered, in the 
procefies below given, without any particular 
direftion for the manner of performing it : 
but where fuch direftlon is needful, it will be 
found to be inferted as each occafion occurs. 


USED IN Painting. 35^ 


By folution is meant, the reducing any iblid 
body to a liquid ftate by means of another, 
into which, being put, it is melted or converted 
itfelf alfo into a ftate of fluidity. 

This is performed, by the (imply putting one 
body to the other and mixing them well toge- 
ther, except in fome cafes, where heat is neceP 
fary to expedite the efFed. 

When therefore bodies are ordered, in the 
procefTes below given, to be diffolved in others, 
it is only to be Underftood, that they are to be 
put together, and ftirred, or fliaken, at proper 
intervals, till the folid body be melted : and 
where that appears to proceed too flowly, the 
veflfei muft be put into a proper heat to ac- 
celerate the operation : but this heat fhould 
be always underftood to be lefs than will 
make water boil, except where the contrary 
be exprefsly direfted. 

Of precipitation. 

Precipitation is the re-feparating a folid body, 
from any fluid one in which it is diflblved or 
melted, by the addition of a third body, which 
is capable of producing that effed:. As, for 
example, if fced-lac be diflfdlved in fpirit of 
wine, and water be added, tlie feed-lac will 
be precipitated, that is feparated from the fpirit 
in which it was diflblved, and reduced to the 
D 2 ftate 

i^t> Ofthe Substances 

ftate of an impalpable powder, which will fub- 
fide to the bottom of the veflel containing, the 

- The means of precipitation are ^therefore 
equally fimple with thc^e of folution : there 
being nothing more required, than to put the 
matter, which is to fufFer the precipitation, 
into a proper veflel' j and to add that which is 
to caufe it ; and when the efFeft is produced, 
to feparate the fluid from the folid body 
precipitated, by pouring off" what can be fo 
parted from it j and draining off the refl: in 
a filter. 

Of filtration. 

Filtration, though a very fimplc operation 
yet when it is required to be done through pa- 
per, and great quantities of fluid arc to be fil- 
tered, demands fome nicety and judgment in 
the management of it j otherwife accidents arc 
very liable to happen, which retard greatly the 
work; and occafion frequently great delay and 
trouble \ efpecially with thofe who are unprac- 
tifed in it. 

As the end of filtration is of two kinds, the 
one .to free fluids fi"om any folid bodies of a 
feculent nature with which they are niixed, the 
other to feparate any precipitated powder, or 
other folid body, from fuperfluous fluid, the 
means muft be varied. In the firfl: cafe, pa- 
per, if it be of a right kind, is fufiicient ; in th« 
other cafe, a coarfe linnen cloth mufl: be put 


USED IN Painting. 37 

over the paper ; otherwifc, in taking the fil- 
tered matter out of it, parts of the paper will 
unavoidably mix themfelvcs with it, and irre- 
mediably foul it. 

Where filtering through paper is neceflary, 
the pewter cullenders defcribed p.24* will 
be found ejrtremely commodious : but great 
care muft be taken to accommodate rightly 
the paper to the cullender, as well as to 
pour the matter very flowly into it at firft, 
till it be well fettled, for on negleft of this 
caution, the paper will be very apt to burft; 
and delay the operation, by fouling the veflels 
with the unfiltercd matter. If, as fi-equently 
happens, the paper, which is prqcured, prove 
of a bad texture, and want tenacity to bear the 
weight of the fluid poured into it, or when the 
fluid itfelf may be of a very relaxing nature, 
and weaken the paper, a coarfe linnen cloth 
fliould be always ufed with the paper, what- 
ever the intention of the filtering may be. For, 
though the fluid will pafs fafter through paper 
alone, yet much time will be faved from 
adding the linnen, by preventing the trou* 
Uefome accidents that will elfe unavoidably 

In filtering large quantities, it will be fre- 
ijuendy found, that,' after the paper has been 
for fome time foaked in die wet, the operation 
will proceed very flowly ; the fwelling of the 
fubftance of the paper, as well as the foulnefs 
of the fluid, diminifliing, and at laft: choaking 
up, the percolating pores of the paper. When 

D3 this 


38 Of the Substances 

this is the cafe, the paper fhould be always 
changed as foon it is perceived, that the filter 
ceafes to run moderately : for, otherwife, the 
operation becomes intolerably tedious. 

Where great quantities of more ordinary 
colours ^re made, fuch as rofe pink, the kind 
of Pruffian blue ufed for paper-hangings, or 
other fuch grofTer kinds, the flannel bags men- 
tioned p. 28 may be ufed ; as the filtering 
fuch great quantities of fluid through paper 
would be an almofl; endlefs labour. In doing 
this, nothing more is required than to han^ 
the bags on the frames by their loops ; and to 
feed them with the matter to be filtered : only 
die firfl: quantity which runs through; being 
apt to be foul, muft be returned into the 
bag, till it be perceived that the fluid come 
clear. ' 

Of evapcration. 

Evaporation, or the reducing moift bodies 
<irynefs by an artificial heat, where it is not re- 
quired to be in balneo mariae, may be performed 
by boiling in any commodious veflfel, till the 
matter he freed from all humidity ; the veflfel 
l)eing fed with a freih fupply as the fluid ap- 
pears to be diminifhed : but in the cafe of ve- 
getable or animal fubftances, where they are 
to be evaporated to drynefs, or a thick confift- 
cnce, as in the artificial gall-ftones, lake or 
brown pink, it ought to be performed in bal- 
nco mariae J that is, by putting the vcflel con- 
V .;: taining 

usedinPaintin6.' 39 

taining the matter into another filled with wa- 
ter, and kept of aboiling heat : for, by this 
means, the fubftances are prevented from burn- 
ing to the veffel as they grow dry j which would 
otherwife unavoidably happen. 

The evaporation in balneo maria^ may be 
commodioufly performed in the veffels.I have 
defcribed p. 27, by fixing the tin boiler in tht 
furnace, and hanging the pewter veffel in it by 
the rim; the remaining cavity of the tin boiler, 
being filled with water, and made to boil till 
the matter be brought to a proper drynefs or 
confiftence. - This is all that is requifite where 
the quantity of matter remaining after the eva- 
poration is large ; but, where it is fmall it is 
better to ufe fome fmaller veflfel ; as it would 
be fo diifufed on the fides and bottom of the 
pewter one as would render it difficult to be 
colledied. The beft expedient for this, is td 
ufe a China bafon of a proper fize 3 and to 
bang it, by packthread, to two fticks laid a- 
crofs the edge of the boiler, and fixed, at a 
proper difliance from each other, by two other 
fticks tyed to them croflfway : by which little 
machine, the bafon may be fufpended in the 
boiling water ; and, being fed with the fluid 
to be evaporated as prdper room appears in it 
for a frefh fupply, will perform the ofiice ex- 
tremely well. But where the quantity of fluid 
to be evaporated is great, though the remain- 
ing matter when dry be fmall, a previous eva- 
poration, by the naked fire, may be ufed till 
the quantity be properly reduced i taking care, 
D 4 ter 

40 Of the Substances 

that the matter do not acquire fb thick a con^ 
iiftence, as may fubjeft it to bum to the fides 
or bottom of the boiler. 

Of levigation^ andwajhing wer^ 

Levigation of colours, where great quanti» 
ties are irt queftion, is performed in hand and 
horfe-mills : but this fails to produce &> per- 
fedt an effed:, as the muUer and ftone, which 
is ufed in all other cafes : the afliftance of ^ 
peftle and nK)rtar being indeed taken in the 
cafe of glafs, and bird bodies, to prepare thenj 
for the mills or ftone. 

The niethpd of ufing thefe feveral kinds of 
inftruments, as well as the conftrufture of the 
inftmments themfelves, are fo well known, 
that it is needlefs to dwell on any particulars 
regarding them : but the other method fubfer- 
vient to the intention of levigation, (that is to 
fay to the reducing pigments to a due degree 
pf finenefs as powders) called tvajhing over^ 
being lefs generally underftood, and yet of the 
grcateft utility for procuring many colours in 
file moft perfed: ftate, I will explain fully 
the manner of performing it ; which is as 

^^ The matter intended to be brought, by 
f^ this operation, to an impalpable finenefs, 
f ' being firft well levigated, or, if it be a body 
f * of a chalky texture as the okers, broken to 
f^ a grofs powder by pounding, let it be put 
{^ into a deep bafon almoft full of very clean 

y water s 


^f water 5 and there well ftirred about: then, 
f^ having refted a fhort time, that the groGef 
^* parts may fink to the bottom, let the water^ 
** together with the finer parts yet fiifpended 
** in it, *be poured oflf into another bafon of 
^' the fame kind ; and fuflfered to ftand at reft 
^' till the powder has totally fubfided, and left 
" the water elear. Let as much of this wa- 
^* ter, as can without difturbing the fediment, 
" be then poured back into the firft bafon -, and 
^* let the.flirrihg, decantation, &c.hQ repeated 
♦* as before, as often as fhall be found necef- 
^' fary to feparate all the powder tliat is of fuf-: 
*' ficient finenefs. The remaining groflfer part 
'* may be then again ground ; and the fame 
f* treatment continuedj till the whole of the 
•* matter be obtained in that ftate. This opera* 
^* tion is, however, in fome cafes, to be re- 
^* peated feveral times before the colour can 
.^* be rendered fo perfeftly fine as may be 
^^ wiflied : but when it is duly executed, pig- 
ments may be reduced to the mofl: impal- 
pable powders, with great eafe, even though, 
like vermilion, of the moft obdurate tex- 
^* ture : and the okers, or any fuch bidies of 
^* a chalky or clayey texture, which grow foft 
^* in water, maybe freed from fand, ftones, or 
^* other impurities, and rendered of the higheft 
" degree of finenefs, even without any previ- 
-^•* ous grinding. Where great quantities of 
" matter are to be waflied over, as in the cafe 
♦^ of okers, common Indian red, &c. tubs muft 
^f be had to fupply the place of balbns ; and 

^* lading 


42 Of the Substances 

" lading with a bowl-difli muft he ufed inftead 

" of decapitation or pouring ofF." . 


Of the nature and preparation of par-- 
tkular colours^ 

Class 1. Of red colours. 

Of vermilion. 

VE R M I L I O N is a bright fcarlet pig- 
ment, formed of common fulphur and 
quickfilver, by a chemical procefs : it is one of 
the moft ufeful colours in every kind of paint- 
ing; except enamel or glafs; as it is of mode- 
rate price, fpends to great advantage in any 
kind of vsrork, and flands or holds its colour 
extremely well. It may be prepared in great 
perfection by the following procefs. 

" Take of quickfilver eighteen pounds, of 
*' flowf rs of fulphur fix pounds : melt the ful- 
*^ phur in an earthen pot ; and pour in the 
*' quickfilver gradually, being alfo gently 
*^ warmed ; and ftir them well together, with 
•' the fmall end of a tobacco-pipe : but, if 
*' from the effervefcence, on adding the lat- 
" ter quantities of the quickfilver, they take 
" fire, extinguifti it by throwing a wet cloth 
*^ (which fhould be had ready) over the vef* 

" fel. 

USED IN Painting.' 43 

fel. When the mafs is cold, powder it,: fo 
that the feveral parts may be well mixed to- 
gether ; but it is not neceffary to reduce it 
by nicer levigation, to an impalpable ftate s 
having then prepared an oblong glafs body, 
or fublimer, by coating it well with fire-lute 
over the whole furface of the glafs, and work^ 
ing a proper rim of the fame round it, by 
which it may be hung in the furnace- in fiicn. 
a manner that one half of it may be expofed 
to the fire in the cavity of it, fix it in a pro- 
per furnace ; and let the powdered mafs be 
put into it, fo as to nearly fill the part that 
is within the furnace : and, apieceof brokcni 
tile being laid over the mouth of the glafs, 
fublime then the contents, with as ftrong a 
heat as may be ufed without blowing, die 
fumes of the vermilion out of the mouth of ( 
the fubb'mer. When the fublimation is over, 
which may be perceived by the abatement 
of the heat towards the top of the body, 
difcontinue the fire ; and, when the body is 
cold, take it out of the furnace ; and break 
it : and, having colledled all the parts of the 
fublimed cake, feparating from them any 
drofs that may have been left at the bottom 
of the body, as alfo any lighter fubftance 
than may'have formed in the neck, and ap- 
pears to be diffimilar to the reft, levigate the 
♦* more perfcdt part ; and, when reduced to a 
** fine powder, it will be vermilion proper fi^r 
'' ufe. 




44 Of THE Substances 

Where great quantities of vermilion are 
manufadured, it is a pradtice, for the fake of 
chcapncfs, and to fave the labour of coating, 
\*ith fo much care, glafs fublimers with lute, 
to have earthen ones made of the fame fort of 
day as that employed for long necks. When 
this is done, thefe fublimers fhould be of a 
i^eroidal figure, and about an inch lefs in 
their kaft diameter than the ring of the fur- 
nace in which they are to be hung -, they mufl: 
alio have a rim worked at about two thirds of 
tills height, of the fame matter they are made of, 
by which tihey may hang in the iron ring, ^s the 
glafs fublimers, by means of the rim of lute. It 
is much the beft way, however, to give them a 
cpatof good common loom, fand and horfe dung. 

The perfection of vermilion is to be of a 
very bright colour, and of a great degree of 
finenefs, and that is moft efteemed, which 
moft inclines ta a crimfon hue: thefe appear- 
ances, befidps the rendering it more advan- 
tageous for the purpofes to which it is em- 
ployed in painting, are the readieft proofs of its 
being unfophifticate. 

Vermilion, when pure, will ftand for any 
length of time, whatever vehicle it be ufed 
with ; and may, therefore, be depended up- 
on, for carnations, or the niceft purpofes. 

It is very ufual, I might almoft fay general, 
for dealers to ibphifticate vermilion with red 
lead : which renders it very liable to change, 
and lofe its brightnefs; as the red lead is apt to 
turn black, whether ufed with oil, or water. 


. U S E D I N P A 1 N T I N G. 45 

This adulteration, when made m a greater de- 
. gree, may be perceived by the difference in 
colour betwixt the fophiflicated and pure ; for 
the red lead, being confiderably more of th« 
^orange hue than die vermilion, renders it \c& 
crimfon. But to deted the fraud of mixing red 
lead with the vermilion with certainty, both 
with refpeft to the general fad:, and the pro- 
portion, the following means may be ufed. 

" Take a fmall, but known quantity of the 

" vermilion fufpe<fted to be adulterated, and 

" put it into a crucible ; having firft mixt 

" vnth it about the fame quantity, in bulk, of 

" charcoal duft : put the crucible into a com- 

" mon fire, having firft covered it with a IdTer 

" crucible inverted into it ; and give a heat fuf- 

, " ficient to fufe lead ; when the crucible, be*- 

" ing taken out of the fire,, fliould be well 

" fliaken, by ftriking it againft the ground. If 

" the fufpedled adulteration have been pradtifed, 

*' the lead will be found reduced to its metal- 

" Une flate, in the bottom of the crucible ; and» 

" being weighed, and compared with thp 

" quantity of cinnabar that was put into, the 

" crucible, the proportion of the adulteralioa 

" may be thence certainly known : but, if no 

" lead be found in the crucible, it may be fafely 

" inferred, that no red lead had been commix* 

" with the cmnabar." 

It is very neceffary, that vermilion (hould be 
extremely well levigated : as it both contri- 
butes to its brightnefs and fpending further in 
the work : and this can fcarcely be effe<ftuated 
I by 

46 -Of the SUfiSTAKCES 

by mills without the fubfcqUent ufe of the inullaf 
and ftene; though it has been ufual for preparers 
to pafs it ofFas it comes out of the mill ; but who- 
ever would have vermilion in perfedion, efpeci- 
ally for painting carnations or mixing with white, 
ihould improve its finenefs by wafhing over. 

Of native cinnabar. 

Nadve cinnabar is a pigment compounded 
of quickfilver and fulphur 5 and therefore dif- 
fers in nothing from vermilion but in the man- 
ner of its production, and the being fomctimes 
df a more crimfon colour. It is found na- 
turally formed in the earth in many places; 
but feldom fo pure as to be fit for the ufes of 
painting, at leaft without being purified by 
iiiblimation ; which operation, being probably 
not well known to thofe who have any concern 
in the finding it, has not been hitherto pradlifed, 
^ far as appears. On this account native cin- 
nabar has as yet been fcarce and dear : a great 
part of what has been fold as fuch, having 
been faftitious : but the crimfon colour of fome 
quantities, and the miftaken notion that it 
would ftand better than vermilion, hseaufe it 
was a natural produ6lion,have made it to be co- 
veted by painters who are curious in colours. It 
is however never worth their while to be folli- 
citous about it , as it feldom excels the beft 
vermilion in brightnefs ; and as that may be 
likewife rendered equally crimfon, if the pro* 
portion of fulphur be made only as one to fix 


usedinPainting* 47 

or feven of the quickfilver : and as, if there 
regally was any fuperiority, with regard to 
ftandipg, in the native cinnabar over Ae o- 
ther, they never could be certain of havii^ it 

When native cinnabar is ufed as a cdour, 
there is no other preparation neceflary than a 
careful levigation -, which may be bed per- 
formed, . with water, on the ftone : but who- 
ever would have, it in the moft perfed: ftatc 
muft fuperadd wafhing over to the grinding. 
It has been ufual to wafli this colour as well 
as vermilion in urine, juice of lemon, 'and 
other fluid fubflances,^ but there is not the 
leaft alteration to be made in it, by any fiich 
means, if it be pure, for the reafon before given 
with refpe<5t to vermilion. 

Of red lead or minium. 

Red lead is lead calcined, till it acquire a 
proper degree of colour, by expofing it with a 
large furface to the fire. 

The bright orange colour of red lead might 
Tender it valuable in painting, if it would ftand 
with certainty in either oil or water : but it is 
fo fubjeft to turn black when ufed with oil, 
and even fometimes with water, that it is by no 
means fit to be trufted either alone or mixed 
with any other colours where the Handing well 
is of confequence; except in hard varniflies, in- 
deed, which, locking up the pigments from the 
air and moifture, renders their colour durable in 


4^ Of THE^fiuBSf ances 

almofl all ihftances. For this reafon red lead 
is feldom now employed iii oil, nor very fre- 
quently in watery but for very grofs purpofcs, or 
io make a ground for vermilion; w^hich being 
flightly fpread upon it will go much- farther 
than on any other ground : but even this is 
not advifable where it is defired the colour 
fliould ftand for a long time. 

The goodnefs of red lead liiay be diftiii- 
guiihed by the brightnefs of its colour ; for 
whatever it is adulterated with will of courft 
diminiih it :.and it is on this account, not fo 
Ikble to be fophifHcated, as white lead, ver-^ 
milion, and fomc other pigments. The a^ 
dulteration, however, where any is fufpeft- 
cd, may be eafily deteded by the following 

" Put an ounce of what is fulpefted into a 
*^ cracible, with an equal bulk of charcoal 
" duft; mixing them well together. Place 
** the crucible in a common fire fufficiently 
" hot to melt lead ; covering it with another 
*' fmaller crucible inverted into it. Continued 
^^ it in the fire for fomc time ; and then take 
'^ it out ; and ftrike it againfl the ground. 
" The red lead will then be reduced to its me- 
" tallic ftate; and, being poured out, and firecd 
" from the charcoal duft, may be weighed 
^* when cold and will fhew by its deficient* 

the proportion of adulterating matter/' 



USED 1 N P A I N T I N G. 49 

Of fcarkt okcr. 

Scarlet oker, is the ochrous earth, or rather 
iron, which is the bafis of green vitriol, feparated 
from the acid of the vitriol, by calcination. It is of 
a broken orange fcarlet colour: but, for its great 
certainty of ftanding, in which it equals any of 
the native okers, and its extreme great ftrength 
and warmth either as a ground or in thq {hades 
of carnations, it is neverthclefs very valuable. 
It may be ufed as a colour in any kjnd of 
painting; (but in enamel it turns to a tran- 
fparent yellow like brown pink, if the flux 
DC ftrong) 2 and is eafily prepared in the fol- 
lowing manner* 

. " Take, of green vitriol or copperas, any 

" quantity : and being put into a crucible, of 

" which it will fill two thirds, fet it on a 

" common fire tq boil, (taking care that it do 

" not boil over,) till the matter be nearly 

*^ dry ; when it will be greatly diminiflied. 

*^ Fill then the crucible to the fame height a- 

" gain, and repeat this, till the crucible be 

** filled with dry matter. Take it then from 

" this fire, and put it into the wind-furnace j 

" or, if the quantity be fmall, it may be con- 

^' tinned in the fame fire, the coals being 

*' heaped up round it ; and let the contents be 

*' calcined there till they become of a red co- 

*•' lour when cold ; which muft be examined 

" by taking a little of ^ the matter out of the 

" middle, and fuffering it to cool : for fo 

[^ long as it remains hot the red colour will 

E " not 


50 Of the Substances 

*^ not appear, though it be fufficiently calcined. 
" When duly calcined take the oker out of 
" the crucible while hot, and put it into wa- 
" ter, in which the parts of the broken cru- 
" cible may be fbaked likewife to obtain more 
*^ eafily what (hall adhere to them ; and ftir 
" the oker well about in the water, that all 
" the remaining vitriol may be melted out of 
•* it. Let it then fettle, and when the water 
" appears clear, pour* it off, and add a frefti 
" quantity ; taking out all the broken pieces 
•* of the crucible j and proceed as before ; 
•* repeating feveral times this treatment with 
frefli quantities of water. Then purify the 
oker from any remaining foulnefs by wafti- 
ing over > and, having ^'ought it to a pro- 
per ftate of drynefs, by draining off the fluid 
" by a filter, in doing which the paper ufed 
" muft be covered with a linnen cloth, lay 
^ it to dry on boards." * 

Common Indian^ red. 

The common Indian red, meant here, is of an 
hue verging to the fcarlet : but the true Indian 
red, (of which I fhall fpeak below) is greatly 
mclining to the purple : among which colours^ 
k may be well clafTed. 

This common kind has been introduced as a 
counterfeit or fubftitute for the real kind brought 
from the Eaft-Indies : and has, by its chcap- 
nefs and ferving equally well for common pur- 
pofes> prevented that from bemg brought over 
I for 

tJSEb IN Painting. ^t 

tbt a long time; So that the true tcinf of the 

briginal kind, being in fome mcafure forgotten, 

this has been gradually made to vary from it, 

till it is in fad a quite different colour. But 

though the common Indian red will not an- 

fwer the ends of the true kihd, it is yet a very 

ufefiil colour for many other purpofes : and i$, 

ftereforej ort account of its ftanding and 

l¥arm though not bright colour, much ufed 

lis well in finer as coarfer paintings in oil. As 

it is made of the caput mortuum of vitriol 

after the diftillation of aqua fortis and oil of 

Vitriol^ it is afforded at a very irioderate price^ 

and may be thus managed. 

*^ Take, of the caput mortuum or oker left 
** in the iron pots After the diftillation of aqual 
*^ fortis from nitre and vitriol, tvVo parts, and of 
** the caput mortuum or colcothar left in the 
" long necks after the diftillation of oil of vi- 
** triol one part; break the lumps fourid among 
** them and put them into tubs with a good 
** quantity of water ; and, having let them 
*' ftaind for a day or two, frequently ftirring 
*' them well about, lade off as much water as 
^[ can be got clear from them ; and add a frefti 
** quantity 5 repeating the fame treatrtient till 
^* dl the falts be w^afhed out, and the water 
** cdme off nearly infipid. The red powder 
*' which reniains muft then be waflied over, and 
^ being freed from the waiter laid out to dry^ 
" When this is defigned for nicer purpofes, 
** it fliould be waflied over again in bafons, 
^ the g^ofs manlier of lading it out of one tub 
E a ,« inta 

52 OftheSubstances 

" into another not fitting it always completely 

'' to fuch ends/' 

Of Venetian red. s 

Venetian red is a native red oker, rather in- 
clining to the fcarlet than the crimfon hue : it 
is not far different from the common Indian 
red, but fouler ; ^nd.may, therefore, be eafily 
prepared from mixing common red oker with 
the colcothar or caput mortuum taken out of 
the aqua fortis pots, and wafhed over. 

As it is generally ufed by houfe-painters 
in imitations of mahogony, it requires no o- 
ther preparation than to be well ground with 
the oil with which it is ufed ; but when, as is 
fometimes the cafe, it is ufed in miniature 
painting, it fhould be carefully wafhed over. 

Spanijh brown. 

Spanifh brown, or brown red, is a native 
earth, found in the ftate, and of the colour in 
\vhich it is ufed : it is nearly of the fame co- 
lour with the Venetian red, but fouler. It vsras 
probably from its name brought originally from 
•abroad, and was then mofl likely of a finer 
kind : but what is now ufed is the produce of 
our own country, being dug up in feveral parts 
of England. ■ - 

It is ufed for grounds and priming's for coarfc 
workbyhoufe-paintersj and bycolourmenin the ' 
preparation of the cloths for piftures and other 



^usED IN Painting. 53 

coarie work : but feldom in any more delicate 
paintings. It therefore needs no other prepara- 
tion than freeing it well from ftones and filth : 
the' if any who may be defirous to ufe it for 
nicer purpofes, want to have it in a more per- 
f€<ft ftate, they may make it equal, in finenefs 
and purity to any other pigments whatever, 
. by wafhing over : and, if they can render it 
ufeful to them with regard to the colour, they 
may depend on its ftanding equally with any 
other pigment whatever; being a native ochrous 
eartli, of which kind none are ever known to 
feili whether they be ufed of their natural teint, 

or changed by calcination* 


Of calcined or burnt terra de Siena. \ 

The terra de Siena is a native oker brought 
Irither from I.taly In the ftate it is naturally 
found : it is yellow originally ; (of its qualities 
in which ftate we (hall treat in its proper place 
below 5) but when moderately calcined, it be- 
comes an orange re4, though not very bright. 
Being, however, feml-tranfparent in oil, it is of 
great ufe where' a ftrong brown red (liade is 
wanted; as in the face in portrall painting, and 
on many other occafioris. 

The calcination may be performed by put- 
ting lumps of it, either in a crucible, or naked; 
in a common fire : and continuing it there, till 
the colour be changed- from yellow to red itj 
the proportion wanted ; after which, it mxift 
be well levigated and waflicd over, 

E3 With 

54 Of the Substances 

Witfi refpedt to the goodnefs of terra de 
Siena, we have but one kind brought here : 
and whoever can obtain it crude^ in die un^ 
burnt lumps, may be certain it is ppt adub 

Qf carmine. 

Carmine is a bright crimfon colour, and 19 
formed of the tinging fubftancc of cocbinfal 
brighted with aqua fprtis, by a procefs iipular 
to th^t ufed ifor dying fcarlet in grain. It is of 
great;advantage in painting as well in water a^ 
yarnifb, both op accpunt of its beauty vid 
{landing well; but it will not mix with oil 
fo as to hayc the due effect in that kind of 

; The preparation of this colour in perfcftion 
i&kept aftcret in France, where the befti^ pror 
pared : for though fome is made here of good 
Jjue and brightneis before it be ufed, yet it flips 
on Its cptnmixture with white ; and turns pyr- 
pie even with the fweat of the fkin, if rubbed 
pn the hands or face. The fuperiprity of the 
t'rench carmine, as well as pf the fcarlet dye, has 
fceen attributed to fbme qualities in the air and 
water of France; but nothing is more abfurd 
than tlii? fuppqfition, as the air has very little 
concern in the produftion of carmine ; apd 
^e qualities of the water if different might be 
artificially changed. But the difference itfelf 
i)etwixt the Englifh and French carmine, 
which docs not lie in th» beauty of the co- 


USED IN Painting. ^^ 

lour, but in its durablenefs and fixt nature, 
clearly evinces a diverfity in the preparation > 
and leaves no room to doubt, but that the car* 
inine might be equally well made in this coun* 
try, if we were thoroughly mafters of the art j 
and a confiderablc faving thence gained to the 
public ; as at prefent we buy of France the far 
greateft part of what is confumed ; which is 
jnorc than can be eaiily inugined^ till we recol- 
left, how frequent the ufe of red is grown a- 
mong the Englifti ladies 5 and that this is al- 
moft the only fubftance ufed in this country 
as a red paint for living &ces. 

The compilers of the new French Cyclo- 
pedia have given two or three old recipes for 
the preparation of this colour j and afterwards 
recommended anodier, as preferable to them 
taken from Kunckel ; which on examination 
is only a procefs for making bad lake of fear- 
let rags : but rather than to infert fuch inper- 
feft inftrudions for the making an article of 
great confequence, as may delude ihofe, who 
are eairneft in their , perfuit of this art into a 
fruitlefs expencc of time and money, I chuife 
to be filent, and aclbiowlcdge my own igno- 
rance in this particular, inflead of leading them 
into an error by groundlefs preteniions to the 

Of lake. 

Lake is a white earthy body, as fcuttle-fifh- 
bonei the bails of alum, or chalk, tinged with 

E 4 ^ fome 

56 Of the Substances 

fome crimfon vegetable dye, fuch as is ob- 
tained from cochinecl, or Brafil wood diffolved 
or taken up by means of fome alkaline fait, 
and precipitated on the earth by the addition of 
fome acid. 

Lake is ufed in all kinds of painting (except 
enamel:) but particularly in oil;. where it fup- 
plies the place of carmine, which does not at all 
agree with that vehicle. It is valuable both, for 
its brightriefs' and crimfon teint ; which make 
it ufeful for carnations to the portrait painters j 
for fkies to the landfkip or fhip painters ; and 
for flowers to thofe who paint ftill life. Its 
tranfparency in oil renders it alfo of great lervice 
in glazing, as it is called, over vermilion ; and 
in painting fcarlet draperies, and the red parts 
of the lips : and its acquiring a dark hue, by 
this tranfparency, when ufed without the ad-^ 
dition of any opake pigment, gives it an tinri- 
Valled excellence in the fhades of red draperies^ 
or other fimilar cafes. Notwithftanding thefe 
meritorious qualities, lake is not at prefeht uni-^ 
verfally approved : nor without reafbn ; for 
there is a defeiS, which makes it to be fre^ 
quently rejefted where its ufq can be avoided. 
This defeft is the uncertainty of its ftanding, 
when prepared in that manner which moft 
conduces to its perfe(3:ion in other i^efpedtsl 
For though fome parcels will hold their colour 
intirely well, yet others pi^epared in the feme 
manner, as far as art can affur^ it, will fly in a 
degree that makes the ufe of it deftrudive tq 
any painting ; and if this dcfeft be effcdually 


USED IN Painting. 57 

remedied, as it may be by fecuring the tinging 
particles by gums, from all attacks of the air i 
yet that is jgenerally at the expence of the 
brightnefs and tranlparency : the earth, which 
is the bafis of the pigment, being locked up 
by the gurns, and rendered incapable of being 
combined intimately with, or iriibibing the oiU 
Befides the perfeftions of lake which it may . 
have in common with other colours, there is ye^ 
another that relates only to itfelf, which is flic 
inclining to the fcarlet hue that makes it more 
valuable for almoft all thepurpofes to whidilt 
IS applied : and where this quality joined to ih^ 
others happen to be found in it, there is fcarcely 
any limits to be fet to its value with eminent pain- 
ters of any kind : as was fhewn in the inftance 
of a parcel made by an unknown perfon, fup^ 
pofed to be a member of the Royal Society, 
and vended by one St6cks, then a colourman 
in Newgate-Street, which, was afterwards fol4 
by fome of thofe who purchafed it of him at 
two guineas ^^r ounce. 

Lake was moft probably firft made from 
the colour found in the grains of the ftick-lac, 
from whence it feems to have taken its nanie: 
but it may be made frorni a great variety of 
fubftances which afford a crimfon tinge 5 tho' 
at prefent it is feldom prepared from any other 
than cochineel, fcarlet rags, and Brafil wood. 

The beft of what is commonly fold is made 
from the colour extraded from fcarlet ra^s and 
depofited on the cuttle-bone, which may be > 
doije in the followirig manner. 

« Take 

58 Of the Substances 

" Take a pound of the beft pcarl-afhes, 
^* and, having diflblved them in two quarts 
" of water, pudfy them by filtering through 
paper. Add then to this fblution two more 
quarts of water, and having put in a pound 
of fcarlet fhreds, procured of the tailors, 
(for they muft be intirely clean) boil them 
in the pewter boiler defcribed p. 24^!! the 
fhreds appear to have wholly loft their fcar- 
** let colour. Take them out of the folution 
*• and prefs them well ; dipping them after in 
*• water and prefling them again, that all the 
*• fluid they had imbibed may be got from 
" them, wnich muft be put back to the reft. 
" Take then another pound of the fcarlet 
^* (hreds, and repeat the like treatment of them 
^* in the fame folution ; as alfo a third and 
" fourth pound. While this is doing diflblve 
•• a pound and half of cutde-filh in a pound 
** of ftrong aqua fords in a glafs receiver, add- 
" ing more of the bone, if it appear to pro- 
•* duce any ebullition in the aqua fbrtis : and, 
^* having fbrained oflfthis fblution through flan- 
" nel, pour it into the other by degrees : ob- 
" fcrving whether it produce any clFerveicencc 
" on putting in the laft quantity : which, if it 
•* doj in any great degree, more of the cuttle- 
" fifh-bone muft be diflblved in aqua fords 5 
^* and the fc^udon very gradually added till no 
^^ ebullition appear to be railed by it in the 
•* mixture* It this be properly managed the 
^^ fluid will ibon become clear and colourlds^ 
i^ and die dnging parddes c^Orafted from the 

" ihrcds 

osBJ> IN Painting^ 59 

.'< fhreds together with the cuttfe-fiih-bonc^ 
'* will fubfide to the bottom, and form acriiri* 
j^* fon fediment ; which is the lake. The wa? 
^* ter muft then be poured off; and two gal- 
'^ tons of hard fpring water muft be put .to 
^' the lake, and well ftirred about to qiix 
<' them : which, being likewife poured ofl^ 
^^ after the lake has again fettled to the 
^^ bottom, muft be replaiced by ai^other two 
'^ gallons } and the fame inediod muft be re^ 
f^ peated four or 6vc times : but if hard water. 
'" cannot be procured, or the lake -appear too 
^ purple, h|Llf an ounce of alum, ihould be 
*' added to each quantity of water before it 
^* be ufed. When the lake is thus fufficicntly 
'^ freed from the falts, it muft have the watec 
'* drained from it in a filter covered with a lin« 
•" nen cloth, which has been fb worn, as; to 
" have no knap or down remaining on its fiir- 
" face. After the lake has drained to a pror 
^* per drynefs, it muft b« dropped, on clean 
•** boards, by means of fHcks of elder, moun-r 
" tain-afh, or other hollow wood, cut into the 
'" form of pens 5 and fuffered to dry : when 
^ the drops will appear in the form of little 
" qpnes or pyramids." 

liF this lake be of a deeper colour than be 
defircd, the proportion of fcarlet fhreds may 
be diminifhed : or if it be wanted yet deepei:, 
they may be increafed. 

This lake, whyen the procefs fucceeds well^ 
will be very bright : and will ftand equally to 
any whateveir : but it is not (o tranfbarent and 
■': ■ '■ ^ fit 


fit for glazing as that where earth of alum is 
the bans. 

Lake may be prepared from cochineel in the 
following manner. 

*• TaKe two ounces of cochineel, and infulfc 
** it in a gallon of ftale but very clean urine 
" for feveral days. Take alfo half an ounce of 
•* the beft annatto and diflblve it in a Iblution 
** of two ounces of pearl-^fhes in a pint of wa- 
*' ' tet ; . filter both the folutions aft'd mix them. 
** Make then a foliition of cuttle-fifh-bone as 
•* in .tile above procefs ; and to a pint of it add 
•* txvo ounces of alum diflblved in half a pint of 
**.^er. Put this mixture gradually to that 
** off the urine amf pearl-afhes, as long as any 
" cbulfition appear to arifc ; and proceed as to 
" the reft according -tadiredlions of the above 
." procefs.*^ 

Thiis lake will be very fine if luckily ma- 
naged, and will ftand extremely well : it wilt 
alfo be very fcarlet if the cochineal and annat* 
to be good. 

preparation of beautiful lake from Brazil wood^ 

** Take of Brazil wood (not coloured in 
" the grinding by the addition of pearl-afhes) 
" three pounds, and boil it an hour in a folu- 
^ tbn of three pounds of common fait in 
" three gallons of water : and then filter the 
" fluid through paper while hot ; prepare then 
•* a folution of five pounds of alum in threfe 
^' gallons of water 5 which add to the fil-- 

'^ tered 

USED IN Painting. 6i 

*^ tered folution of common fait tinged with 
'^ tlie colour. Make alfb a folution of three 
^ £>ounds of the beft pearl-afhes in a gallon 
*^ ^Lnd half of water, and purify it by filtering: 
^* put this to the other gradually,, till the whole 
^^ o£ the colour appear to be precipitated, and. 
*' leave the fluid clear and colourlefs : but, if 
*' any appearance of purple be feen^ add a 
*^ IFrefti quantity of the iolution of alum by 
*' degrees till a fcarlet hue be produced. The 
*^ proportion of alum muft however in this. 
** cafe be nicely adjufted : fi>r a fmall excels 
" will caufe part of the tinging matter to be 
^^ diilblved again; which will appear by the 
" fluids being coloured : and, . in fuch cafe, a 
" ballance mufl: again be made, by the addi- 
" tion of a fmall quantity of the Iolution of 
" pearl-afhes. When the fluid is thus ren- 
dered clear of colour, and the fediment, be- 
ing fubfided, appears of a crimibn teint 
tending to fcarlet, the dirc<3:ions in the firft 
procefs muft be followed in every point** 
This lake cannot be confided in for either 
Pointing in oil or water ; but in varnifh, cw: 
fc>r any other purpofe, where it is defended 
from air, it is fuperior to any other whatever. 
On account of its great brightnefs and tran- 

It may be rendered fafe, however, with re- 
fpeft to ftanding, if half a pound of leed lac 
be added to the folution of pearl-a(hes ; and 
diflblved in it before its purification by the fil- 
ter: butj in this cafe, two pounds of the wood, 


62 Of tUe Substance^' 

and a proportibnatble quantity of flic comnidil 
fait and water, muft be ufcd in the coloured! 
folution. This will produce a lake that will 
ftand well in either oil of water ; and will 
ibmctimes be extremely beautiful ; but it i^ 
not fo tranfparent in oil as without the feed- 

The lake with Bfafil Wood th&y be ihade^ 
alio, with the addition of half an ounce of an- 
riatto to each pound of the wood : which will 
render it much more fcarlet where it is fo 
wanted. But the annatto muft be diflblved in 
the folution of pcarl-afhes 5 and not in that 0/ 
the common fait along with wood* 

^he goodnefs of lake cannot be pofitively 
known but by the actual trial of it ; which^ 
with refpeft to its ftanding^ requires fome 
time ; but its other qualities may be tnortf 
eafily judged of. 

With refped: to the brightnefsj its tnerit 
may be eafily proved by grinding a little of it^ 
on a pallet or ftone, with white lead and oil > 
where it may either be judged of by the me- 
mory of thofe who are very converfant in thd 
ufe of it, or by comparing it with a fample o( 
any other. In relation to the tranfparency, it is 
alfo eafy to judge of it, by grinding a little, in 
tlie fame manner, with oil only; whereamud-* 
dinefs will be perceived, if the lake be in the 
leaft opake : or a little of it m^y be put, in this" 
ftate, on the glafs of a window; where it^ 
thicknefs or clearnefs will of courfe be apparent- 
to the minuteft degree. This indeed is the 


USED IN Painting. 63 

only method ufed in general by colourmen for 
deciding on all the qualities of lake ; but it is 
very inconclufive with regard to any but tran- 
fparency. In refped: to the ftanding of lake, 
it is much more nice and difficult to deter- 
mine: and indeed there canfcarcely be any cer- 
tainty about it but by aftual experience. The 
colourmen having put a fmall quantity of any 
which they are defirous to try on a window, in 
the manner juft before mentioned, let it ftand 
there for fome time, to fee if the colour fly : 
and other perfons think they have a more ex- 
peditious and certain though lefs known me- 
thod, by tryingit with thejuice of lemon : which, 
if the juice turn the lake to an orange colour, 
or make any other change in it, gives a proof 
as they conclude of the badnefs, or of the con- 
trary if no alteration be produced : but neither 
of thefe methods are infallible 5 for it is prac- 
ticable to prepare lake, which will undergo 
both thefe tefts, and yet not ftand well when 
ufed in a picture. Though the ftanding the 
juice of lemon is fome prefunpiption, that the 
lake will hold its colour ; and the being al- 
tered by it is a pretty certain proof of the con- 

There is another defeat, with refpeft to fome 
purpofes; which is apt to be found in lake : it 
is the fatning in oil. This can only be known, 
by grinding fome of it in the oil, and keeping 
it the proper time in bladders. When, if it be 
found to have this fault, it may be deemed ut- 
terly unfit for the ufe of colourmen. If> never- 


64 Of the StJB.STANCES 

thelefsithave no other bad qualities, it is not at 
all the worfe for this, with regard to thofe who 
have no occafion to keep colours in, bladders, 
but niix them as wanted on the pallet. 

There is another kind of lake brought from 
China which is extremely beautiful; but as it 
will not mix well with either water or oil, tho' 
it diflblves intirely in fpirit of wine, it is Hot 
of any ufe in our kinds of painting hitherto. 
This lake has, by fome unaccountable blun- 
der, got the name of fafflower among thofe who 
paijit in water : and has, indeed, been fb called 
in more than one pamphlet written on the ufe 
of water colours. But there is not the leaft 
affinity betwixt it and the real fafflower; which 
is the dried flowers of the carthamus orbaflard 
faiFron> and is a well known fubftance ; as be- 
ing a common dying drug. 

Of rofe lakcy commojtly rofe pinh 

Rofe pink Is a lake like the former j except, 
that the earth or bafls of the pigment is prin- 
cipally chalk \ and the tinging fubftance ex- 
tradted from Bralil or Campeachy (commonly 
callfed Peachy) wood. 

As it never can be expected to ftand, when 
ufed with oil or water, it is feldom employed 
for any purpofes but the coarfe work of houfe 
painters, or for paper hangings; unlefs fome- 
times with varnifh, where it is fecured from 
flying, and, when beautiful, may be fubftituted 
for lake* 


USED IN Painting. 65 

Rofe pink may be prepared in the following 

*^ Take Brazil wood fix pounds, or three 

/* pounds of Brazil and three of Peachy wood, 

** Boil them an hour with three gallons of wa- 

** ter, in which a quarter of a pound of alum is 

** diflblved. Purify then the fluid by ftraining 

" thro' flannel ; and put back the wood into the 

^ ** boiler with the fame quantity of alum, and 

** proceed as before; repeating this a third 

** time. Mixthen the three quantities of tinc- 

** ture together 3 and evaporate them till only 

^* two quarts of fluid ^remain; which evapora- 

** tion muft be perforrried firfl: in the pewter 

** boiler and afterwards in the balneo mariae 

** defcribed p. 27. Prepare in the mean time 

** eight pounds of chalk by wafliing over ; a 

** pound of alum, being put into the water 

** ufed for that purpofe, which after the chalk 

** is wafhed mufl: be poured off and fupplled 

** by a frefh quantity till the chalk be freed 

** from the fait formed by the alum : after 

^^ which it muft be dried to the confiftence 

*' of ftiflFclay. The chalk, and tinfture as a- 

*' bove prepared, muft be then well mixed to* 

** gether by grinding -, and afterwards laid out 

** to dry where neither the fun or cold air can 

*^ reach it : though if it can be conveniently 

** done, a gentle heat may be ufed." 

The goodnefs of rofe pink lies chiefly in 
the brightnefs of the colour and the finenefs 
of its fubftance ; which laft quality depends 
on the wafhing well the chalk. The more 

F thei 

66 OftheSubstanges 

the hue of rofe pink verges on the true 
crimfon, that is to fay, the lefs purple it is, 
the greater its value/- 

Red oker. 

" Red oker is a native earth : but what is 
commonly ufed is made red by calcinauon ; 
being when dug out of the earth yellow, and 
the fame with the yellow oker commonly 
ufed. It is chiefly brought from Oxfordfliire, 
where it is found in great plenty, and buritf 
in large ovens. The quality it has, in com- 
mon with all other okers, of (landing infallir 
bly, renders it very ufeful, as well in die more 
delicate as coarfer paintings in oil, notwithr 
ftanding it is not bright : but in order to its 
being fit for nicer purpofes, it ought to be 
waihed over ; though for others, it may be 
ufed in the ftate in which it is found in the 

The cheapnefs of red oker renders it fcarcely 
worth while to adulterate it : but, either from 
fuch pradices, or from the difference of their 
natural ftate, fome parcels are greatly better 
than others. The marks of goodnefs are 
brightnefs of colour; and the being of a crum- 
bly chalky texture, fhewing no gritty rough- 
nefs when rubbed betwixt the fingerg. 


tJSBD IN Painting. tj 

C L A s s IL Of blue colours. 
Of ultramarine. 

ULTRAMARINE is a preparation 
of calcined lapis lazuli. It is, when 
perfeft, an extreme bright blue colour, with 
\ tranfparent efFeft in oil, and in fome degree 
b wa$er ; and will ftand, when ufed in paint- 
ipg, without the leaft hazard of flying, with 
whalever vehicle, or pigment, it be mixed. For 
thefc r?aibns, ultramarine is of the higheft va- 
lue in every kind of painting ; being equally 
ftmceable in all, even in enamel : and though 
tke invention of P-ruffian blue, on account of 
il$ much lower price, has greatly leflened the 
ufe of it, yet this exclufion of it may be con- 
fidered as an injury to painting in general ; as 
tfce flcies of landfchapes, and many other parts 
of modern pidures, (hew the lofs of it, by 
^eir changing from a warm, or clear blue, 
to a faint greenifh or olave teint. 

There have been a great variety of methods 
taught, and pracSifed, for preparing the ultra- 
marine. The older methods were, after a 
calcination in a crucible, to mix a compofition 
of pitch, refin. Burgundy pitch, fope, wax, 
and other ingredients ; and to form a pafte of 
tkem with the calcined matter ; which pafte 
was then put into water for feveral days \ and 
afterwards diflblved, by fucceflive quantities of 
warm water poured on it, till it let go the co- 
lour of the calcined ultramarine \ which v/as 

Y z re- 

68 Of THE Substances 
recovered by the fame means as is diredled for 
the wafhing over colours in p. 40. But diis 
method of employing a variety of ingredients, 
in the cement, was not only unneceilary, 
but injurious to the colour -, which was never 
perfeftly freed by the warm water from them : 
and for this reafon, the methods have been con- 
tinually varied by thofe, who have attempted to 
prepare this pigment. I fhall however give the 
beft of the more modern ; and fubjoin one of 
older date ; which I believe, neverthelefs, to be 
equally good, though not near fo troublefome. 
" Take the lapis lazuli, and break it int6 
" very fmall pieces, or rather a grofs powder. 
" Put it into a crucible ; and cover it fecurely 
^^ to prevent the coals from falling amongft it. 
" Calcine it then, with a ftrong fire, for an hour 
^^ if there be any large quantity, or lefs time 
'^ in proportion -, and quench it, when taken 
'^ out of the fire, in vinegar ; ftirring them 
f^ well together; and fufFer it to remain in that 
" ftate for a day or two. Pour off then the 
" vinegar ; except what may be neceffary for 
^' moiftning the calcined lapis lazuli in grind- 
" ing ; which operation it muft then undergo, 
" in a mortar of flint or glafs, till reduced to 
f^ the greateft degree of finenefs thofe means 
" may effedt ; but, if it appear yet too hard to 
" be eafily ground, give it another fhort calci- 
^^ nation; and quench it a fecond time in vine- 
f ^ gar. The vinegar muft then be waflied off 
f^ from the powder, by the putting to it feve- 
ff ral fucceflive quantities of clean water ; each 

'' of 

USED IN Painting; 69 

** Df which muft be poured off when the lapis 
" lazuli has been wfell ftirred about in them, and 
'* is again fetded to the bottom. It muft then 
^' be ground on a porphyry ftonej with a niul- 
*' ler> till it be perfectly impalpable i and then 
*' dried : in which ftate it is duly prepared to 

" mix with the following cement. Take 

" of Burgundy pitchy nine ounces, — of white 
*' refin, — and Venice turpentine^ fix ounces, — 
** of virgin wax one ounce and half,-;-and of 
^' linfeed oil one ounce and a quarter. Mix them 
^' together by melting in a pipkin over the fire ; 
*' and fufFer them to boil tiU they acquire fo 
*^ ftiff a confiftence, that, being dropt into wa- 
^* ter while of this boiling heat, they will not 
** fpread on the furfaee of it, but form a 
" roundifh mafs or lumps. The cement be- 
** irig thus formed, may be poured out of the 
** pipkin into the water : and made into cakes 
" or rolls for ufe. Of this cement, take 
^* an equal weight with that of the calcined 
** lapis lazuli j and melt it in a glazed earthen 
*' pipkin ; but not fo as to render it too fluid, 
" Then add to it the calcined matter by very 
** flow degrees ; fHrring them together with 
.*' an ivory fpatula till the whole appear perfecfk- 
** ly mixed. Being thus mixed, heat the com- 
** pofition to a fbmething greater degree, and 
" caft it into a large, bafon full of cold water : 
** and, when it has cooled to a confiftence to 
^' bear fuch treatment, knead it well like the 
^' dough of breads with the hands rubbed over 
*' with linfeed oil, till all the parts be tho- 
F3 " foughly. 

yo Of THE Substance's 

" roughly incorporated Ivith each other: th6h 
** make the mafs into a cake ; which may be ei- 
*^ ther kept till fome other convenient time ih 
*^ cold water, or immediately proceeded with ih 
** the following manner. Put the cake into ih 
" earthen difh or bafon 5 the bottom of whidi 
*^ fhould be rubbed with linfeed oil, and pour 
" on it water of the warmth of blood : Ifetit 
** ftand a quarter of ah hour 5 and, ^s the water 
" foftens me cake, it will let l©ofe the fineft 
" part of the calcined matter : ivhich, on 
" gently ftirringthe water, but without brfeak- 
** ing the cake or feparating it into lefler parts, 
** will be fufpended in the water ; iahd muft 
" be poured of with it into another veffel. 
" The quantity of water ihuft be then re- 
" newed : and the fame operation repeated a 
" fecond or third time : and, as the mafs ap- 
** pears flack, in affording the colour, it muft 
*^ be moved and flirred, in the manner of 
** kneading, with the ivory fpatula, but not 
** broken into fragments or fmall parts : and, 
*' when fo much of the colour is extrafted, 
'* as to render it neceflary for the obtaining 
*^ more, the heat of the water muft be ^n- 
** creafed to the greateft degree. The q«an- 
** titles of the calcined matter, (which is now 
*^ the lapis lazuli,) that were firft wafhed ofF^ 
*' and appear of Ae fame degree of deepnels 
" and brightnefs, may be put together : arid 
" the fame of thofe of the fecond degree ; 
" the laftwaftiings making a third. The water 
" being then poured off from each of thefe 

" parcels. 


*^ parcels, put on a lixivium formed of two 
** ounces of fak of tartar, or pcarl-afhes, dit- 
" fblved in a pint of water, and filtered thro* 
^ paper after the folution is cold: which 
" lixivium niuft be put on boiling hot, and 
^' die lapis lazuli ftirred well about in it; 
" and then the mixture fet to cool. The 
** powder being fubfided, thd clear lixivium 
" poured off, tmd clean water put in 
'^ its place : which muft be repeated till the 
** whole of the falts of the lixiviupi ^re waihed 
*^ away. The lapis lazuli muft afterwards be 
** dried ; and will be then duly pfepared for 
« ufc." 

" Another method of purifying the ultra- 
*^ marine from the cement niay be ufed ; which 
** is, the pricking the yolks of eggs with a pin, 
*' and moiftnjng the matter to be purified 
*' with the /oft part that wll run out^ and 
*^ wprldng them together in a glafs or flint 
*^ mortar : after which the mixture ipuft be 
^ put into the lixivium ; and proceed with as 
" is above direfted. 

" In order to free the ultramarine from that 
** part of the water, which cannot be poured 
" off from it without carrying away part of 
" die powder, let it be put in a deep pot, fuch 
" as the cups made for coffee ; and, after the 
^^ whole is poured off that can be without lofs, 
" fet the pot fo on a table or ftand, that ftrings 
^\ ptit into it may hang below the bottom ; 
" and then take three or four thick threads df 
" loofc twifted cotton ; and, having wet them, 

F 4 " put 

72 Of the Substances 

" put one end of each into the fluid j and let 
" the other, being brought over the edge of 
** the pot, hang three or four inches below the 
" bottom of it : by which means, the w^ater, 
" being attrafted by the threads, will drop 
** from the lower end till the whole be near- 
" ly drained away. The matter may then be 
" poured upon a porphyry, or poliftied mar- 
" ble ; and fufFered to dry." 

The other method, I have propofed to give, 
differs, from the above, only in the ufing virgins 
wax and the befl white refln, melted together in 
equal quantities, inftead of the more compound 
cement : and this gives up the colour, on its 
being infufed in warm water, much fooner than 
the other. 

The other methods of preparing ultramarine 
differ chiefly in the manner of feparating the 
colour from the cement and feculencies : 
which fome recommend to be done, by 
fqueezing and working the mafs with the 
hand in warm water, after it has lain in it 
fome time to foften. Others advife the put- 
ting the mafs in the form of a flat cake, on a 
board, in a fituation fomewhat declining from 
an horizontal pofition, and making water drop 
on the board above the cake, that it may flow 
through it, and wafli out the ultramarine : to 
facilitate which, the parts of the cake muft be 
frequently opened and flirred widi a flick. But 
this method is more troublefome and lefs effi- 
cacious than that above given. 

Ultramarine may be alfo prepared, without 


•USED IN Painting! 73 

any cement, by calcining it ; and, when levi- 
gated and wafhed over, foaking it in diflilled 
vinegar made hot. The ultramarine will, in 
this way of preparation, be produced in great- 
er quantity j but it will be lighter coloured 
than when refined by the cement. It is, how- 
ever, a very good method of preparing it for 
the fkies, and fbme other ufes. 

As it is of the laft confequence to the pro- 
ducing fine ultramarine, that the lapis lazuli, 
of which it is made, fhould be good, it may be 
judged of by infpedtion from the deepnefs and 
clearnefs of its blue colour ; and in order to be 
more certain of its value, it is proper to heat a 
fmall piece red hot; which, if it retain after- 
wards its hardnefsand colour, may be accounted 
good, but if it become crumbly and turn brown, 
or appear to have Ipecks of dulnefs, it may 
then be juftly fufpefted, or rather condemned. 

The different parcels of ultramarine pro- 
duced from the fame parcel of lapis lazuli, ac- 
cording to the above procefs, will differ greatly 
in their value: the manner of judging of whicn 
muft be by the degree of brightnefs and deep- 
nefs of the colour ; but there is no being pre- 
cifely certain of the worth of any but by com- 
paring it with a fpecimen of known value; and 
to do that with great accuracy, a little of each 
fhould be thinly rubbed on white paper, or 
mixed with white flake and oil, by means of 
a pallet knife, fo as to form light teints of the 
fame degree ; where the brightnefs will fhew 
itfelf more diftinguifhably than in darker. 


^4 €)# t^E SU'B STANCES 

Of ultramarine ajhes. 

The pigment called ultramarine aflies is tliS 
refiduum or remains of the lapis lazuli after the 
ultramarine has been extrafted from it by thcf a- 
bove given, or any fimilar procefs. But as thd 
coloured particles which remain are mixt with 
thofe of another kind contained in the lapis 
lazuli, whether earths or metalline fubftances, 
thefe afhes mufl: of eourfe be much lefs valua- 
ble than even the worft ultramarine : fome- 
times, neverthelefs, when the operation of the 
extradling the colour from the calcined lapis 
lazuli has not fucceeded well, a confiderable 
(hare of the ultramarine is left behind with die 
recrement, and greatly enhances the ^orth of 
the afhes: and indeed, as it is certain, that what 
colour they poflefs when genuine will never 
fly, they always bear a good price. The ap- 
pearance of thefe afhes is that of ultramarine 
a little, tinged with red, and mixed with white:' 
but they are frequently adulterated; and made 
by the fophiftication to look better than they 
would in a genuine ftate. This adulteration 
renders them much lefs certain of ftanding, 
if, as is moft frequently the cafe, it be made 
by precipitated copper, in the manner before 
mentioned in the cafe of the adulteration of 
the ultramarine. This is eafily, however, de- 
tefted by the method above given of putting 
fome of it into a fmall quantity of fpirit of 
nitre, which, if there be any copper in it will 


trsED IN PAiNiriNe^ y^ 
be tifiged green. But there is ancrther means 
of fophiftiGiation, that wiU not tender the co- 
lour liable to fly : and indeed it is well it is fo, 
becaufe the difficulty of diftir>gui(hing it, when 
ndt in a high degree, is much greater. This 
is, the eommiiScing, with the ultramarrnte aflies, 
finalt ground and waflied ever : which, when 
^ood, ahd thus treated, has fo much the ap- 
pearance 6f the other, that it isfcai^cely poffi- 
ftle to perceive any difference by infpeftion. 
rfhe fmalt ncverthdefs, however well ground, 
^11 nevelr mix kindly with oil ; but fall from 
it if »»rttich moiflned, or with lefs oil forms a 
■piffy^ttiitter : nor will it fpread when mixed 
wifh white and oil, in any proportion like -the 
liftrahterine alhes. Bf thefe properties, there- 
•fdffc, "liii^edlcd quantities may* be beft judged 
dfi^as^Ae adulteration becomes apparent ; if 
rile ^\^tMty of the fmialt commixed with the 
trate afhes tender them predominant. 

The method of preparihg the ultramarine 
aflies is as follows. 

•^ Take the cement of the ultmmarine, which 
** fina^ins after the colour is extracted ; a«d mix 
^^ it-^th<fbur times its weight of linfced oil. "Let 
" -riie mixture be fet in a glazed pipkin over the 
*^ fire 3 aind, when it is thus bdleda ihoft time, 
pilt it Into a glafs veffel, fufficiently large to 
cotttain it, • of a cylindrical figure : of which 
vfelTel the diameter muft be fmall in propor- 
tion to the length. But care muft be taken, 
that the matter when put mto this glafs be 
co61 enough not to endanger the breaking 

" it. 


76 Of the StfBSTANCBS 

" it. This glafe muifl: iJieft be put into a bal- 
" neum mariae ; which muft be made as hot 
" as poffible without boiling ^ and kept there 
** till the colour appear to be all fubfided to the 
" bottom. The oil muft then be poured off 
" till the colour appear to rife with it > and 
" the remainder, with the colour in it, muft 
" be put into another glafs of the fame kind 
*^ with as much frefh oil as will rife five or fix 
" inches above the colour. This glafs muft 
" be treated in the fame manner as the firft : 
** and, when the colour has fubfided, the oil 
" muft be poured off, and a frefli quantity 
" put in its place. This having been likewife 
'* poured off, the colour muft then be well 
" waftied, to fi-ee It from the remaining oil^ 
^^ firft in boiling water, and afterwards in Tome 
" of the lixivium abovementioned made boil- 
ing hot alfo. As much of the lixivium be- 
ing poured off, when the colour has fub* 
fided, as can be feparated from it that way, 
the colour muft be thoroughly freed fi:om 
the remainder by frequent ablutions with 
" clean water. After which die water inuft 
" be taken off by the means above directed 
** for the .ultramarine, till the matter be of a 
** proper degree of moifture for grinding. It 
" muft then be thoroughly well ground on a 
" porphyry 5 and wafhed over ; that all the 
" harder and infufficiently calcined parts 
" may be reduced to an impalpable pow- 
" der : in order to which, the remaining 
grofler parts, after the finer have been fepa- 

" rated 




USED IN Painting. 77 

^' rated by the wafliing over, muft be again 
." ground till the whole be perfedtly fine, 
^* The fame means muft be afterwards ufed 
^* to bring the afhes to a dry powder that were 
^* before directed for the ultramarine/* 

Of Prujpan blue. 

Pruffian blue is the fixt fulphur of animal 
or vegetable coal, combined with the earth of 
alum ; and may be made from almoft any a->- 
nimal, and many kinds of vegetable fubftances; 
though, from reafons of expedience, it is ge- 
neraUy made of the coal of blood only. It is 
ufed in all kinds of painting except enamel ; 
and is prepared of many different degrees of 
brightnefs, and ftrength ; as well as of diffe- 
rent teints : fome parcels being, though rarely, 
of a true unmixed blue, but the far greateft 
part of a purple hue ; though the proportion 
of the tinge of red is frequently various, ac- 
cording to the different manner of, or acci- 
dents attendant on, the management of it. 
With refped: to ftanding, Pruffian blue can 
neither be efteemed the moft perfect, nor the 
moft faulty, colour. When it is very dark, 
that is, when the tinging particles bear a large 
proportion to the earth, it will fometimes ftand 
extremely well ; but it is apt then to want 
brightnefe, and be very purple : on the other 
hand, when it is light, or with a fmall pro- 
portion of the tinging part, it is more fre- 
quently bright, and cool, as it is called, (that 
J is. 


is,, deaf of any mixj&jre of red) ; but extreme- 
ly fiibjeift ta ny,. or to turn to a greyjfla green. 
Tbi^ h noir however, univerfel,. for I have 
fisen fome very dark^ which has beeij pretty 
bright and cool; as likewife fome that has 
been light, w^hich would ftand perfedly well. 
The common Ppuflian blue, however, found 
In the (hops, which is prepared almoft wholly, 
at prefent, by ignorant and fordid people, and 
fold at very low prices, can be very little de^ 
pended upon ia paintings of confequence ; but 
whoever would have this pigment perfe<ft, 
ihould either prepare it, or procure ijt to be 
prepared, in the prefer and true manner ; and 
then coniidering the high price of ultramarine, 
and the foulnefs of indico, it may be deemed 
an acquifition to the art of painting. 

The Pruffian blue may be prepared in per- 
fbiSion by the following procefs. 

*^ Take of blood any quantity ; and evapo- 
" rate it to perfect dryneis. Of this dry bloody 
" powdered, take fix pounds, and of the beft 
pearl-aflies two pounds: mix them well 
together in a glafs or ftone mortar; and then 
put the mixt matter into large crucibles or 
earthen-pots ; and calcine it in the furnace 
defcribed, p. Z2; the top of the crucible 
or pot being covered with a tile, or other 
fuch convenient thing, but not luted. The 
calcination Ihould be continued, fo long as 
any flame appears to iffue from the matter ; 
" or rather till it become very flender and 
^^ blue ; for if the fire be very ftrong, a fmall 

I " flame 





USED IN Painting. 79 

^' flame would arife for a very long timet 
** When the matter has been fufficiently caU 
" cined, take the veflels which . contain it out 
" of the fire; and, as quickly as poffiblc, 
^^ throw it into two or three gallons of water; 
" and, as it foaks there, break it with a wooden 
" fpatula, that no lumps may remain. Piit 
" it then in a proper tin-veflel, and boil it for 
" the fpace of three quarters of an hour or 
" more 3 and filter it while hot through paper 
" in the tin cullenders defcribed, p- 27 ; and 
^* pals fome water through the filter when it 
*^ is. run dry, to wa{h out the remainder of the 
^* lixivium of the blood and pearl-aihes ; the 
*^ earth remaining in the filter may be then 
^* thrown away. In the mean time, difiblve 
*^ of clean alum four pounds, and of green 
" vitriol or copperas two pounds, in three 
" galkms of water. Add this folution gra- 
** dually to the filtered lixivium, fo long as any 
^' eflFervefcence appear to arife on the mix- 
" ture; but, when no ebullition or ferment 
" follows the admixture, ceafe to put in more. 
^^ Let the mixture then ftand at reft, and a 
^' green powder will be precipitated : from 
** which, when it has thoroughly fubfided, 
" the clear part of the fluid muft be poured 
" offy and frefli water put in its place, and 
" ftirred well about with the green pow- 
** der ; and, after a. proper time c^ fettling, 
'* poured ofl^ like the firft. Take then of 
*' fpirit of fait double the weight of the green 
*^ vitriol which was contained in the quantity 

'^ of 

8o Of THE Substances 

** of folution of vitriol and alum added to 
" the lixivium, which will foon turn the green 
" matter to a blue colour^ and, after fome 
" time, add a proper quantity.of water, and 
" wafli the colour in the fame manner, as 
** has been direfted for lake, Gfr. ; and when 
" properly wafhed, proceed in the fame man- 
" ner to dry it in lumps of convenient fize." 

By the proportions as given in this procefs, 
if it be rightly conduced, the Pruffian blue 
produced will be both deep and bright: but 
where it is defired to be of lighter colour, the 
quantity of dried blood muft be leflened : for 
if it be even reduced to one half, a beautiful 
light blue may be made. The proportion of 
vitriol may, if only half the proportion of 
blood be ufed, be alfo reduced to half; and 
likewife the fpirit of fait in proportion to that : 
the only ufe of the fpirit being to rcdiflblve the 
oker or iron precipitated from the vitriol- But 
if any abatement be made in the quantity of 
vitriol, an .equivalent weight of the alum muft 
be fubftituted in its place; that there may be 
a fufficient proportion of one or other of thefe 
falts, to precipitate the fulphur of the blood 
from the lixivium. 

If the quantity of fpirit of fait prcfcribed 
fail, however, to convert the precipitated mat- 
ter from green to perfect blue, a greater pro- 
portion muft be ufed. For though the quan- 
tity directed be fully fufficient, when the fpi- 
rit is of due ftrength ; yet, as it is frequently 
found weak when purchafed of the chemifts, 


USED IN Painting. 8i 

or thofe who fell it, there can be no cer- 
tain dependance laid on any rule without ob- 
ferving that the efFeft be correipondent. 

Pruflian blue, when made in great quanti- 
ties, may, for expedition, be dried by heat : 
and this may be performed by means of a 
fmall furnace conftruded in the following 
manner. Let a horizontal funnel of brick- 
work be built, with a vent at one end, open- 
ing into a chimney. This funnel mull be of 
fuch breadth, as will admit its being covered 
by plates of tin : and its length muft be re- 
gulated by the quantity of matter there may be 
occafion to dry. The plates of tin fhould be 
well vamifhed over, as well on the under as 
upper fide, by drying oil boiled to a thick 
confiftence and black colour ; and then ren- 
dered again fluid by means of oil of turpentine. 
They fhould be cemented to each other, where 
they join, by putty mixed with the above var- 
Jiifh : but they may be fixed to the brick- 
^work, which'they reft upon, by fire-lute, and 
Dutch, or other tiles, laid over the edges. In 
^he front of this funnel, muft be made a fmall 
fire-place for burning charcoal, w^hich muft 
vent itfelf into it inftead of a chimney. The 
Pruflian blue to be dried muft be laid in the 
form of a cake upon thele tin-plates ; and then 
icored crofs with a piece of horn both ways ; 
by which means, as the moifture exhales, and 
the mafs fhrinks, each fquare, formed by the 
fcoring, will be a feparatc lump. Okers, and 
3ll other earths, as alfo vcmiilion, may be 
. G dried 

82 Of the Substances 

dried in the fame way on thefe plates : but, 
as thofe lubftances have nothing gummy or 
adhelive in their texture, they may be laid on 
paper upon the plates; which will prevent 
their contrafting any foulnefs from them. 

The goodiieft of Pruflian blue muft be di- 
ilinguifhed by its brightneis, deepnefs, and 
coolnefs : and where thefe qualities are found 
together in any parcel, it may be depended 
upon that it will ftand well ; for whatever is 
added to it to fbphifticate it, or whatever is 
done amifs in the procefs, will always render 
it more foul and purple. The moil certain 
way to judge of it is, therefore, to try it with 
white lead, or flake white, and oil; where the 
above qualities will difplay themfelves, or ap- 
pear wanting, in a much more diftinguifliable 
manner than in the lumps of unmixed colour. 
In the preparation of the coarfer kind of com- 
mon Pruflian blue, a great part of the oker 
or iron precipitated from the vitriol is left in 
the pigment : but in good Praflian blue there 
ought to be no iron. For in time it over- 
powers the blue of the fulphur of the coal, 
and fhews its own proper tinge of yellow in 
the paint : as,may be feen in all blue wainfcots, 
or other work done by houie-painters ; which 
in a Ihort fpace of time turn to an olive or green- 
iflrgray colour. The pretence of iron in Pruf- 
fian blue may be dilcovered by boiling a foiall 
quantity' of what is fulpeded in a lixivium of 
pearl-afties, to make a feparation of the co- 
lour fh)m the remaining earth ; which, if it 


(TSED IN Painting. 83 

partake of the other, will appear yellow when 
wafhed and dried ; but if fete from it, white 
or gray. 

Of verditer. 

Verditcr is the mixture of chalk and preci- 
pitated copper, which is formed by adding the 
due proportion of chalk to the folution of cop- 
per maae by the refiners in precipitating the 
filvei: from die aquafortis, in tlie operation call- 
ed parting; in which they have occafion todif- 
fblve it in order to its purification. Verditcr is, 
when good, a cool foil blue, but without the 
leaft tranfparency either in oil or water. It is 
of a moderate degree of brightnefs ; and would 
have confequently a confiderable value in the 
nicer paintings, where it would fupply the 
place of ultramarine, or at leaft of the ultra- 
marine a(hes, if it could be depended upon : 
but in oil it is very fubjeft to turn greenifh, 
and fometimes black ; and in water, where it 
is fafer, it is yet not always found to hold: for 
which reafons it is rejedted, except in paper 
hangings and other coarfe work, or in varnifh, 
where diis objection to it ceafes. 

Verditer is only to be had at a cheap rate 
from the refiners, who are at no expence in 
the making it, but that of the chalk and labour, 
as they could find no other ufe for the folution 
of copper made by precipitating the filver from 
the aquafortis, in one of their moft common 
operations, were they not to apply it to this. 
G 2 . The 


The manner in which it may be beft done by 
them is as follows. 

" Take any quantity of chalk, and having 
" rendered it properly fine by waflnng over care- 
" fully, add it gradually to the folution of cop- 
" per, fo long as any change appears to be pro- 
" duced by it from the ebullition excited : or 
" the due proportion may be perceived .by Ac 
" fluid's lofing its green tinge and becoming 
*^ colourlefs. Let it then ftand at reft till the 
*' fediment be fubfided; and pour oflF the 
" clear part of the fluid from the powder ; 
" adding in its place clean water, which muft 
" be feveral times renewed till the falts be in- 
" tirely waflied out ; when the fediment, 
" which is the verditer, muft be freed from 
" the fluid by filtering through paper covered 
** with a cloth, and laid out in lumps of a 
" middling fize to dry." 

The verditer as commonly found requires 
no fubfequent preparation for its being ufed : 
only where, as is frequently the cafe, from 
ufing chalk in the making of it that is not pu- 
rified, it is found gritty and not fufiiciently 
fine, and fliould then be wafhed over* 

Thofe who defire to make verditer them- 
felves, may prepare the folution of copper, by 
adding copper filings gradually to aquafortis of 
any kind, or putting plates of copper into it; 
and then proceeding as is above directed for the 
refiners folution. It is not fo expenfive when 
prepared in this manner, but that it will well 


, USED I N Painting. 85 

anfwer, to thofe who cannot conveniently pro- 
cure that prepared by the refiners. 

Verditer is not fubjed: to be adulterated, as 
nothing cheaper of the fame appearance can 
be mixed with it. Its goodnefs muft be di- 
ftinguiihed by the darknefs and brightnefs of 
the colour ; and that is likewife to be preferred 
which is of the fuUeft blue teint, and not in- 
clining to green : As it may be inferred from 
thence that the colour will ftand the better. 
A much deeper and brighter kind of verditer 
may be made by ufing a filtered folutron of 
pearl-aihes, in the place of the chalk, and pro- 
ceeding, as to all other particulars, according 
to the above diredions. 

Bleu de Cendres, or Sanders blue. 

This colour, or rather name, is of late in- 
trodudlion, and has taken its rife, in all pro- 
bability, from fome French painters having 
taught the ufe of verditer in water colours'un- 
der the name Cendre bleu ; which the French 
in common ftyle give to it. This has been 
corrupted into Sanders blue ; and the late 
writers, who have pretended to teach the art 
of painting in water-colours, &c. have a- 
mongft other blunders and abfurdities, fpoken 
of this as a diftindt colour from verditer, known 
and in common ufe. There is iiothing, how- 
ever, to be found, on the moft diligent inqui- 
ry, in the colour-fhops, under this name, but 
common verditer; or a ipecies of it where the 
G 3 precipitation 


p-ecipitalion of the copper appears to be m^de 
in part upon ftarch, as well as chalk. But 
this by no means anfwers the defcription of 
the author of a pamphlet publifhed by Mr. 
Peel in the year 1731, who iays, ** Sanders 
" blue is of very good ufe, and may ferve as 
" a fliade for ultramarine or the blue bice, 
" where the (hades are not required to be ex- 
*' tremely deep, and is of itfelf a pleafant blue 
** to be laid between the lights and (hades of 
'* fuch a flower as is of a Mazarine blue." 
By which it is plain the Sanders blue meant 
here cannot be any kind of vcrditer; as that 
is alwayi lighter than the ultramarine itfelf; 
and can therefore never be a (hade to it. Un- 
lels the fpecifes of verditer mentioned above has 
been prepared darker than at prefent, as is 
prafticable, and fold under fuch a name, this 
author mull: have made fome miftake ; or im- 
pofftd upon the public, by writing what oc- 
curred to his imagination without regard to 

If any, however, may defire to prepare 1 
dark verditer of the kind here fpoken of, they 
may do it in the following manner. 

'^ Take of the refiners folution of copper 
" made in the precipitation of fiiver from the 
" fpirit of nitre ; or difiblve copper in fpirit of 
" nitre or aquafortis, by throwing in filings 
^' or putting in (lips of copper gradually, till 
" all effervefcence ccafe. Add to it of ftarch 
*^ fifkely powdered, the proportion of one fifth 
^* or fixth of the weight of the copper diflbi- 

'' ved. 



U S E D I N P A I N T I N O. 87 

ved. Make then a folution of pearl- a/hes, 
and filter it ; and put gradually, to the fo- 
lution of copper, as much as will precipi- 
tate the whole of the copper -, which may 
be known by the fluid's becoming clear and 
** cok>urlrfs, tnough before highly tinged with 
^* green. Wafh the powder, which will be 
^* precipitated, in the manner direded for 
** lake, &c.', and, when it is fo well drained 
** of water by means of a filter, as to be of a 
^* proper confiftence, grind the whole well 
*' together, and lay it out to dry." 

Of indico. 

Indico is a tinging matter extradled from 
certain plants by means of putrefadtion, and a 
coagulation by the air. It is brought from the 
Eaft and Weft Indies, and cannot, as far as 
is hitherto known, be prepared in thefe colder 
climates, on account of the tender nature of 
the plants which produce it. It was foraierly 
almoft the 6niy blue colour ufed in painting, 
either t\rith oil or water, except ultramarine ; 
which,- froftfi Its great price, could only be ap- 
plied ta very nice purpofes : but, at prefent, 
the invention of Pruffian blue, and the foul- 
nefs of the indico brought froni the French 
or our own plantations, which is greatly infe- 
rior inr brighthefs to that made in the Spanifh 
Weft In^s, which was formerly imported 
here, have almoft banilhed the ufe of it as a 
paint, except for paper-hangings, or fuch grofs 
G 4 ufes. 

88 OftheSubsta'nces 

ufes. Where the beft Spanifh indico, never- 
thelefs, can be procured, it is preferable for 
ftiany purpofes to Pruffian blue, of the fame 
degree of brightnefs, from its certainty of ftand- 
ing : but it is never found either of the firft 
degree of brightnefs, nor fo cool as to be fit for 
all the ufes to which Pruflian blue can be ap- 

There is no other preparation neceflary to 
the ufing indico in painting, except a perfect 
levigation ; to which, for nicer purpofes, wafh- 
ing over may be added. 

The goodnefs of indico may be difcerned 
by its darknefs and brightnefs : and, as it is al- 
ways apt to be purple, coolncfs gives a great 
additional merit to the beft for the ufes of 


Smalt is glafs coloured with zaffer, and 
ground only to a very grofs powder. Its 
texture does not permit it to be worked with 
cither brufli or pencil ; but it is ufed for fome 
purpofes, by ftrewing it on any ground of oil- 
paint while wet ; where it makes a rbright 
warm blue iliining furface, proper for large 
fun-dials, and otiier fuch applications. 

It is prepared from fluxing zafFer with glafs 
6f falts : the proportion of which may be one 
fcventh part, or more or lefs according to 
the degree of deepnefs required in the fmalt. 


USED IN Painting, 89 

The goodnefs of fmalt confifts in Its being 
dark bright and cool, though it always verges 
on the purple. 

Of bice. 

Bke is fmalt reduced to a fine powder by 
levigation. It is a l^ht warm blue colour, 
and was formerly ufed in oil, more frequent- 
ly in water colours 5 but from its unfuitable 
texture it is now greatly difufed. 

Its goodnefs lies in the brightnefs and cool- 
nds. This holds good only of the original 
^nd true bice ; for at prefent feveral compofi- 
tions of indico and verditer, with chalk or 
other cheap fubftances, are fold in the name 
of bice. . 

Of litmuSy or lacmus. 

Litmus is a blue pigment brought hither 
from abroad, and formed from blue flowers. 
It is only ufed in miniature paintings, and 
cannot be there well depended upon, as the 
leaft approach of acid changes it inftantly from 
blue to red; though it will fland if no fuch 
accident intervene. The original preparation 
of litmus is by bruifing or pounding the leaves 
of tlie flowers, picked oiF.from the other parts, 
till they become a pulp; frpm whence the 
iuice muft be carefully kept from running off; 
which juice mufl: be afterwards reduced to a 
dry mafs by evaporation in balneo mariae. But 


90 Of THt Substances 
a$ there are no flowers in this country, except 
the cyanus or corn-bottie, which afford a blue 
colour, and can be procured in a fufficient 
quantity, the preparation of this colour is not 
profitably pradlicable here, as it can be had 
from abroad at a very moderate price. The 
preparaidon of this colour, previous to its ufe 
ki miniafure painting, I fhall give in its pro- 
per place, when I fpeak of the commixture of 
vater-colours, with their proper vehicles. 

C L A s & III. Of yellow colours. 

Of Kings yellow. 

King's yclIow is^ a pure ofpiwxent, or 
arfenic coloured with fulphur. - It is' 
ufed for painting in oil and varnifh : and is of 
an extreme bri^t colour, and when good a 
true yellow ; it will likewife ftand well being 
tifed alone : but when mixed with white lead, 
and feveral other pigments, its colour flies or 
changes. On this account, and for th^ addi- 
tional reafons of its being efleemed a poifon, 
and having a moft naufeous fmell, it is rejeft- 
ed by many ; but others find too rtiMch ad- 
vantage in its great brightnefs, as well in the 
ufe of it as a yellow, as when mixed with blue 
pigments to form a green, not to have recourfe 
to it on feme occafions. 

This pigment muft be prepared by mixmg' 
folphtir and arfenic by fublimation, which 
may be done in the following manner. 

2 '' Take 

USED IN Painting. 91 

" Take of arfenic powdered and flowers of 

" fulphur in the proportion of twenty of the 

" firft to one of the fecond : and having put 

" them into a fublimer, fublime them in a 

*' fand-heat, with fiich a furnace as is de- 

** fcribcd p. 20, according to the general di- 

*' redHons given p. 30. The operation be- 

** ing over, the king's yellow will be found in 

** the upper part ofthe glafs ; which muft be 

*' carefully feparatcd from any caput mortuum 

** or foul parts that may be found in the glafi 

*^ with it. It muft be afterwards reduced to 

*' an equal powder by levigation." 

It may likewife be obtained from commoa 
orpitnent, by fubliming it, inftead of the ir- 
•fenic and fulphur, in the fame manner. 

The king's yellow may be rendered warmer, 
that is more inclined to orange, by increafing 
the proportion of the arfenic ; or me contrary 
cfted: may be produced by diminiihing it. 

King's yellow cannot be adtiherated with- 
out diminifhing its brightnefs : and therefore 
that which is beft in this refpeft may be 
efteemed good in others. Coolnefs, or the 
being free from red, is likewife a merit. 

Of Napks yellow. 

Naples yellow is a warm yelIo\C^ pigment 
rather inclining to orange, but in a very mi- 
nute degree. It is feldom ufed but in paint- 
ing with oil : where it is generally ft)uncl to 
ftand well 5 but, if it touch iron along with 


92 Of the Substances 

the Icaft watery moifture, it will be changed 
by it. As it is brighter than moft yellows ufed 
in oiI> and indeed than all at prefent in ufe, 
except the king's yellow, it is much received 
into pradice. It has been fuppofed to be a 
native earth, and is faid to be found in the 
neighbourhood of Naples ; but this is dubious^ 
as the different parcels of it vary too much from 
each in fpccific qualities to allow the fuppofition 
of their being native earths of the fame kind, 
at leaft with refpedl to fuch as are to be obtained 
from bur (hops ; for I have met with fome that 
was of a very different compofition from the 
common- The uncertainty with regard to Ae 
genuinenefs renders this pigment lefs valua- 
ble, as it is lefs to be depended upon with re- 
iped: to its holding its colour. Whether, how- 
ever, it is an earth that is at prefent generally 
Ibphiflicated, or what the preparation of it is, 
we ai'e at prefent ignorant of, as it is brought 
from abroad ; and this makes it more difficult 
to give marks of its genuinenefs -, which may 
therefore be befl gathered from its appearance 
and manner of mixing with the oil, in which 
the more adulterate kinds differ from the com- 

Though Naples yellow js of a gritty tex- 
ture, yet it is beft to ufe it as it is obtained, and 
only grind it with the oil ; for it does not well 
bear levigation with water. But if fuch levi- 
gation be neverthelefs praftifed on it, the 
greateft care muft be taken to employ an ivory 
fpatula in the place of a pallet knife ; which 



would certainly injure tlie colour, if it were 
touched with it white wet 3 ,and even when 
mofftened with oil, the iron is in Ibme degree 
injurious to it. 

Of yellow vler. 

Yellow oker is a mineral eardi, which is 
found in many places, but of different degreed 
of purity. When free from other earths and 
heterogeneous matter, it is a true yellow of mor 
derate brightneft : and, as its texttire fuits it 
for all kinds of painting, and th^J it will never 
fly in the leaft, it is a very valuable colour with 
rc(pe<9: to its utility, though of low price. 

There is no other preparation of yellow 
oker ncceflary than levigation : and for nicer 
purpofes wafhing over ; to undergo which its 
texture is extremely fuitable. 

The goodnefs of yellow oker may be diffin- 
guifhed by the brightnefs and fulnefs of its 
yellow colour; and if it be bright, it cannot 
be too cool. But as it is not unufual to mix it 
with Dutch pink, and fet an extraordinary 
price upon it as being extremely good, that 
impofition muft be guarded againft ; which 
may be done by heating it to the degree that 
will turn paper brown ; which if it be genuine 
will make little or no alteration in it ; but if it 
be adulterated in this manner will give an np* 
parent foulnefs to it. 


94 Of THE Substances 

Of Dutch pink. 

Dutch pink is a pigment formed of chalk, 
coloured with the tinging particles of French 
berries or other vegetables. It is principally 
ufed for coarfer purpofes in water ; not bear* 
ixig well to be worked in oil : nor can it be 
depended upon with regard to its ilaading fo 
as to be fit for paintings of any confequence. 
^, There are a variety of methods of prepar* 
ing Dutch pink : biit the following is very 
cheap and eaiy; and makes a nxoil beautiiui 

" Take of French berries one pound, and 
•' of turmeric root powdered four ounces ; boil 
*^ them in a gallon of watfer two hours ; and 
" then ftrain off the tin<5hire through flannel, 
" and boil it again with an ounce of alum till 
*' it be evaporated to one quart. Prepare in 
*^ the mean time four pounds of chalk, by 
** wafhing it over, and afterwards drying it : 
** and mix the chalk with the tindure, by 
" grinding them together : and then layout the 
" Dutch pink thus made to dry on boards.'* 

Dutch pink is fometimes prepared in the 
fenxe manner with ftarch and white lead. 

The goodnefs of Dutch pink confifts in its 
being of a full gold coloured yellow, and very 


vsED IN Painting, 95 

Of Englijh pink. 

Englijfli pink is only a lighter and courier 
kind of Dutch pink* 

Of light pinL 

Light pink is of two kinds, the one the 
^mc with the Dutch pink, only with greatly 
kfe colour : the other the fame with thebrcnvn 
pinks that is, tranipar^nt in oil, but with le& 

The firft kind like the Dutch pink is only 
fit for ufing in water ; and there, likewife, only 
in paintings where the holding of the colour 
is not of great coniequence. 

The other is by fooip ul^d in oil paintings^ 
iji the iame manner as brown pink ; its tran- 
fparency making it have a good efFeft in fhadej 
for fome purpofes ; but it i$ not a judicious 
pradtice : for all thefe colours formed of vege- 
tables are very uncertain with refpe<9: to their 
(landing; and the native earths or prepared 
okers properly managed will anfwer equally 
the fame ends. 

The preparation of the ,firft kind of light 
pink may be in the fame manner as that of 
the Dutch pink j only diminifhing the propor- 
tion of the French hemes and turmeric to one 

The light pink may be prepared in the fol- 
lowing manner. 



96 Of tke Substances 

** Take of French berries one pound. Boil 
" them with a gallon of water for an hour : and 
*^ then flrain them off; and add two pounds of 
^' pearl-afhes, diflblved and purified by filter- 
•^ ing through paper. Precipitate with alum 
** diflblved in water, by adding the folution 
" gradually, fb long as any ebullition fhall 
" appear to be raifed in the mixture. When 
*^ the fediment has thoroughly fubfided, pour 
** off the water from it ; and wafh it with 
'^ fcvefal renewed quantities of water, pro- 
*' ceeding as has been before direfted in the 
^' cafe of lake, &c. ; and then drain off the 
^' remaining fluid in a filter with a paper 
*' covered with a linnen cloth ; and laftly dry 
it on boards in fmall fquare pieces." 
It may be likewife prepared from fuflic 
wood, yellow fanders, and feveral other vege- 
table fiibftances, which afl!brd copioufly a yel- 
low tinge. 

The goodncfs of light pink lies pi^incipally 
in its brightnefa and tranfparency : and, when 
defigned for the fhops, care (hould be taken 
that it do not fatten in the oil ; which will 
happen, if the falts be not thoroughly waftied 
out of it. 


Gumboge is a gum brought from the Eaft 
Indies. It diflblves in yellow to a milky con- 
flftence, and is then a bright light yellow. It 
is ufed only in water : but there is of great 

fervicc 5 

usEDi^ Painting. gf 

fervice, being the principal ; or, indeed, al^ 
moft the only yellow commonly employed, 
* Gamboge requires no preparation, but dif* 
Iblves immediately on rubbing it, with the ad-^ 
dition of water. 

The goodriefs of gamboge m^y bd diftin- 
guifhed by its appearance while in the ftate of 
a gum of a deep warm bright colour : and the 
more it approaches to tranfparency the better* 

Of majiicot. 

Mafticot is flake white, or white lead, gently 
calcined ; by which it is changed to a yellow of 
lighter or deeper teint, according to the de- 
gree of calcination. It is not greatly ufed at 
prefent J the, colour not being very bright: 
but as it will ftand perfedly in oil ; and in wa» 
ter, as well as flake white, or white lead, it 
certainly might be ufed for many purpofes > as 
it works witn the pencil better than mofl: other 

It may be prepared by putting the flake 
white, or white lead, on an earthen or ftone 
difli before a ftrong fire \ and continuing it 
there till the colour be fufficiently yellow ; 
each fide of the plate being put next to the fire 
in its turn, that the whole of the mafticot may 
be equally calcined : or the matter to be cal- 
cined may be put into a crucible; and the cru- 
cible placed in a moderate heat in a common 
fire ; care being taken to remove it as foon as 
the mafticot appears of a proper colour; which 

H muft 

98 Of the Substances 

muft be diftinguiflied by taking a part of it 
out, for the colour does not fhew itfelf pro- 
perly while the matter is hot. The calcina- 
tion being finiflied, the parts which are of the 
teint wanted muft be picked out from the 
reft, and put together : for, with the greateft 
care, it is difficult to calcine the wJiole equal- 
ly ; and confequently to avoid rendering fome 
parts of a deep yellow or orange. 

There is no further preparation neceflary 
for the ufing maflicot either in oil, or water 
painting, except the grinding it with the 

Common orpiment. 

Common orpiment is a foflile body com- 
pofed of arfenic and fulphur, with a mixture 
frequently of lead, and fbmetimes other me- 
tals. It was formerly ufed as a yellow in 
painting ; but at prefent is very feldom em- 
ployed in its unrefined fl^te, unlefs to ccdour 
the matted bottoms of chairs or other fuch 
coarfe work. When purified by fubliming, 
it becomes the king's yellow, of which we 
have before fpoken. It is of a pale yellow 
colour, and might be ufefiil for feversd pur- 
poles, if its naufeous fmell, and fuppo&dly 
poifonous quality, did not make the meddling 
with it difagreeable, particularly in oil, where 
its bad fcent is greatly increafed. The good- 
nefs of orpiment confifts in the brightnefe and 
ftrength of its colour ^ and the warmer, or 


USED IN Painting. 99 

father the lefs iriclining to green, the better it 
is for the purpofes of painting. 

Of galljiones. 

Gall fiones are concretions of earthy mat- 
ter and bile formed in the gall bladder, or bile 
duifls of beafts. It is ufed by thbfe, who know 
the fecret of its excellence, in water : with 
which being rubbed, and treated as gamboge, 
it becomes a deep warm yellow, that io, its 
brightnefs and dark fliade, when not too thin 
fpread, as well as holding its colour, is very 

As the gall ftones arc not always to be pro- 
cured, a fiditious kind may be prepared ; 
which will greatly anfwer the fame purpofe. 
They may be made in this manner. 

" Take a quart of the bile of oxen, as 
** frefh as poffible. Put it into a proper 
" pewter veiTel; and fet it to boil in balneo 
" mariae ; having added to it a quarter of an 
*' ounce of clear gum Arabic. Evaporate the 
" whole to about an eighth; and then remove it 
" into a China cup or bafon of proper fize ; and 
*' evaporate it to drynefs -, coileding it into a 
*^ mafs as it becomes of a ftiff confiftence." 

This may be ufed as the gall ftones : and, 
being more tranfparent, will be found of very 
great advantage in water painting. 

H 2 Terra 

100 Of the Substances 

Terra de Siena unburnt. 

Terra de Siena, as we have faid before, 
fpeaking of it as a red when calcined, is a na- 
tive ochrous earth, brought from Italy. In 
its uncalcined ftate it is a deepifh warm yel- 
low, and but flightly tranfparent either in 
oil or water. It is much lefs ufed uncalcined 
than calcined : but, neverthelefs, as it is a 
deeper yellow by many degrees than any of 
the other okers, and of a fuperior brightnefs, 
it might be ufed with advantage, as it will 
ftand equally with the bcft. 

When terra de Siena is ufed uncaldned, it 
oughtto be extremely well levigated and 
wafhed over j otherwife it is apt to lie heavy 
in the oil ; which is probably die chief reafbn 
why it is fo feldom ufed in an uncalcined ftate; 
though as much wanted for fbme purpofes ^s 
the calcined for others. 

Turpetb mineral. 

Turpedi mineral is a preparation of mer- 
cury, by calcining it together with oil of vi- 
triol. It is an exceflive bright true yellow, of 
a great body like vermilion ; and will fUnd 
equally well with that : and it works likewife 
with oil or water much in the fame manner. 
Thefe qualities render it very valuable for many 
purpofes ; as it is much brighter than any 
other yellow ufed in oil, except king's yel- 

USED IN Painting. ioi 

low 5 and is free from the naufeous fmell of 
^at pigment; as well as cooler. This coolnefs, 
and its bearing to be mixed with Pruflian blue, 
irom whence a much finer green can be pro- 
duced by it than from the king s yellow with- 
out ultramarine, give it, on the whole, greatly 
the preference. It has not, however, that I 
know of, been ufed in painting by any except 
thofe to whom I have recommended it : and 
•who, on trial, have found it anfwer to what I 
have here laid of it. 

The turpeth mineral may be beft prepared 
in the following manner. 

" Take of pure quickfilver, and oil of vi- 

*^ triol, each fix pounds. Put them into a re- 

^* tort; to which, being placed in the fand- 

^* bath, fit on a receiver; and diftill them with 

^^ a ftrong fire, while any fumes appear to rife 

** into the receiver; urging it at laft with as 

^^ great a heat as the furnace will bear. When 

** die retort is again cold, remove it out of the 

** fand bath : and, having broken it, take the 

*' white mafs, which will be found at the bot- 

** torn of it, and break it to a grofs powder ; 

** and, having put it in a glafs mortar, pour 

*' water on it ; which will immediately con- 

*' vert it to a yellow colour. Let it then be 

" thoroughly ground in this mortar, with wa- 

*' ter, and afterwards wafhed with feveral fuc- 

" ceffivc quantities. It muft then be thoroughly 

" well levigated on a ftone, and dried." 

The turpedi mineral may be had from the 
fliops of any chemifts or dealers in medicines ; 
H 3 but 

102 Of the Substances 
but is not at prefent in thofe of ccJlourmen, 
As it is now to be procured, it requires a pre* 
vtQ IS levigaiion in water before it be ufed -, bang 
for the moft part, (though faultily,) levigated 
for the ufes of the medicine only in a very 
flight manner. The marks of goodncfe in the 
turpeth mineral- are the brightnefs of the cb-- 
lour ; and its fulnefs or warmth : for as it 
never inclines more to the red than a trub 
yellow, the lefs it verges on the green, the 
better it confeqaently is for the purpofes of 

Of the yellow wajhfrom the French berries. 

This is a folution of the gum of the French 
berries in water. It is ufed as a wafhing colour 
in water painting : and as it may be made of 
alraoft any degree of deepnefs, and is pretty 
bright, it is applicable to many material pur- 
pofes, fince nothing can be made of the gam* 
boge but light tints. This colour will ftand alio 
extremely well, and being more diluted or laid 
on thicker, will in confequence of its tran^ 
fparcncy, give a variety of (h^des. 

The yellow-berry- wafh may be thus pre- 

^^ Take a pound of the French berries, and 
" put to them a gallon of water, with half an 
" ounce of alum, boil them an hour in thtf 
" pewter vefiel defcribed p. 24, and then fil- 
" ter off the fluid, (through paper if it be 
" dpligned for nicer purpofes, or flannel for 
I " more 

USED IN Painting. 103 
*^ more ordinary.) Put them again into the 
'^ boiler and evaporate the fluid till the colour 
** appear of the ftrength defired ; or part may 
*^ be taken out while lefs ftrong, and the reft 
^^ evaporated to a proper body." 

The goodnefs of the French berries may be 
<iiftinguiflied by their appearing large, plump, 
and heavy ; and if they have thefe qualities, 
the darker they appear the better : but unlefs 
they are large and plump, the darknefs may 
only arife from their being gathered before 
they are duly ripe. 

Turmeric wajh. 

The turmeric vi^afli is the gum of the tur- 
meric root diflTolved in water. The qualities 
and ufcs of it, are much the fame as the yel- 
low berry-wafti ; only it is a brighter and 
cooler ydtow ; but fo ftrong a tindure cannot 
be made of it in water as of the French 
I It niay be alfo prepared in the fame manner 

I as the ftxtner. 

Of tinBure of fqffron. 

TiniSure of faffron is ufed as a yellow wafti 
with water colours. It is made by pouring 
hot water on the beft Englifh fafFron in a proper 
0iial or other veflel ; which fliould be placed for 
fome time in a heat next to that which would 
nuke the water boil : and the tindure fhould 

H 4 then 


104 , Op the Substances 
then be filtered from the dregs through a piece 
of linnen cloth. The proportion of the faf- 
fron to the water muft be regulated by the 
intension of having the colour deeper or paler. 
This tindture is a fine warm yellow ; and when 
very ftrong makes a very proper ihade for the 
gamboge or other light yellows that are bright: 
and it will ftand equally well with any of the 
vegetable tinftures. 

Glass IV. Of green colours. 

Of 'uerdigrife. 

VERDIGRISE is a ruft or corrofion 
of copper formed by the ad:ion of 
fome vegetable acid, commonly that of the 
fkin and pulp of grapes remaining after they 
have undergone a preffure for wine. It is 
brought from Italy hither ; and ufed in moft 
kinds of painting, where green is required. 
Verdigrife makes a blue green colour in paint : 
bjLit is generally ufed with yellow, which by 
a proper mixture renders it a true green. It is 
bright when good ; but very foon flies when 
ufed in oil : but when ufed in water painting 
it is diflblved previoufly in vinegar; which, in- 
deed, changing it to another fubftance, rpnders 
it more durable. 

It is needlefs to give any procefs for the 
making verdigrife ; bccaufe it may be pur- 
chaled much cheaper than it can be here made : 
the prefiings of the grapes in countries where 


USED IN Painting. 105 

fnuch wine is made faving the expence of the 
acid ; which as it muft be vinegar could not 
be procured here without coft : thefe preflings 
are rubbed on plates of copper, which are then 
put in moift places, till a ftrong corrofion or 
ruft is formed, which beaten or fcraped off is 
'die verdigrife. 

There is no other preparation of it neceflary 
to the ufing verdigrife in oil or varnifh, except 
a fufficient levigation ; but in water painting, 
as is faid before, it muft be diflblved in vinegar; 
"when in fa<fl it ceafes to become verdigrife, and 
is a fait of copper; the fame with the chryflals 
of verdigrife we fhall next treat of. 

Solution in vinegar is not, however, the only 
method by which verdigrife may be ufed in 
water painting : for it will diflblve in the juice 
of rue J and produces a fine full green colour 
equally fit for wafhing with that diflblved in 

The goodnefs of verdigrife may be diftin- 
guiihed by the fiilnefs of its blue green colour, 
and inclining rather towards a chryftalline tex- 
ture than the form of a powder j to which 
muft be added its being free from feculencies, 

Chryjials of verdigrife y called di/lilled verdigrife, 

Diftilled verdigrife is the fait produced by 

the folution of copper, or common verdigrife, 

in vinegar. The chryftals thus formed are of 

an extreme bright green colour; and in varnifh, 

vrhere they ftand perfedly well, they have a 



106 Of the Sui^STANCES 

very fine efFe<fl. In oil they hold their colour 
well enough to anfwer many purpofes, where 
colours are not required to be greatly durable ; 
but in paintings of confequence they cannot be 
depended upon> being apt to turn black with 

The chryftals of verdigrife may be prepared^ 
in the following manner. 

" Take of the beft verdigrife four ounces, 
" and of diftilled vinegar two quarts. The. 
" . verdigrife being well pounded, let them be 
" put into a circulating veflel, which may be 
" formed of a mattrafs, (which is a round 
" bodied glafs with a long ftrait neck) and a 
" Florence flafk, which muft have its neck 
** inverted into the mattrafs, the thick end be- 
" ing broken oiF. This circulating veflel muft 
" be placed in a gentle fand-heat, or other 
" warm fituation, where it muft continue, 
" being frequently fhaken, till the vinegar has 
*^ diflblved as much as it can of the ycrdi- 
" grife. Remove the verdigrife and vinegar 
*' then into a proper glafs for decanting the 
" fluid, when it fhall become clear, from 
*' the fediment : and when it has flood a due 
'^ time to fettle, let it be carefully poured off 
^- and evaporated to about half a pint -, which 
" may be beft done with a fand-heat, in a 
^' glafs body or cucurbit, having its neck cut 
*• off to form a wide mouth. It may be fet 
" to flioot in the fame veflel or in a glafs 
" receiver with a wide neck : and, when 
" the chryflals are formed, they muft be 

'^ taken 

USED IN Painting. 107 

** taken out, and carefully dried in the 
" fhade. 

^' A frefh prc^rtion of vinegar may be 
*^ added to the remains of the verdigrife, 
*^ which the firft quantity left undiflbived ; 
** and the mothers or fluid remaining after 
** the chryftals were formed may be put into 
'* it : when, the other parts of the procefs be- 
" ing repeated, a fecond quantity of the chry^ 
" ftals will be obtained." 

The diftilled vinegar produces the moft 
beautiful chryftals of verdigrife ; but common 
vin^ar ie more frequently ufed by thofe who 
prepare them: as it is much cheaper, and will 
aftbrd v»y good coloured chryftals, if care be 
taken in the evaporation not to fufter any part 
of it to burn to the glafs ; to avoid which ac- 
cident, it is proper, that the veflel, in which 
the evaporation is made, fhould not be funk 
deep in die fand; but only fet upon it, or fur- 
rounded a little above the bottom. 

The goodnefs of the diftilled verdigrife may 
be perceived by the clearnefs of the chryftals ; 
and the bright green colour of them when 

Offap green. 

S^ green is the concreted juice of the buck- 
thorn berries exprefled from them. 

It is a yellow green ; and only ufed in wa- 
ter painting ; where it is very ufeful for feme 
purpofes as a waftiing colour ; making a ftrong 


168 ' Op t«e SuSstances 

ftain dtid pretty bright. It may be prepared 

in the following manner. 

" Take any quantity of buckthorn berries 
" before they be ripe ; and prefs out the juice 
" in fuch a prefs as is ufed for making cyder 
" or verjuice ; or by any other method. 
" Strain this juice through flannel, and then 
*' let it ftand to fettle ; and, when it has 
" Hood a proper time, decant off the clearer 
" part of the fluid from the fediment. Ptrt 
^* this juice into a ftone or earthen veflfcl ; and 
" evaporate it till it begins to grow of a thick 
" confiflience 5 then put it into the pewter 
" veflfel defcribed p. 24 5 and, fini/h the cva- 
** poration in balneo mariae; colleding the 
" matter into one mafs as it acquires a pro- 
*^ per confiftence." 

The marks of goodnefs in fap green arc the 
tranfparency, brightnefs, and ftrength of co- 
lour, it appears to have when rubbed on 

Triijjian green. 

Pruflian green is the fame with the Pruffian 
blue ; except that in the preparation the pre- 
cipitated oker of the vitriol is fuflfered to re- 
main with the precipitated earth of alum and 
the fulphur of the coal ; the addition of the 
fpirit of fait, by which in the regular procefs 
for the Pruflian blue the oker is rediflblved, 
being omitted : and this oker being yellow, 
a green is produced by it through the eflfeft 
I of 

USED IN Painting. 109 

of the blue of the fulphur. The qualities 
of the Pruflian green are much the fame 
■ with thofe of the blue, except the difference 
of colour, and that it is not fo tranfparent; nor, 
with regai:d to any I have hitherto feen, fo 
bright; neither can it be fo well depended upon 
for ftanding as the Pruflian blue when well 
prepared, though it is nearly equal in that 
point to the common. As the qualities are fo 
much the fame, the ufes to which the PruA 
fian green may be applied are much the fame 
with thofe of the blue, excepting difference 
of hue; and at one time this colour was gain** 
ing ground among painters of fome kinds : 
but it has fince then been neglefted ; and at 
prefent feems almofl wholly laid afide, tho* 
I am not fenfible of the reafon why this pig^ 
ment might not be of advantage in many kinds 
of painting, as well as the common Pruflian 

The manner of preparing this pigment may 
be as follows. 

" Proceed in all points, as in the procefe 
^^ given for the Pruflian blue, till the folu- 
^^ tion of alum and vitriol be mixed with 
" that of the pearl-afhes and fulphur of the 
*^ coal, and the green precipitation made ; 
*^ then, inflead of adding the fpirit of fait, 
** omit any further mixture, and go on to 
" wafli the fediment, which is the Pruflian 
" green j and afterwards to dry it, in the 
V fame manner as is direded for the blue." 



The goodnefs of the Pruffian green confifts 
in the deepnefs and brightnefs of the colour j 
and the more it is of a true teint of green, 
the better it is. 

'Terra ^erte. 

Terra verte is a native earth, which in all 
probability is coloured by copper. It is of a 
blue green colour, much of that teint which 
is called fea-green. What we have in com-* 
monhere, is not very Iwight, but being femi- 
tranlparent in oil, and of a ftrong body in 
water, and ftanding equally well with the 
beft pigments, it is very much adapted to 
anfwer fome purpofes in both kinds of paint- 
ing; though it is not fo generally ufed by 
thofe to whom it would be ferviceable as it 
merits. Mr. D'Acofta fays, in his book of 
Foffils, that there is a kind which is very 
bright, and is found in Hungary : if it could 
be procured here, it would certainly be a very 
valuable acquifition to oil painting; as the 
greens we are forced at prefent to compound 
from blue and yellow, are feldom fecure from 
flying or changing. 

Terra verte, as brought from abroad, is of 
a very coarfe texture ; and requires to be well 
levigated, and waflied over: but no other 
preparation is neceflary previoufly to its ufe,r 
The only method of diftinguifhing its good- 
nefs is by the brightnefs and ftrength of its 

Clas s 

USED IN Painting. hi 

C L A s s V. Of orange colours. 

There is not any fimple pigment, prepared , 
commonly, which can properly come into this 
clafs : the efffedt of orange being produced in 
pra<3:ice by the mixture of red and yellow : but 
the following preparation being of my own in- 
vention, and ferviceable to fome who have al- 
ready made confiderable ufe of it, I thought 
it proper to infert it for the benefit of others 
who may want fuch a pigment. 

Of orange lake. 

This orange lake is the tinging part of an- 
natto precipitated together with earth of alum. 
It is of a very bright orange colour, and would 
work well with either oil or water ; but can- 
not be depended upon, when ufed either of 
thofe w^ys, for (landing long. It is, how- 
ever, a very fine colour for varnifh painting, 
where the fear of flying is out of queftion ; 
and is alfo of an admirable good effeft for 
putting under chryftal for the imitation of the 
vinegar garnet j for which purpofe it has been 
ufed with great fuccefs. 

The manner of the preparation of the 
orange lake may be as follows. 

" Take of the beft annatto four oimces, 
" and of pearl-aflies one pound. Put them 
" together into a gallon of water, and boil 
*' them half an hour ; and then ftrain the fo- 

'* lution 

112 Of the SuBSTAlSCES 

*' lution through paper. Make, in the meaft 
" time, a folution of a pound and a half of 
'^ alum, in another gallon of water : and mix 
" it gradually with the folution of the pearl- 
" afties and annatto ; obferving to ceafe any 
" further addition when the fluid becomes^ 
*' colourlefs, and no further ebullition enfues 
" on the commixture. Treat the fedimeilt 
*' or precipitated matter, then, in the fame 
" manner as has been before direded for o- . 
" ther kinds of lake ; only this need not be 
^^ formed into drops ; but may be dried in 
" fquare bits or round lozenges." 

Class VL Of purple colours. 

Of the true Indian red. 

The true Indian red is a native ochrous' 
earth, of a purple colour; and, before the 
cheapnefs of the fiditious kind, occafioned it 
to be rejefted by the colourmen, and confe- 
quently difufed by painters j was conftantly 
brought from the Eail Indies, and fold in the 
fhops. At prefent it is very rarely to be 
found ; but when it can be met with, it is 
certainly very valuable (there being no other, 
uncompounded purple colour in ufe with oil) 
as well for the force of its effeft, as for the 
certainty of its ftanding: but the common 
kind, now fallacioufly called by its name, has 
been, by degrees, from accommodating it to 
the purpofes of houfe painters, made to vary 


USED IN Painting. ir^ 

ffom it till it is become intirely a different co- 
lour, being a broken orange inftead of a 

The true Indian red, when it can be pro- 
cured, needs no other preparation than grind** 
•ing or wafhing over : and it may be eafily di- 
ilinguifhed from any fidlitious kind, by its 
being more bright than any other oker which 
can be made fo purple j and if it be rendered 
artificially purple by any addition, the fire will 
ibon betray it; into which the genuine may be 
put without any hazard of change. 

Of arcbat or orchaL 

Archal is a preparation of logwood by means 
of lime and fhreds of leather. It is an ex- 
t:reme bright purple fluid ; and would be . a 
-l^eautiful wa£h, if it could be depended upon; 
l>ut it is apt to dry to a reddifh brown colour ; 
5Uid therefore at prefent much difufed in paint- 
ing ; though it had formerly a place in the com- 
xnon fet of water colour,s. It is ufed in great 
quantities for fome purpofes of dying, by peo- 
ple who make it their bufinefs \ and may be 
ilad cheap of them, or the dry falters j but is 
icarcely worth the trouble of procuring. 

Of the hgnvood-ivajh. 

Logwood is brought from America 5 and 

affords a ftrong purple tindture in water; 

wluch will ftain, ot a bluifti purple colour, al- 

I moii 

114 Of the Substances 

moft any body whatever capable of rcceiyiag 

fuch tinge. It is iifed frjequently in uxin^^titiuip 

painting to make a purple wafli; wJbich..i» 

varied to a more red or blue oplour jbjT:. the 

addition oromiffioa of Btaiil w^iod. This 

-wafh may be preparjed in the ^dUowiag iq^ 

.ncr. .' ' * * ■..:::■:.' . lit 

" Take an CAinct of giX)Ufi4 logwoodj iUoA 

/^ boil it in a pint of w^^ till quq half bfliie 

'< fluid be wafted. Strain it ^n tiblHl^ 

^< 'flannel udiijie of a bolting hieat ; and add t9 

" it, vsrhea gained, about len grains of. peaj^H 

" aflies, or about the bulk of a fmall Frencn 

" bean. If it jae 4^iife^ to |?e a more red 

*^ purple, about half an ounce of Brafil wood 

" may be adde4 to die ksgy&ood ; or in/pro- 

'^ portion as the. x:alourwaiksd:raaycfi^«^^ 

*' and in this cai^ the peiarl-a^lies ihuftlKP 

^' iifed very ^ridgly, or iio( added iatt:.^, 

. " unlefs the tin<2we lappeav Ado red*" : , . J 

C L AS s'\/lL Of Wown ct^ui^.^ . ^'^ 

Brown pink is . die tinging, ffairt of fcmef «c(* 
getable of a^re^ow dt ocangei colour, picecapir 
tated upon the earth of alum, cuttle-fim bone, 
or fome fucl> Ukg calcariou§ iub^lance. It is, 
when good, a concentrate yellow, which, the 
pigment being tranfparent ia.x)ii, giye& <^Ief- 
ie(ft of a dark colour, and iczrvQB for deep fbadc& 
It is fometinies prej^red of a warmer, and 


u%£b Yn Painting. 115 

. fbWfetimes bf a cooTerleiiit j and as each fort 

&itS the purpofeS of particular tinds of paint- 

.cfS, tsith. kind is preferred by fome according 

'^d tlidlf WffitS. iBrbwn pink would be of 

great valuein painting, if it could be depended 

"tt>t)h With tegard to its flanding : and it was 

;wrmttiy, tvhfeft all the colours of this kind 

^"Wttt ICftOre libnfcftly and judicioully prepared, 

!rt '^tttoft gefierai ufe iii Ais f)aft of the world: 

but ;at preiertt it is iiifficult to find any that 

IroISS rtttt^y, bt has hot fdfne other bad quality; 

'toicrtltniifaf ly that df fattening to ah exceflive 

msec6i itid i!feier4r6re it is niiich difufed ; an^ 

\ml pitflbafely iA a fliott time be ihtirely ex- 

"jrioAdd fi-Oin Jiraftice. 

^lilfere aire many methods of preparing 

t)fdtt^ft. jiinks as'therfe ^r^ ^ great Variety of 

li^egecS&leS which, affotd a yellow tinge very 

ttipiSu^y 5 and 'wliich, treated in the iame 

xhanngr. as is praStifed for making lakes, will 

ifR^td fbcll a pigment. But the niofl: com- 

xM64i;'.atid one bf the beft methods, is as fol- 

Icwirii; ... 

:^ « *[^g ^f the French berries one pound, 

" of fuftic wood in chips half a pound, and 

^ of pfearl-artles one jpoiind. iBoil them in 

" the tin boiler, with a gallon and a half of 

'^ W^er, fbr ari lioiir : and then ftrain off the 

^ tindlUrfe through flannel while the fluid is 

^* bofling hot. Having prepared in the mean 

*\ tittle a folulion of a pound and a half of 

^[ ahim^ put it gradually to the tindure, fo 

^f long as an ebullition (hall appear. Proceed 

' ' I 2 " then 

ii6 Of "the Substances 
" then to wafh the fediment as in the man-- 
** ner direded for the lakes ; and, being 
" brought by filtering through paper with a 
*^ linnen-cloth to a proper confiilence, dryJl 
*' on boards in fquare pieces." 

Browq pink may be made of the cuttle- 
fifli bone diflblved in aqua fortis, in the mannex 
defcribed p« 58 for lake : and, in thatcafe, the 
precipitation may be made with this foludon 
inftead of the folution of alum, by adding it 
to the tindlure fo long as it appears to makf 
any ebullition, on the mixture. The folutions 
of the alum and cuttle-fifli bones may be o- 
therwife mixt together, and ufed for the fame 
end; which will be found much better than 
that of the cuttle-fifh bone alone : for though 
the common opinion is, that lake or brown 
pink will ftand better, when the bafis is 
cuttle-fifh bone, than when it is earth of aluni«, 
yi5t the earth of alum is neceflary for attrad:- 
ing and bearing down with it the tinging mat- 
ter : which, e^cially that of the Frendi ber- 
ries, is apt to remain diflblved in the fluid, and 
to be carried off^ with it in wafliing the brown 

Brown pink is alfo made without the means 
of falts in the following manner. 

" Take two pounds of the berries; and 
"^^ boil them in a gallon of water for two 
^' hours J and then flrain oflf the tindhirc 
** carefully through flannel. Prepare in the 
" mean time a pound and a half of cuttle-fifh 
" bone, by feparating the foft inner part, 

" whick 


USED IN Painting. 117 
^ which is capable of being reduced to pow- 
** der, from me hard exterior part, that muft 
*^ • be thrown away, and levigating it well with 
•^ water on a marble. Add then the cuttle- 
** fifh bone to the tin<5lure, and evaporate 
** them in balneo till the matter becomes of 
** a ftifF confiftence ; when the whole being 
well mfact by grinding, it may be laid on 
boards to dry/' 
The goodnefs of brown pink muft be judg- 
ed of by its tranlparency, and force of colour, 
t^hcn mixed with oil: but its qualities of ftand- 
ing well, and not fattening in oil, which are 
lx)th defefts that frequently attend it, can on- 
ly be afcertained by trial and experience. 

Of bijire. 

Biftre is the burnt oil extrafted from the 
feot of wood. It is a brown tranfparent co- 
lour, having much the fame effed: in water 
painting, where alone it is ufed, as brown 
pink in oil. Though this colour is extremely 
ferviceable in water colours, and much valued 
by thofe who know and can procure it, yet 
it is not in general ufe here, on account, I 
imagine, of its being not eafily had of a per- 
fca kind ; for I have never heard of any that 
^ good, except what has been brought from 
Prance. Perhaps the principal reafbn for this 
is, that dry beech-w^ood affords the beft foot 
fot making it ; and it is not eafy to procure 
fudi here without mixture of the foot of green 
I 3 wood, 

ii8 Of THE SuBS.T An<:e.» 
wood, or other combuftiblcs that depi:ayc. ill 
for this purpofe : or it is poflible,. th^t they^ 
\yho have pretended to prepar.?, it, havq bqea 
ignorant of the- proper means y theje uot be-, 
ing any recipe or dire^SipnjS iij booltfj ^a* 
treat of thefc, niatters, fj:oj» whence tHeyi 
couJd learn them. 

Biiir^ may, hpwever, bg prepared v?ithi 
great eafe in the following manner- 

** Take any Quantity of fpot of dty \weod, 
*^ but let it be of beech, whwe-evec tb^t, aip^ 
*^ be procured. Put it intp. water in. thi?/p]»vw 
«^ portion of two pounds to a gallon-; ajid; 
" boil them half ap hpur. Then> after t^^j 
" fluid, has ftopd fome little- tinae. to fctti^ 
" but while yet hot, pour off the clearer part 
" from the earthy fedinjent at the bottom; 
" and if on ftanding longer ij form another 
" ^arthy^^ fedimpnt, repeat tbp lame- mcrfjqd : 
" but this {hpuld be dpneonlv while the fluj^ 
*^ remains hot Evaporate, then the fli?id, tp; 
*' drynefs: ^nd. what req:^^ins wiU be &Q€)dt 
" biftre^ if the foot wa? of a proper kind- * 

The goodnefs of biftre maybe perceived. by. 
its warm deep brown coloqr, and tpanf^QOcy* 
when moiftened with wafer, ' . 

Of brown oker^ 

Brown oker is a.foflile earth,, die fame. witlie 
the other ok^r^, except with, regard, to purity^. 
and the teint of its colour, which depends, Qttr: 
calcination, either in the. earjh-Or: artifidaJiy., 


rsED TN Pain-ting. rrg 

It is of z warnii brown or foul ortnge colour ; 
and, as it can be abfohitely dfepfended upon 
ibr ftanding, it is valued by fome in nicer 
kinds of painting, but moff ufed, being of 
▼ery low price, for coarfef purpofes. 

Wheb brbvhr oker is ufed for more delicate 
khrdsT of painting, it ought to be well levigated 
aftar it comes* out of the hand's of the colour- 
menv if had of them in the gfofs ftate in whicb 
it? is eommoniy fold : but whoever would have 
itmtkn mciflrperfed: cohdition, muft walh it 
over: which treatment fhould indeed be be- 
ffcivredron all jftgnkdnts of an- earthy texture. 

Oy tmhre. 

Umbrc is an ochrous cardrof a brown co- 

l<!3iar. It was formerly ufed in moff kinds of 

painting; but is at prefent neglefted except 

ty fome in vrater colours. It is valuable on 

account of its= property of ftanding well, which 

it KflBS i» common with moft other native 

earths ; and it is fuppofed to have a more dry- 

iBgqu^ity than other okers, which has oc- 

cationed it to be much ufed in the makings 

drying. oils, the japantiers gold-fize, and the 

Uack oil lacquer. 

The umbre is frequently burnt previous tq 
itis being ufedj which renders it more eafy to 
be levigated ; but it gives it at the fame time* 
arecMer hue. Whedier it be ufed in a burnt 
orunbumtnatte, it is neceffary, however, to 
wafla it over, when it is ufed in miniature 
I 4 painting, 

I20 OftheSubstances 
painting, or for ariy nicer purpqfes ; and that ii\ 
all the preparation it requires. 

Of ajphaltum. 

Afphaltum is a bituminous oil found in the 
earth in feme parts of Afia, and probably 
clfewhere. It has a warm brown colour; 
and, retaining in fome degree its traniparency 
when dry, it anfwers the end of brown pink 
in oil painting, with the additional advantage 
of being fecure from flying. It is not in ge^ 
neral ufe, nor probably eafily to be procured 
pure ; but it is certainly ufeful, when to be 
o^btained good. The only objeftion I have 
ever heard to it is, that it turns fometimcs 
blackifli ; but I never faw an inftance of that, 
though I have known it ufed by feveral : and" 
believe that appearance is not owing to any 
change in its colour, but to that denfity of its . 
fubftance which it contrafts in drying ; and 
which fhould be allowed for in the application 
of it. 

There is no preparation necefTary to afphal-s* 
tum previous to its ufe; but it ought to be 
carefully preferved in a proper phial with a 
wide neck ; otherwife it is fubjeft to dry, and 
become too thick for the purpofes of painting. 

Afphaltum is very liable to be adulterated 
by the mixture of turpentine, and other cheap 
fubftances of a balfamic conMence, with it ; 
iind it is not eafy to diftinguifh th? fraud, but 
by the appearance : when the afphaltum is 


USED IN Painting, I£I; 

good^ it ought to be perfedly traniparenti but: 
of a warm deep A>rown colour. 

Of the Spanijh juice ^ or the extraSl of liquorice. 

The 5panifh juice is the fucculent p?ut cf 

the liquorice root, extracted by decoftion in 

water; and then ftrained off from the woody 

or undiflblvable part of the root, and evapo«* 

rated to drynefs* It is fometimes prepared in 

tWs country, but moftly brought from abroad: 

and is now much ufed as a brown colour in 

miniature painting from its requiring no trou^ , 

l)lc to procure it, or render it fit for immediate 

\ile ; and from the fcarcity of good biftre : 

"which neverthdefs, when it is to be had, is 

,^;reatly preferable to the Spanifh juice ; as well 

^>n account of the clearnefs of its colour, as 

^om its being free from that vifcid, or fticky 

quality, whidi attends the other on the. leaft 


Class VIII. Of white colours. 
Of white fake. 

^TTHITE flake is lead corroded by 
V V means of the preffipgs of the grape 5 
^and confequently in faft a cerufs prepared by 
"^Jie acid of grapes. It is brought here from 
italy ; and far furpafles, both with regard to 
^Ae purity of its whitenefs, and the certainty 
^jF its ftanding," all the cerufs, or white lead, 



fttMahtr^ iw CiOttm&n. It k u&d in oil mA 
varnifli painting-for all purpofefi^ V^hcre a very ^ 
clean white is required : but no kind of cerufs 
otight to^be U&di»^wiiter colours' fo^ paintinft^ 
that are intended to endure time ; as it wUl 
g^heratty turrt-MHcfev ai4d si^ar, attehgth^ as 
if thte-Ifeftcf itfetf'hifti bdcft uM inftea^ of? aD^ 
I^ttpantitWi' df^ itr 

Whfte* M^t k' flftidiy h^ of th^ coldwmeiiP 
iA' a prafiai^ ilMd'r tifnde^ the i^attis oi^ fladte^ 
whftfe : being tet^^ted' a«s* fe^ed up: wifl*- 
{fkrdti, M& itio^ fr^qu^gntfy ^th white kid^L 
or rii!ucH wbi^ fophiftidation^. Wb^emi^: 
tfiefrefofe, WeraBi'» Ifc ceftatocf ufitt|gthis<pigi*". 
nieht pure, fliould procuw fhewJritd flake M' 
Idtujy, as^ it Is brought? oVei* ; afld tevigaoiar 
tfecfflfelvcs: x^rafliittg it over alfo; and, ilf it 
b& neceffary, in order to th& cAaking it worfc- 
more freely, they may grind if tip aftefwante 
with ftarch, in the proportion^ diey flialt fiftdr 
on trial moft fuitable to their purpofe. 

The teft of goodnefs in white flake is the 
degree of whitenefs ; which muft be diftin- 
guifhed by comparing it with a fpecimen of 
any other parcel .after it has b6en rendered of 
due finenefs. But where it is fufpefted to be 
adulterated by any other mixture than that of 
white lead, the fophifl:ication, and proportion 
of the fpurious matter, may be afcertained by 
the fame means' as are below advifed to be 
ufed for the examination of white lead. 

irsso IN Paintino; ixj 

White had. 

WHtc liead or ceru& is die corrofion on raft 
ojEicadfecm^d by means of vinegar. 

It isr inade in our owa countiy ; and is much, 
dbfi^per tboia. white flake; buc in&rior ini whites* 
njp4i; aod the o^r qualities which rendec this 
pigiaent advaotageous in. painting. It iBy how« 
evsqr^^dhe white employed' for all common, pur** 
pofes in oil painting ; and alfb the body or iSa^ 
li(ibafifrQ£ .die- paint in many mixt coloursy 
wl^re, the. teiat isof a* lighter nature^ or the: 
crIqww^ pigpaientei will, bear diluting^ withl. 

'. It isr n^e. by dipping,, or hniftiing, plater 
o^UfStdm^yineg^, or any^ other cheap acidr 
aodipuJ^tif^^em ina cellar on any oool damp/ 
pl,ace.:. bHtae this is carried! on. as a large: mai* 
nufadbam> by thofe who are- coaceraod in:iti.' 
and' who can. confequently aiFord it at Zi mudr^ 
lower rate than any can prepare it for their 
own uib,. it- is- unneceflary to enter oa^a further 
iietail withjefped to the manner. 

There is^no previous preparation, necei&iy, 
in. the . cafe' of white lead j to its . ufe ; except 
wafliing-^ over where, it is intended for mere 
delicate, pwpoies ; but then- indeed it is al^ 
ways bcft to fubftitute the flake white. 

Notwithftanding the low price of white lead, 
^e^i being: confumed in great quantities, it:i& 
ibr the .moft part adulterated by. the manufac- 
turers, o^ of w^olefale dealers in it Theoom-* 


124 Op the Substances 
mon fbphiftication is with chalk or powdered 
talc ; as being the cheapeft ingredients with 
which it can be mixt without changing too 
much its appearance. This in a leffer degree 
is of no great moment; as they only diminifh 
the quantity of body or covering matter in the 
paint ; but when in a greater proportion, they 
not only produce a great lofe by renderings a* 
larger quantity neceflary to do the fame work, ' 
but deprave the paint highly with refpedl to itS" 
other qualities. 

The adulteration of lead white may be ijioft 
cafily examined, by comparing a piece of any 
that is fufpeded with another piece, known to 
be pure, of equal bulk ; and the difference of 
weight will fliew the fraud where the hetero- 
geneous matter is in great proportion : as it ' 
will neceflarily be of a much lighter nature 
than lead : but, where the quantity of the a- 
dulterating matter is lefs, or the proportion of it 
would be more exactly known, the following 
method fhould be ufed. 

*^ Take an ounce of the white lead fii- 
** fpefted ; and mix it well with about half an 
** ounce, of pearl-afhes, or of any fixt alka- 
*' line fait, and about a quarter of an ounce 
*^ of charcoal duft : and, having put them 
" into a crucible, give them a ftrong heat. 
*^ The lead will by this. means be reduced to 
" its metallic ftate : and, being weighed, will 
^* fhew, by what it may fall fhort of the 
" weight of an ounce, the proportion of the 
*' adulteration; about a tenth part being al- 

•* lowed 

USED IN Painting* iz^ 

.V lowed for the corroding acid which formed 
•* part of the white lead." , 

Of calcined or burnt hart/horn. 

. Calcined hartftiorn is the earth which makes 
the bafis of horn, or indeed all other animal 
iubftances, rendered pure by the aftion of fire ; 
which feparate from it all ialine and fulphure- 
ous fubftances. It., is. pf^the firft degree of 
whitenefs; and not fubjedl to l?e changcci by 
the air or time; and is, on account of thefe 
qualities, almoft the, only white now ufed in 
water painting for nicer purpofes ; white lead 
pr flake, from the objedion before mentioned 
with refp?6l to their turning, black, being 
giieatly difufed, by the more experienced pain- 
ters. . .. .- 
It is not ncceflary, that this earth (hould 
l>e ' produced firom the horn of ftags : for 
any other horn, or indeed any other animal 
iubftance of the more folid kind, will equally 
'well produce it. The common manner g£ 
preparation of this matter is to calcine, in an 
Open furnace, the coal of the horn remaining 
after the diftillation of the fpirit of hartfhorn : 
but what is fold for calcined hartfliorn at pre- 
jfent is more frequently the earth of bones : 
and if there be no further ibphiftication prac- 
tifed, this fubftitution is not in the leaft detri- 
mental. It is, however, I am afraid, too ufual 
to mix chalk or lime with the animal earth : 
.which, by their alkaline power, change the 
1 colour 


<xrf€faf of the vegetable pigments; and Fruftrate 
often the labour of the painter, without fiis 
being able to guefs at the caufe of his mifcar- 
riage. Whoever is dcfirous to prevent this in- 
convenience, and to have the burnt hartfhorix 
pcrfcftly pure, may prepare it eafily thcmfelvcs 
m the following tnahner. 

' ** Take horn, or bones, and bum them fe 
^ any common. iird til! thfcybfecome a cod, 
or^are cdcinied to fome degree of v^^iiteftefe* 
Then, having freed them ttarefulfy from 
any x)dier coal t)r filth, redtrce them to * 
groTs powder j and put ihtm upon a vieSftl 
" made, in form of a comrhon eartficn dSfii, 
*^ of ground crucibles and Sturbridge day, ^ahd 
" well dried : and procure this to be pliactti 
in a tobacco-pipe maker's or potter*s Ittf- 
" nace, during the time they keep their pipds 
" or pots in the fire. The e^rth ttf the horn 
^* or bones being thus thoroughly calcined, k 
*^ muft be very v^^ll levigated vnth watct ; 
'^ and it will be yet further improved by bein^ 
** carefiilly walhed over. 

The perfeftion of calcined hartfliom lies Ik 
its whitenefs and finenefs ; which may be dr- 
ftinguifhed by the fight and touch ; and ii 
purity alfo, which i$ not fo eafily difbovered ; 
but may be known nevcrthelefs by the pour- 
ing oil of vitriol upon any fuipefted quantity; 
which will not produce any ebullition vs^ 
pure calcined horn or bones ; but will imme- 
diately excite an apparent fermentation wit^ 
lime or chalk ; the common matter with 




>Wl^ic|i :^y ^fC; jKjH^iiewtpd, .if ftny .he mixt 

.•^i^.<hi(?ift. ; ... .-: .. 

.. ■ '.-. ■ ,:. .;:i- . . ■ '.;=.— ' 

' Cf- peari nvbite. ^ ■ :-. " 

%er p^u^; of p^ft^r-ljj^lls ?. by^.I /uj)pofe.;the 
;^^lfi«-l^s rarely, be(sn uf€d qq,.?fl9PVptj9£;tlje 
4^^. of; %. pg^^s > )>rl^^^e,• yowfc^cc, 
g^tifl |bp l€^ bpt^^r fw;tl^s.fBrpi?fpt^w»;thc 

; ;'jrtii§ wi^tfoisi ^ifpd in r^wi^qe ipi^qtiqgs^ 

^VV? *haa flft|ce» -white 16^4^ w tr<y .jj^jito^ 

fe,tq ^ice '^he Q|fte;f$ 4^ tiicy ai^? foa;ip4 iWftitbe 
^;^o^, <^4nf41?y the fiwj } Of o^neF^ m 
dry frefh ones by the fire tili th^^^ywiU fiQW»- 
der eafily, (avoiding however carefully inch 
heat as may in^p Iqaft burn thfinj or change 
their colour) ;" to fcrape off ftom thefe fhells 
fJil the putw^rd .©r oth,er pgirtsr diat may not 
jj^.^bf the mpft perfect whitenqfs j and, to 
fcvigate thenj^.ww wUh.y^ the ^q^t\ 
ajjVi wai^ the ipfi«cd(er over tilithp'^ougbfy' fine. 

. Cf, tK^/^^H^m' Spanrflf white. ;. 

The troy white or Spanifh white is chalk 
neutralized by the addition of water in which 
alum is diffolved, and afterwards wafhed over. 

It is ufed by fome in water colours as a white, 
ftrnd may be dius prepared. 

" Take 

12^ Of THE Substances 

" Take a pound of chalk ; and foak it well 
^* in water. Then wafli over ail the fine part; 
*^ and, having poured off the firft water, add 
** another quantity in which two ounces of 
*\ alum IS diflblved. Let them ftand for a day 
^^ or two, ftirring the chalk once in fix or eight 
** hours ; wafli then the chalk again over, till 
** it be rendered perfedUy fine ; and pour off 
** as much of the water as can be feparated 
^* fix)m the chalk by that means, taking oflF 
^ the remainder of the diflblved alum, by 
** feveral renewed quantities of frefti water. 
** After the laft is poured off, put the chalk 
^* into one of the cullender filters, vnih a 
^* linnen cloth over the paper -, and, when the 
** inoifhire has been fufficiently drained off 
** fix)m it, lay it out in lumps to dry on « 
" proper board." 

Of egg-Jhell white. 

Egg- (hell white is ufed by fome in water 
colours; and preferred to flake or the troy 
white. It may be thus prepared* 

" Take egg-fhells ; and peel off the inner 
** fldns. Then, levigate the fhell to proper 
** fijienefs ; and wafli over the powder." 


trsED IN Painting. 129' 

Class IX. Of black colours. 

Of lamp black. 

LAMP black is the foot of oil colleded 
as it is formed by burning. It is a 
brownifli black : but neverthelefs, being of a 
good texture for mixing either with oil or 
water, and drying well with oil, it is the 
principal black at prefent ufed in all nicer 
kinds of painting : for notwithftanding ivory 
black far furpafTes this in colour, the grofs and 
adulterate preparation of all that is to be now 
obtained has occafioned it to be greatly rejefted. 
The lamp black is made by burning oil in a 
number of large lamps in a confined place, 
from whence no part of the fumes can efcape ; 
and where the foot formed by thefe fumes, 
being collefted againft the top and fides of the 
room, may be fwept together and collefted : 
and this being put into fmall barrels is fold for 
life without any other preparation. 

The goodnefs of lamp black lies in the ful- 
nefs of die colour and the being free from duft 
or other impurities. The lightnefs of the fub- 
ilance fiirniflies the means of difcovering any a- 
dulteration if to a great degree : as the bodies 
xvith which lamp black is fubjedl to be fophifti- 
cated are all heavier in a confiderable proportion. 

Of ivory black. 

Ivory black is the coal of ivory or bone, 
formed by giving them a great heat ; all ac* 

K cefs 

I'^o Of the Substances 
cefs of air to them being excluded. It is, 
when pure, and genuinely prepared from the 
ivory, a full clear black; and would be the 
moft ufeful of any> in every kind of painting, 
but that it is apt to dry fomewhattoo flowlyin 
oil. At prcfent, neverthelefs, being prepared 
only by thofe who manufa<ftijre it from bones in 
very large quantities for cot^rfe ufes, and fell it> 
at an extreme low price, it is fo grofsly levi- 
gated, being ground only in hand or horfc- 
mills, and adulterated moreover copioufly with 
charcoal duft, which renders it of a blue caiK 
that it is wholly exploded from all more delicate 
purpofes, and lamp black ufed in the place o£ 
it, though inferior, with regard to the purity 
and clearnefs of the black colour, to thiawJacDc 

As the ivory black, notwithflariding, has. its 
merit in moft kinds of painting, when its prepa^ 
ration is properly managed ; particularly in water 
and varnidi : thofe who defire to have it majc 
prepare it themfelves in perfe<5tk)n by the foU. 
lowing means. 

" Take plates, chips, or fha^iDgs of ivMy; 
'* and ibak them in hot linleed oil; or, if filii^ 
" are to be more ealily procured, they may. be 
*^ uled moiftned with the hot oil. Put dicca. 
" into a velfel which \vill bear the fire; oovgf- 
" ing thxcm with a fort of lid made of day and. 
** fand; which lliould be dried, and the cracks 
*' repaired before the veflel be put into the fire. 
** Procure this veiJel to be placed in a tobaccp- 
** pipe maker's or potter's fiimacc, or aoy other 

•• fucb 



** iuch fire; and let it remain there during one 
•' oi their heats. When it /hall be taken out, 
•' the ivory will be burnt properly 3 and muft be 
*' afterwards thoroughly well levigated on the 
•^ ftone with water; or it fhotrld, indeed ^ to 
•^ have it perfedlly good, be alfb wafhed 
^ over." 

Thoie who have a calcining furnace, fuch 
^ is deferibed p. 22, may very commodioufly 
bttrn the ivory in it ; and the fire need not be 
contifttted leWger th^h while the fumes, tfhat 
arife from the veflel containing the Wary, ap- 
peal to flame. This operation may likewife 
be performed in the fublimihg fufiiace de-* 
fefibed p. 15, by putting the ivory in a retort 
coMed with the fire^lute and filing tile retort 
as is direfted p. j2 for the fufblimers : and a 
proper receiver bteJng fitted to the receivers, 
the fumes will be detained in it, and the fmell 
prevented from Being ih the leaft troublefome : 
the fire muft in this cafe be continued while 
«iy ff:ok frfiWes come over. 

Tfie gDodnefe of ivory black niay be per^ 
c^Merf by its full: black colour, not inclining 
tijd^tttttefe ta Mqc; and by its fiiienefs as a 

Of blue black. 

BIfteblacfc is jJie coal of fonie kittd of #pod, 
or other Vegetable matter, burnt in a cfofe he^iJ 
^ftref the air c^A have no accefei The beft 
femd' is feid to be made of vine ftfrifes arid ten- 

K 2 drUs: 

132 Of the Substances 

drils : but there are doubtlefs many other 
kipds of vegetable fubftances from which it 
may be equally well prepared. It is, when 
good, a fine bluifh black colour ufeful in moil: 
kinds of paintings for many purpofes ; but is 
rarely to be had at prefent well prepared, and 
therefore much neglefted in moft nicer cafes, 

Thofe, who defire to have blue black per- 
feftly good, may prepare it in the maniier a- 
bove direfted for the ivory black, from the 
vine ftalks or tendrils, or any other twigs of 
wood of an acid tafte and tough texture, but 
the leaking in oil, prefcribed for the ivory, 
muft be here omitted. 

The goodnefs of the blue black confifts in the 
cleanncfs and blue caft of its black colour; and 
the perfeftnefs of its levigation, which ihould 
be managed as diredled for the ivory black. 

Of Indian ink. 

Indian ink is a black pigment brought hither 
from China, which on being rubbed with water, 
diflblves; and forms a fubftance refembling inkj 
but of a confiftence extremely well adapted to 
the working with a pencil : on which account 
it is not only much ufed as a black colour in 
miniature painting; but is the black now gene- 
rally made ufe of for all finaller drawings in 
chiaro obfcuro (or where the eifed: is to be 
produced from light and fhade only.) 

The preparation of Indian ink, as well as. of 
the other cornpofitions ufed by the Chinefc as 


^SED IN Painting. t^7 

paints, is not hitherto revealed on any good 
authority ; but it appears clearly from experi- 
ments to be the coal of fifh bones, or fome other 
vegetable fubftance, nGiixed with ifinglafs fizc, 
or other fize ; and, moft probably, honey or 
Aigar candy to prevent its cracking. A fub- 
tftance, therefore, much of the fame nature, 
and applicable to the fame purpofes, may be 
formed in the following manner. 

" Take of ifinglaft fix ounces, reduce it to 
^ a fize, by diflfolving it over the fire in double 
*^ its weight of water. I'ake then of Spanifh 
** liquorice one ounce; and diflblve it alio in 
•* double its weight of water ; and grind up 
•* with it an ounce of ivory black, prepared 
** as above diredted in p. 130, Add this mix- 
^* ture to ttie fize while hot; and fl:ir the 
** whole together till all the ingredients be 
** thoroughly incorporated. Then evaporate 
*.^ away die water in baleno mariae, and cafl: 
** the remaining compofition into leaden 
^* moulds greafed; or make it up in any 
** other form.** 

The colour of this compofition will be e- 
qualiy good with that of the Indian ink : the 
ifinghfs fize, mixt with the colours, works 
widi the pencil equally well with the Indian 
ink : and the Spanifh liquorice will both ren- 
der it eafily diflfolvable on the rubbing with 
water, to which the ifinglafs alone is fome- 
what reluftant ; and alfo prevent its cracking 
and peeling off from the ground on which it 
is laid. 

K 3 CHAP, 



Of the vehicles, dryers, and other 
fubftances ufed in pointing for th)? 
Jaying pn ap4 binding the colours, 

S g C T, I. Of the vehicles^ dryers^ 
&Ct in generaL 

THE qualities neceflary in dl vohides 
(ej^cept in the cafe of crayons) am, that 
they fhould he of a proper degree of fluidtjf to 
fpread the colour,— rthaithey fliould be (rffuch 
a nature, with refpedt to their attradtivo dt%o^ 
fition, as fits them to ctnnbine well with th« 
coloured pigments: — that they fliould becomn 
dry within a due time,— r-and that they fhould 
be capable of leaving a^ proper tmacious 
body ; when they are become dry, as well to 
bind the colours to the ground, as to make 
them adhere to each other where more than 
one kind is ufed. But the combination of all 
tbefe neceflary qualities being to be found in 
no one fubftanee, (except oil in fbme cafes,) 
compofitions have been formed to fui(f the 
feveral intentions in a manner accommodated 
to each particular occafion. 

The principal vehicles hitherto ufed ar^ 
oils, — water, — fpirit of wine, — and turpi^- 

tine j 


^lie: but as water, and fpirit t]f wine, alone, 
trant the proper uhftiibiis confiftence for 
ipreadittg; the colours, and dry away totally 
without leaving ahy glutinous fubftance to bind 
and fix fuch of the pigments as arc of an 
eat'thy or incx)hering texture, gums, — fize, — 
iugaf,-*— 4nd dther fuch vifcid fubftances have 
bei6ti fup^radded to fupply the defefts and ren- 
der thertt of due confiftence and body. 

Though toils fimply ufed are a pcrfeft ve- 
fiicle of colbtfr^ in fbme cafes ; yet in many 
Oth^et^) hiving been found to dry too flow- 
ly, means hkvt been foUght after, by the ad- 
dition- bf other bodies, to alter this quality 
in fuch as may be defective in it ; which hai 
.Ctorife^tifently introduced another kind of fub- 
i%£tilic(£s ihto the materia piftoria ; that froni 
tbcir being employed in the intentioil of re- 
Ttledyihg this fault in the oils, of not drying 
lufficientiy feft^ are called DRTERS. 
Trhe(e ktt eithfer ingredients of a different na- 
ture added tb them, without any preparatidft 
of die oils; or part of the oils themfelves, into 
which this quality has been introduced by the 
op^Mtion of heat, either in their fimple ftate, 
or with the addition of the other drying ingre- 
diefttS : which oil, thus changed, being thence 
rendered capable on its commixture with other 
oil^ to caufe them to dry fafter, is called dry- 
ing bil ; and frequently ufed in the fame in- 
tention as btlief dryers. 

As water in its fimple ftate is for the moft 
part incapable of being a vehicle to colours, they 

K 4 being 

1:6 Of the Substances 

being in general of an earthy or incohering 
texture, it is neceflary to give it a more vifcid 
conliftence, and to join to it a body which will 
dry with fuch a tenacity as may bind the colours^ 
This is done by adding gums, fize, fugar^ 
or fuch other bodies as tend to infpifTate and 
impart to the water a more clammy and thick 
confiftence. But where the colours themfelves 
are bodies of a gummous nature, and will 
diflblve or grow vifcid in water, as gam- 
boge, the juice of the buckthorn berries, of 
of the French yellow berries,. and fuch others, 
further admixture, in the intention of a vehicle^ 
is needlefs, and tends only to weaken the effeft, 
or foul the colours. 

The moft ufual addition where water is 
tifed in nicer paintings, is the tranfparent gums, 
fuch as the gum Arabic, and Senegal : and 
the principal reafon of their preference to o- 
ther bodies, which render water vifcid and 
glutinous, lies in their fufFering the mixture 
made of them with the colours to be inftantly 
reduced to a working ftate, by the addition of 
frefh water, at any time, though the quantity 
originally ufed be intirely dried: by which 
property in the fubftances employed to infpit 
fate the water, colours fo prepared may be 
kept in a condition ready for ufe in fheils, oi 
other proper vefiels, to any length of time 
But the gums have, neverthelefs, a very un- 
toward quality, when mixed with moft kindi 
of pigments, which is their being very liable 
to crack and peel off from the paper or vel 


usEfi IN Painting. 137 

lutn on which they are laid. To remedy 
this, therefore, fugar candy, or what is bet- 
ter, though feldomer ufed, honey is frequent- 
ly added to them; and by fome ftarch, boiled 
flower, and other bodies of a like nature. 

The painting in this kind of vehicle is call- 
ed painting in water colours^ and from its be- 
ing of late moftly confined to fmall objedlsii 
miniature painting : though it was till the in- 
trodudlion of the ufe of oils, which is modern^ 
the only common method of painting in any 
way, fince the encauftic and other methods of 
. the antients have been loft. 

For grofler paintings and purpofes, water U 
rendered a proper vehicle by the admixture of 
. fize ; which is free from that difadvantage of 
cracking and peeling, that attends the ufe of 
the gums : but then, on the other hand, it is 
unfit for nicer purpofes, where only a fmall 
quantity of each kind of colour is required. 
For as the compofitions of the vehicle and 
colours do, in fuch cafe, foon become dry, 
and thofe mixt with fize when once dry will 
pot again commix with water, by rubbing 
with a brufli or pencil, as thofe compounded 
with the gums, it would be endlefs to em- 
ploy fize for fuch purpofes ; as all the kinds 
of colours muft be frcfh ground up and pre- 
pared every time there may be occafion to ufe 
. them. The painting with fize is, therefore, 
confined principally to fcenes, and fuch large 
works ; where it is now called frefco paintings 
I fuppofe from its having been at firit moftly 


138 Of the Substances 

afed for foch pieces as were intended to ht 

placed without doors. 

There are iikewife partictil^ cafes where o- 
liier fluid fub&ances may be ^mploye^ advUil^ 
tageoufly along with the vehideis formed by 
water t as in the cafe of verdigrife, wherfe wa-c 
ter failing to diflfolve it, vinegar, or juicft fef 
rue^ as was before tnentkmed) (hbuW be fiib* 
ftituted in its place: but they are in ftd bnly: 
natural compounds of water, and what HtWy 
be wanting to make the pigment diifo!*e In, 
, or commix with it. 

Spirit of wine, as a vehicle for ColouKj is litefc*- 
wife infufficient to the end without being cofin- 
pounded with other fubftances : as it wanes a 
proper thickncfe or vifcidity, either to fufpchd 
the pigments, or to bind and fix them to the 
ground when dry. It is, therefore, found 
neceflaiy to diffolve in it fuch gummous 01^ 
refinous bodies, as feed or fhell lac, ttiaftid, 
fanderac, or refin; which anfwer th€ fam^ 
purpofe here, as gum Arabic in water. A 
vehicle, however, formed from this mi)^- 
ture, has fome advantages over all others ; as 
the colours are fo defended by the gummous 
or refinous bodies, that the moft tender kinds 
ftand very well; and retain their beauty to 
any length of time, if no violence impair them. 
The ufe of this kind of vehicle is called paiht^ 
ing in varnifh 5 which art has been greatly 
improved and extended within thefe few years, 
by the manufacturers at Birmingham; and 
will probably hereaftex, when the conveni- 

USED IN Painting. 13^ 

cnccs and advantages of it are more generally 
known, be applied to purpofes of greater ac- 
count, with refpeft to the fpe'cies of painting. 
It has been lately a pradice with fome e- 
min^nt portrait painters, to make a compound 
vehicle by mixing oils and varnifti together : and 
riiis likcwifc is, by them, cMcd painting in var- 
nijh'y though it ought, I think, rather tb be call- 
ed painting with varnijh. The advantage that 
has principally induced them to ufe this me-, 
thod, is the quick drying of the colours, which 
is the rcfuit of it : but time will fhew them 
another yet greater advantage in it ; I mean 
th^ prefervation of the colours, to which it 
will greatly contribute. The varrtifti ufed for 
this purpofe muft be formed of oil of turpen- 
tine : but the particular compofition wc fliali 
have occafion to fpeak of below* 


Of oils in general. 

OILS of a nature fuitcd to this purpofe 
have been the moft commodious and 
advantageous vehicle to colours hitherto dif^ 
covered 3 as well becaufe the undtuous con- 
fiftence of them renders their being fpread and 
laid on more expedite than any other kind 
of vehicle; as, becaufe when dry they leave a 
ftrong gluten or tenacious body, that hoWs to^ 


140 Of the Substances 
gether the colours, and defends them much 
more from the injuries either of the air or ac- 
cidental violence, than the vehicles formed ol 
v^atcr. Several qualities are not, however, 
conftantly found in the kind of oil propei 
for painting, which are, neverthelefs, indii^ 
penfibly requifite to the rendering them a 
perfedt vehicle for all purpofes ; but the want 
of fome of them can in many cafes be difpen^ 
fed with 5 and one of them, we fhall iirft men- 
tion, remedied by art in a great degree* 

The principal and moft general quality tc 
be required in oils, is their drying well; which, 
though it may be affifted by additions, is yet 
to be defired in the oil itfelf ; as the efFeft oi 
the pigments ufed in it are fometimes fuch as 
counteract thole of the ftrongeft dryers, and 
occafion great delay and trouble from the 
works remaining wet for a very long time i 
and frequently never at all becoming dry as it 
ought: and indeed there are fome parcels ol 
the oils which have this vice in an irremedi- 
able degree. 

The next quality in oils is the Hmpidnefs or 
approach to a colourlefs ftate, which is iikewifc 
very material ; for where they partake of a 
brown or yellow colour, fuch brown or yel- 
low intermixes itfelf neceflarily with the teint 
of the pigments ufed in the oil, and of con- 
fequence depraves it. But befides the brown 
colour which may appear in tlie oil when it 
is ufed, a great increal'e of it is apt to fuc- 
ceed in time, if the cil be not good : and 
1 therefore 

psE'D IN Painting. 141 

therefore this ftiould be guarded againft as 
much as poflible, where it may be of ill con-r 

Both thefe qualities are, however, greatly 
remedied by keeping the oils a long time be^ 
fore they be ufed ; and even linfeed oil, tho* 
much the moft faulty in thefe refpedls, is 
greatly improved by time; and fomctimes 
rendered fit for almoft any purpofe whatever. 

There are three changes that oils of the kind 
proper for painting are liable to fuffer in their 
nature, and which afFedl them as vehicle?, 
that are confounded by painters under one 
term, viz. fattening ; notwithilanding they 
are brought about by very different means, 
and relate to yery different properties in the 

The firft is the coagulation before fpokeii 
of by admixture of the oils vs^ith fome kinds 
of pigments unduly prepared. This indeed h 
galled the fattening of the colours s but the 
real change is in the oils j and the pigments are 
only the means of producing them. Thi$. 
<:hange is generally a feparation pf the oil into 
two different fubftances : the one a vifcicjl 
pitchy body, which remains combined with 
tihe pigment : the other a thin fluid matter, 
which divides itfelf from the colour and thick- 
er part. This laft appears in very various pro- 
portions under different circumftances ; and 
in fome cafes is not found at all, where the 
pigment happens to be of a more earthy and 
^alkaline nature : for then only a thick clammy 


t42 Of the Subst*a»C£« 
fubftance, that can fcarcely be fqucezed out of 
the bladder, if it be put up in one, is tb« 
refult of the fattening. This fattening not 
only fucceeds when the oil and pigments are 
mixed together, and kept for any length df 
time in bladders or otherwife ; but even fome* 
times after they have been fpread or laid dfl 
the proper ground : when, inffead of dryings 
the feparation will happen ; and one part of 
the oil will run off in fmalt drops or ftreams, 
while the other will remain with the colouit 
without fbewing the leaft tendency to dry. 

The fecond is a change, which happens in^ . 
oils from long keeping, by which they grow- 
more colourlefe, become more ready to dty, 
and acquire a mor6 unftuous confiftence. Itt 
this cafe the oils are faid to become Jat ; ihch 
diey are in a very different ftate from that a- 
bove mentioned, which is caufed by unfoit-' 
able pigments: for when this change docaf 
not exceed a certain degree, it is, as 1 befoiif 
feid, every way a great improvement of A* 

The third is a change produced by artificial 
means, from expofing the oil a long time tq 
the fun and air,^ (of the particular manner afldf 
ufe of which we (hall fpeak more fully in it» 
proper place) whereby it is freed from itsT 
grofler and more feculent parts, and rendfere'ct 
Goloijrlefs and of a more thick and lefe fluid 
confiftence, than can be produced by any ci- 
ther treatment : but at the fame time madte 
more reluftant to dry, particularly with ver- 
I milion. 

vsiSB^ IN Paint iNG. 143 
xiwjipn, l^e, PruiSiaa blue, brown pinkv md 
iCwg's yellaw;, mi induqd with ©dsier propcaj- 
U» that difqualily it ^ eoa^tmoa u{e as a 
vehicle in painting. Thefe qualities, ncyerw 
thelefs, may be rendered advantageoufly fub- 
fervient to fome particular purpofes : though 
the nature, and even the preparation of tat 
oil is lefs underftood at prefent than one could 
imagine it poffible, with regard to a fubftance 
of fo much cgnfequcnce, both to fome kinds 
of painting, and feveral other kindred arts. 
Oils in this ftate a^ cailed alfo fat oils ; tho' 
it is a change that has not the leaft affinity 
with either of the others ; but, on tfee contra- 
ry, differs oppofitdy from both ©f them in 
4^e very eflential circumitancea. 

In fpe^kiug therefore of the fattening of oils 
or colons, attqntio^k fhould; be had to the', not 
^nfoundiBg thefe three feveral kinds,, one 
witii another ; which can fcarcely be avoided 
iit fom^ cafes, but by coiifidering theoccaiioii 
where the term is ufed, and judging from the 
<;ifcuiBflances which kind is meant. 

Tthefc are the feveral qualities by which oib 
2^tCr rendered fiiitable to, or improper for the 
puf pofcs of painting. When they dry quickly,, 
stfe. colourlefs, (efpecially through age,) and arc 
{bca^what fat in the fecond of the above lenfes^ 
of that word^ they are perfed: with refpefl: to . 
the wants of painters : where they dry, tho*'^ 
topfe flowlyj they may, neverthetefs^ be im- 
pFovedto a tolerable fkte by additions : and 
where they aro dtfeoloured, they, may fcrve for 



fome ufes ; but where, as is frequently found, 
they will dry only in a great length of time, 
or not at all, they are abfolutely unfit for this 


Of particular oils^ 
Of linfeed oil. 

LINSEED oil is expreffed from the feed of 
line, by thofe who manufadlure it in large 
quantities, and have mills turned by water ror 
tJic more expeditious difpatch of the work : it 
is the principal oil ufed in all kinds of paint- 
ings ', or, indeed, the only kind, except for 
Ibme very nice purpofes, where its brownnefe 
renders it unfit. The general defefts of lin- 
feed oil are this brown colour, and a tardinefs 
in drying ; both which are in a much greater 
degree in fome parcels than others; and there 
is fometimes formed fuch, as, inconfequence of 
its being commixed with the oil of fome other 
vegetable (accidentally growing with it) that 
partakes of the nature of olive oil, can- 
not be brought to dry by any art or means 

The goodnefs of linfeed oil, therefore, con- 
fifts in its nearer approach to a colourlefs ftate; 
jind in its drying foon. Its flate, with refpedt 


u s^^ c In P a t n t I n g.^ 145 

16 the jfirft quality, may of courfe be diftinguifh- 
ed by infpedtion only : but the latter can only 
be diicovered by aftual trial of it ; for there is 
1I6 particular appearance, or other perceptible 
niark, attending this quality. 

Linfeed oil is in general ufed without any 
other preparation than the mixing it with the 
proper- dryer : but the keeping it a conlider- 
nble time before it be ufed, will always be 
ibUnd to improve it. It is, neverthelefs, ufed 
£)metimes, after it is prepared into the ftate of 
drying oil, not to commix and make other 
unprepared parcels dry, but alone,, as the fole 
vehicle of the colours. The convenience of 
4iia is the fpeedy drying of the paint fo com- 
pofed ; but it cannot be praftifed where the 
beauty of the colour is of the Icaft confequence j 
for the oil imparts in this cafe a very ftrong 
brown to the mixture. - 

If * ' ■ ■ 

' • ; Of nut oil. 

• Nut oil is th^ oil of walnuts prefled out of 
:tbe fa^rnels by means of a fcrew-prefs. It is 
ufbd for the rfti^dng with flake white, or other 
.pigments, where the clcarnefs of the colour 
is of great confequence, and would be injured 
by the brownnefs of linfeed oil. 

It is ufed without any other preparation 
than keeping, which is always of advantage 
to it,, both with regard to its colour and qua-^ 
Iky of drying. 

l. The 

146 Of the SuBsrANCts 

The faults of nut oil, Whtn not gocd^ Hi 
the being turbid, and not perfeftly colourleft) 
and the drying too flowly : the firft fhew^ it* 
fclf ; but the other muft be examined by triaL" 
If, however, there be iid adulteration itt the 
cafe, time will generally cUre it bf all thcfc 

Whoever would have nut oil perfectly good, 
fhould peel off the fkin of thfe kernels Mol« 
they be prefled, in the fame nianrier a& wheA 
ihey are eaten : for the ikihs contain an auid 
oil of a very different nature from that ef tH* 
white fubftance of the kernel j tvhich is ex- 
tremely fiibjedt to turn brown, or feven bltidit'; 
and confequently tinge the odicf whfcn C0tD^ 
mbct with it. 

Of poppy oil 

Poppy oil is exprefled from the ripe feeds o0 
poppies, in the fame manner as nut oil fron^ 
the walnuts. Its qualities and ufes, as like — 
wife its defeifls and the remedy for thetn^ ar^ 
alfo much the fame as thofe of the nut oil s 
only when it is perfedly good, it is mdrfc clear" 
aild limpid, and will dry better than the be^ 
nut oil whatever. 

Oil offpike and lavender. 

Oil of fpike or lavender are eiTehtial o* 
diftilled oiIs» obtained by dlftilling the ipilcc 
or any other lavender, with vrater. It is 

trsED IN Painting. 147 

uftd in painting only as the vohicle for laying 
Ofl the compofition formed of the flax and co- 
lours in enamel painting; which by its fluidity 
k rfcndcfg capable of being worked with z 
pencil 4 its volatile nature afterwards making 
it wholly dry away without leaving any matter 
that might afFed: the fubftances of the enamel; 
which would be otherwife, if any but an ef- 
iential oil were ufed. 

Oil of fpike or lavender is fubie<5t to be 
adulterated by the oil of rofemary ; which, 
tlwugh much of the fame nature, yet being 
of a iefs unftuous or thick confiflence, is not 
fo well adapted to make the colours fpread 
and work well with the pencil. This adul- 
teration is not eafily difcoverable, where it 
cannot be diftinguifhed by the fmell ; and the 
beft method therefore to be certain of the 
goodncfe of the oil of fpike or lavender for 
fiiis purpofe, is to rnake an aftual trial of it. 


Of particular dryers. 
Of drying oil. 

DRYING oilis formed cS linfeed oil, 
prepared by the means of boiling, iotae^ 
tnxies wid:i the addition of other fu^ances, 
and ^HDctimes without. The fubfhuaces add- 
h 2 cd 

148 Of the Substances 
cd to oil, in this preparation, are very various 9 
there being many different recipes in the hands 
of different perfons 5 fome of which prefcribes 
a lefs number of ingredients, and others al- 
moft every kind. Thefe fubftances are, white 
vitriol,^ fugar of lead, feed lac, guiH niafHc^ 
gum fapdarac, gum animi, gum copal, umber, 
colcothar, litharge, and red lead. But the 
firft eight of thefe articles being dearer ; when. 
great quantities of drying oil are prepared for 
common purpofes, they are ufually omitted } 
and the others, or fome of them, only em- 
ployed : and indeed if the linfeed oil be goody 
and boiled for a proper time even alonCy it 
will have nearly the fame prq)erties, as if the 
moft efficacious of thefe fubftances be added 
to it. I will, however, give two of the moft 
approved recipes for preparing drying oil, with 
the addition of the ufual ingredients. The 
one for the kind fuppofed proper for the more 
nice and delicate painting: the other for com-* 
,*mon work. 

" Take of nut or poppy oil one pint, ol 
*^ gum fandarac two ounces, of white vi- 
" triol and fugar of lead each one ounce: 
*' Boil the whole, till the folid ingredients bi 
" diffolved, and the mixture be of the colou. 
" of linfeed oil." 

This oil will dry faft ; and, mixed with a^ 
.equal quantity of nut oil, and the proportio 
of oil of turpentine each perfon may find rti^^ 
convenient to ufe, will render any other o 
capable of drying well without the Icaft hzssax 


USED IN Painting.' 149 
of fattening, however diibofed to it : and it 
may be, therefore, ufed for all nicer purpofes, 
where common drying oil would be injurious 
hy the brownnefs of its colour. 

Drying oil may be well prepared for coarfer 
Tvork according to the commonly approved 
method, in the following manner. 

*' Take of linfeed oil one gallon, of litharge 

of gold or filver one pound, of white vi«* 

triol half a pound, of fugar of lead, gum 

Arabic, and umber, each a quarter of a 

pound. Boil them fo long as the difcolour- 

ing the oil, which is the gradual confe- 

quence of the boiling, will permit it : for 

the oil muft not be burnt till it approach 

too near to blacknefs." 

The drying oil prepared in a fimpler man- 

er, as by thofe who make it for fale, will 

ot differ much from the above in its qualities, 

lOugh it be prepared as follows. 

^' Take linfeed oil one gallon, red lead one 

"^ ^ pound and a half. Boil them fb long as the 

^^ colour will bear it/* 

This laft may be much improved by the 
^^^dition of gum fandarac ; . and will then be 
J>erhaps more ufeful than the more complex 
^nd expenfive compofition above given. In- 
deed a gallon of linfeed oil, in which two 
pounds of gum fandarac, and one pound of 
gum Arabic has been diflblved, is the dryingj 
oil I would recommend for common purpofes f 
and it need ^ot be boiled near fo high as that 
foljd in the fhops j for, as the gums give it a very 
l# 3 confiderabit 

150 Of the Substances 
confiderable body, the colours may be broughf 
to a proper (late for working by a little of this 
with a larger proportion of fpiiit of turpentine, 
either with or without the addition of unpre-^ 
pared oil ; and confequently the proportion of 
brown given to the colours is lefs, than where 
a greater quantity of the oil muft be ufed. 

The drying oil of any kind may be boiled 
in an earthen pipkin, or iron pot : but great • 
care muft be taken in the operation, if it be 
performed within any building, that the mat- 
ter do not boil over ; wliich, when it happens, 
greatly endangers the firing fuch building. It 
is therefore much better, efpecially where any 
larger quantities are made, to have an iron 
furnace that can be moved about, or to build 
an occafional one of bricks ; which, fw this 
purpofe may be done without mortar ; and 
need only be a cylinder of bricks, in whidi a 
frame with bars to fiipport the fewel is fixed, 
with a hole about eight inches above the bars 
for feeding the lire, and another in the high* 
eft part ot the hollow for venting the inx>ke« 

When the dr\'ing oil is taken off the fire, it 
may while yet hot be ftrained through flannel; 
but if umber, or any ingredients which will 
not dillolve, are added to it, it ihould firft 
ftand to fettle, that the clearer part may be 
poured olffrom the groffer: and, after ftrain-r 
ing, if any fediment appear, the oil ftiould be 
again decanted oit from it, and the foul part 
heated ai^d pailcd again through the flannel. 


VSED IN Painting* 151 

0/ oil of turpentine. 

Oil of turpentine is diftilled from turpentine. 
It is an ethereal oil, which quickly exhales 
in the air ; and if piixt with linfeed, nut, or 
poppy oils, in flying off carries with it the more 
volalile part of fuch oils, and caufes them to 
dry much fooner than they would otherwife. 
On this account it is very generally ufed as a 
dryer to mix with the other oils : for which 
purpofc it has greatly the advantage over dry- 
ing oil, with regard to colour, as it is pcrfeft- 
ly tran4>arent and white. 

It is ufed without any other preparation than 
mixing it, either alone or together with drying 
oil, with the other oils and colours : and it is 
not fiibjefl: to any adulteration, except the diA 
folving crade turpentine or refin in it ; which 
do not greatly injure it with regard to this ap- 
plication of it: fuch adulteration may, how- 
ever, be perceived, when in a greater propor- 
tion, by a flight degree of yellow colour and 
glutinous confiftence, the unfophifticate being 
quite limpid and without the leafl: tenacity 5 and 
^very degree may be difcovered by evaporat- 
ing part of what is fufpeded with a very gentle 
lieat, when a refinous or terebinthinatc fub- 
jftance will be left behind, if any fuch have 
licen mbct with the oil. 

L4 Of 


Of fugar of lead. 

Sugar of lead is a chemical preparation of 
lead, l^y dKTolving it in vinegar, and reducing 
the fait, formed, to chryftals by evaporation : 
but it is to be had fo conftantly, and at fo 
much Icfs cxpence at the (hops of chemifts 
find (Iruggift*;, than it can be made in finall 
quantities, that it is neediefs to give any more 
particular recipe for the making it for the pur- 
pofes of painting. It is fuppofed to have a 
quality, when mixt with oils, of rendering them 
much more prone to dry: and on that account 
is very frequently ufed, as well in the making 
drying oil, as in the common ulc of the oils; 
where it is j';round up with tliem together with 
the colours. It requires no other treatment, 
but to 1h* well commixt with the oil with 
which it i? ufcd : and it is not fubje^St to any 
adulteration if it b<" obtained in its chrylballine 
tbr'v)! i?na i*A>t powdered, for there the appearance 
ttlono is luttKient to ihew whether it is clear 
ftvm any mixcure of heterogeneous matter. 

It i$^ r.v^Jwithtlanding, the general confix 
cktKV whk'h ivttanrr> hive in Ais lubllance as 
a dr>^rr> iVobxxis whecher the uie of it, except 
in the pfcr^iration or' drrai^ cil. auWen in 
any ui>.«^'<! xi'^e.-w the c;t<i ; ibr thco^ k 
ixiJ^Y JL'--^:^: :hr bci: in 5ax>drK::i!g thar chao^ 
in CiU wKc>. rxr:x;ci':> tLKru Ki-^-ing cJ> TCt it 
^^^v 'K'^c :v.^X:"'l-uY Xj^cw^ :cuj: iay ib:ii et^ 


trsED IN Painting. 151 
is very probable, that the fuppofition of ikm 
luas been the cx:cafion of its being introduced 
i-nto praftice, as a dryer that will operate on 
<:>ils by barely mixing it with them. 

Of white vitriol. 

White vitriol is a mineral fubftance found in 
Hungary, and many other places. It is ufed 
itk the fame manner, and for the fame purpofes, 
in painting, as fugar of lead ; with which it is 
generally joined in pradlice, both in the mak- 
ing drying oils, and the admixture with the 
c:ommcn oils and colours. It is not liable to be 
^auiuiteratcd, on account of its low price : but it 
• lias not been unufual to fell common green vi- 
triol or coperas calcined to whitenefs in the place 
K^f it : and as they are very different fubftanceSj 
tliis ought to be guarded againft. Thofe who 
are acquainted with the appearance of both 
may eafily diftinguifh them by view ; but o- 
thers may make themfelves certain they are 
xie>t impofed upon in this particular, by put-p 
ting a fmall piece into the fire on a poker, or by 
any other method; when, if the parcel in quel- 
tion be true white vitriol, no rednefs will come 
upon it ; but, if it be the green vitriol calcined 
to whitenefs, it will turn red by this greater 
heat, and have the appearance of Indian red, 
or brown oker. 

What was faid of the dubioufnefs of the 
efficacy of fugar of lead ^s a dryer, except in 
the preparation of drying oil, holds equally 


154 O*" THi Substances 

good with refpeft to white vitriol 2 ^ougli 
K'em a ftrong perfiiaiion of the contrary, it is 
ufeij V€Ty generally, and in a large proporr 


Of the fuhfiances ufed for rendering 
mater a proper vehicle for colof^rs. 

Of gum Arahic. 

GUM Arabic is a tranfparent gum brougfit 
from Africa and the Levant, that is eafily 
foluble in water, which it renders vifcid. From 
thefe qualities, and the drying with a confider- 
able degree of tenacity, it is the beft ingredient, 
for making an aqueous vehicle for colours, hi- 
therto known. When good, however, as it 
is apt to become perfectly dry, it is fubjedt to 
crack and feparate from the cartoon or grounds, 
on which the colour is laid with it : from 
whence fome mixture becomes neceflary td 
remove this defeifl. 

The goodnefs of gum Arabic piuft be con-*- 
eluded from its tranfparent whitencfs, the be- 
ing perfeftly dry and brittle, and free from all 
dull and heterogeneous matter. Gum Senegal, 
which is of lower price, is frequently fold for 
it: but this fraud m^y be eafily guarded againjft,. 
by taking care to obferve, that it be not foft and 

clammy % 

vsED IN Painting. 155 

clammy ; which qualities are always in (bme 
degree found in gum Senegal. 

There is no odier preparation neceflaiy for 
gum Arabic, previoufly to being ufed wim the 
water, except powdering it in order to its dit 
fbivihg the more eafily : only it is proper to pick 
out aU brown and difcoloured pieces, or any 
foulncfs that may accidentally be in it. 

Of gum Senegal. 

Gum Senegal is much of the fame natuns 
^s gum Arabic; and applicable to many of the 
fame ufes : but it is apt to retain fome propor- 
tion of meifture, which confequendy renders 
St more ibft and clammy. This property makes 
it, when alone, a lefs fit ingredient for a vehicle 
dfor water colours than gum Arabic : but yet, nc- 
^erthelefs, a third or fourth part of the gumS^ 
^^pegal, mixed with the gum Arabic, will greatly 
^improve it: for, as the gum Senegal is too flow 
^^and reluiftant to the drying perfediy, Co the 
^[ um Arabic on the contrary dries in too great 
^«a degree -, and a due mkture of them therc- 
:afore produces the proper medium or tempera* 
,3Pient betwkt the two extremes. 

The treatment of the gum Senegal, when 
^^ifed in a vehicle for -water colours, muft 
Idc in all other points the fame as the gum 





Size is made of leather boiled in water till it 
become of a vifcid confiftgnce. 

It is a very proper ingredient for a vehicle for 
colours ufed in water in larger works : but its 
reluftance to be rediflblved after it has beea 
mixed with colours, and is become dry, ren- 
ders the employing it incommodious in minia- 
ture painting. Size is commonly prepared in 
great quantities by thofe who jnsJce a trade of 
manufadhiring it, together with glue, from all 
rcfufe pieces of leather and Ikins of beafls : but 
where it is wanted for painting for nicer pur- 
pofes, it fliould be prepared from the cuttings 
and fhreds of the glovers in the follovdng 

" Take any quantity of the fhreds or cuttings 
'^ of glovers leather s and put to each pound 
•* a gallon of water : boil them fix or eight 
" hours, recruiting the water fo that it (hall 
^* not diminilh to lefs than two quarts. Then 
** take it off the firej and ftrain the fluid thro* 
** flannel while hot : and afterwards evapo- 
•* rate it again, till it become of the confift- 
^' qnce of a jelly when cold:' 

Sug^ar, •ind white iiigar candy, are ufed ai 
ingredients to render water a vehicle for colours 
yOk miriatwre painting. The intention of them 


USED IN Painting.' i$y 

is to prevent the colours from cracking when 
mixed with gum Arabic 3 which the fugar pre- 
vents by hindering that perfeft drynefs, and 
great (hrinking, which happens on the ufe of 
gum Arabic alone : and alfb to make the gum 
water work more kindly with the pencil. 
There is no preparation of the fugar and fugar 
candy neceffary before they be ufed, except 
powdering, to make them melt the more 
cafily. * 

Starch. . .•., 

Starch is fometimes ufed inftead of fpgar-> 
candy for mixing with the colours that 'are 
ufed in ftrong gum water, to make them Mroric 
more freely, and to prevent their cracking. : I? 
is a kind of fecret with fome perfons, who^lay 
icoafiderabjleftrefs upon it. ^ \ ". 

► - " ■ . T4 .. : 

, Of ifingkfs. ' /' 

Ifinglafs is a. glue formed from the cartilagfe's 
of a large fifli, ^hich is found in the rivers that 
flow into the northern feas. It is ufed in mi-i 
mature painting, in the fame manner as the 
gums Arabic of Senegal, for rendering water 
a proper vdiicle, by giving it a due vifddity 
for fpreading and binding the pigments of an 
earthy texture. » 



'15^ Of the SuBSTANCl^ 


Of the fubjiances ufed to render fpirit 
of mne a vehicle for colours. 

' Of feed lac. 

SEED lac is a fubftancc formed on the 
boughs of trees by fmall flies, as their 
nidus or habitation. It diflblves in fpirit of 
wine 5 and being left dry again, by the eva- 
poration of the fpirit re-attains its original hard 
and lough texture. It is therefore extremely 
beneficial in defending and fecuring colours 
from any injuries, the air or flight violence 
might do them : but the brownnefs of its co- 
lour, and its not rendering die fpirit of wine 
in which it is difl!blved of a confifl?ence fiiflSi* 
ciently diick and vifcid to fufpend the pow- 
dered pigments when they are commixed with 
it, are defedts which greatly deftroy its value 
as an ingredient for making ipirit of wine a 
proper vehicle for colours. It may, however, 
be improved for this purpofe by the addition 
of turpentine, and other fubftances: as weV 
fhall obferve in its due place. 

The goodnefs of feed lac confifts in its ap- 
proaching towards.a tranlparent colourlcfs ftate, 
and being free from heterogeneous matter and 
opake parts : for, as the brownnefs is its great- 
eft defedt, the diminution of that quality confe- 
quently inhances its value. 


USED IN Painting.* 159 

The preparation of feed lac, for mixing witii 
the^irit of wine, is to pick out, or wain from 
it by nietns of water, all the little woody or 
other feculent parts s and then to pow(ur it 
^grolsly : for if it be reduced to a fine powder 
the whole will ran together, and conere, fo 
:as to hinder the fpirit of wine from commix- 
dhe with thb particles and diflblving diem. 
Thefe who want feed lac for ufing witkcor 
iburs^ where whitenefs or brightnefe arc, de- 
manded, muft pick out the lighteft coloumd 
grains; and ufe them only; referving die 
Srowner for coarfer purpofes, 


Shril lac is a fubftance brought hither in 

^cry thin pieces ; and partaking greatly of d^ 

filature of feed lac : from which neverth^lefs 

Jt differs fo much in fome properties, as clearly 

:ihews they are not the fame fubftance under a 

^lifferent form, as has been fuppofed by many. 

^hell lac diflblves in fpirit of wine as well as 

deed lac ; but never becomes perfedly clear 

«rid tranfparent. To compenfate however for 

^is defeift ; it renders the fpirit much mors 

Vifcid, and capable of keeping the colours fvi- 

ipendied : from whence it derives a confidcra- 

bl^ value in this kind of painting. 

The goodnefs of fhell lac confifls in its ap- 

^oaching to tranfparency and whitenefs ; but 

"it is never found without a great degree of 

Wownnefs. There is no more preparation of 


l6o Gp THE SuBSTANCt* 

ifficll lac than feed lac required previoufly to it$ 
teing ufed for this purpofe with fpirit of wine; 
the. reducing it to grofs powder being thi^ 


Turpentine is capable of diflblving in Ipirit 
of wine, and giving it a vifcid confiftence 5 on 
which account it is fometimes ufed along with 
ctficr bodies to render the fpirit a fit vehicle for 
colours. A ccanpofition formed of it wit!) 
maftic, fandarac, refin, and in fome- cafes 
feed lac, will ferve for purpofes where the 
painted body is aot fubjeft to great rubbing, 
or any violence : but with refped: to hardne& 
aAd durablfenefs, all fuch compofitions fall -far 
fhort of the fblution of fhell lac. : - / 

Turpentine muft be chbfen by its cleameft 
and purity : and requires no preparation previa- 
oully to its being applied to- this purpofe. 

Of the gums majlic and fandarac. 

The maftic and fandarach are much of the 
lame nature ; and applied to the fame purpofe* 
with regard to painting. They are gum reiins 
intirely white and tranfparent when good; and 
diflblve perfeftly in fpirit of wine : on which 
accounts they are ufed for rendering fpirit of 
wine a vehicle for colours : but they are of fb 
loft a nature, and fo ready to melt with a flight 
heat, that the colours laid on with them would 


USED IN Painting. i6i 

iully and be injured even by a gentle handling. 
On this account they require to be mixed with 
ieed lac: and, to infpiflate the mixture fuffici- 

cntly to fufpend the colours, fome turpentine 
is alfo neceflary. 

Maftic and fandarac muft be chofen for 

thtk whitencfs and tranfparency : and require 

xio other preparation for this ufe of them, than 

«X) be well picked and powdered. 

Of re/In. 

Refin is the caput mortuum -or refiduum 
left in the diftillatibn of turpentine for extradt- 
ixig the oil. It is of two kinds, white and 
fati:own : the white is made when the turpcn- 
wAnt is diftilled with water 5- the brown when 
r^o water is added to it. The white' turpentine 
is ufed for rendering fpirit of wine a vehicle for 
crei^ours in the fame manner as maftic or fan- 
darac; with which it agrees in its qualities, ex- 
cr^rt that it is yet lefs hard and more liable to 
fixily on handling : and the fame preparafioa 
«-ri(i treltment is required for it as tor them. 

M chap; 

l62 Of the Substances 


Of the manner of compounding and 
mixing the colours, with their proper 
vehicles for each kind of painting. 

SECT. I. Of the colours proper to be 
ufed with oils^ and the manner of com- 
pounding and mixing them with the 
oils and dryers. 

THE colours proper to be ufed in oil, 
for redy are, vermilion, native cinnabar, 
lake, fcarlet oker, common Indian red, terra dc 
Siena burnt, (and mixt with white), red oker, 
Spanifh brown, Venetian red and red lead : — 
for bliie^ ultramarine, Pruffian blue, ultramarine 
alhcs, verditer, indico, and fmalt^ — foryelkw^ 
King's yellow, Naples yellow, yellow oker, 
Dutch pink, light pink, mafticot, common or- 
piment, terra de Siena, unburnt and mixed with 
white, and turpeth mineral ; — for green ^ terra 
yerte, verdigrife, dilHUed verdigrife, orchryftals^ 
of verdigrife, and PrulTian green ; — for pttrph^^ 
true Indian red ;— for brtyixn^ burnt terra dc Si — 
ena (unmixed with white,) brown pink, browns 
oker, lunbre, and alphaltum ;— for wlnte^ whit^ 
flake, and white lead ;~&r blacky iamp black 

ir S E D I N P A I N T I N G, 163 

ivory black, and blue black : thefe are all the 

colours . which are at prefent in ufe for oU 

painting in this country ; and when they arc 

perfedl in their kinds are fully fufficient to an- 

iWer every purpofe. The immediate prepara- 

^on of them, and the manner of compound- 

Mg them with the oils and dfyers may be 

znanaged thus. 

Okers of every kind, as alfo all the earthy 
^aiix^ metallic bodies, in which are included ul- 
tramarine and its aflies, ought to be well levi- 
gated by a good ftone and muUer, with water; 
•ar^d wafhed over, before they be mixed with 
tHo oils, when they are intended for more de- 
licate purpofes : and lake, brown pink and 
I^ruflian blue, which being of a gummy or 

tlutinous nature, would again acquire a co- 
^efion if levigated in water, may be ground 
to an impalpable powder by adding fpirit of 
^nc to them inftead of the water, in whlclji 
ftatc they will then continue when they again 
become dry 3 and be much more eafily and tho- 
roughly commixed with the oils. Lamp black 
demands no preparation ; nor does the afphal- 
*^ni require to be commixed with oil; but 
^idi fpirit of turpentine to thin it, if it be 
^f too thick a confidence to work with the 

In levigating lake or any of the pinks, as . 
^IfoKing s yellow, Naples yellow,^or verdigrife, 
^ith water or fpirit of wine, great care mujft 
"e taken not to ufe a knife or other iron im- 
plement j which would greatly injure the co- 

M 2 lours. 

164 Of the Substances 

lours. Inftead of fuch knife, a thin piece of 
horn may be employed to take the colours off 
from the ftone, or to fcrape them together as 
they are grinding: and caution Ihould liket^dft 
be ufed with regard . to the boards on which 
they are dried -, and the place where they are 
repdfited during the drying : for the fun or 
duft will be very apt to deprave fome of them 
in this ftate, if they be not well kept out. 

The pigments being thus duly prepared majr 
be ground with the oils, either on a ftone of 
inuYler, when they are wanted in greater (|uan« 
titles ; or are intended to be kept ; or hylht 
pallet-knife, oh the pallet, where they arfe hrii 
thediately to be ufed : but they fhould be per* 
fedly mixed ; or the oil will be apt to &pa^ 
rate, and the colours fail of their due brig^tn 
hefs and effed:. For convenience the dolours 
defigned for the nicer kinds of painting, after 
they are ground with the oil, are put into 
pieces of bladders; and tied into a kind of ball 5 
m which ftate fuch as be perfeft will continue 
good a long time; and the bladder being prickt 
and fijueezed, the colour is forced out by ftnall 
quantities, as is required for ufe. 

For coarfer work, the colours demanded in 
great quantity are ground by hand or horfe- 
mills with the oil ; and the others on a ftone 
with a muUer. After which, they are put in 
pots; and mixed there with oil of turpentine 
And drying oil, according to the particular pur- 
pofes to which they are employed. 


USED IN Painting/, 165 

Lake, Pruffianbluc, brown pink, King's yel- 
low, and fometimes vermilion, are apt to be 
backward in drying; and require, therefore, to 
be mixed with oil dbat is old and well difpofed to 
dry; and where brightnefs is requifite, the nut? 
or poppy oil fliould be ufed with oil of turpen- 
tine': but where the brightnefs is of lefs mo- 
ment, old linfeed oil with a third of drying 
oil, and the fame proportion of oil of turpen- 
. tine, niay be fiibftituted. But the proportion 
of thefe, and all dryers, muft be adequated to 
the occafion, as difcreticm may diftate, ac- 
cording to the tjuicker or flower difpofition of 
the pigments ufed ;' and the time that may be 
conveniently allowed for them to dry. Flake 
white fhould be alfo ufed with nut or poppy 
oil only ; and to thefe oils many add white vi- 
triol and fugar of lead, as well as the oil of 
turpentine, when they are to be ufed with thig 
<»• other pigments that are too flow in drying % 
but the eflfedt of thofe fubftances, when ufed 
in this manner, is very dubious, as I have ob- 
fcrved before. 

yii SEC- 

j66 Of the Substancss 


Qf the colours proper to be ufed in paint^ 
ing in miniature or with water ; with 
the manner of mixture or compofition 
of them with their proper vehicles. 

THE colours ufed in what is called minia- 
ture painting, or with water, are, for rd^ 
carmine, lake, rofe pink, vermilion, red lead, 
fcarlet oker, common Indian red, red oker, 
Venetian red, Spaniih brown ; — for blue^ ul- 
tramarine, ultramarine aflies, Pruflian blue, 
verditer,.indico, Sander's blue, fmalt, blue bice, 
•and litmus ; — for yellow y gamboge, Naples 
yellow, Dutch pink, Engli/h pink, gall ftone, 
mafticot, French berry ,wafh, turmeric wa{fc, 
and tindure of faffron j — for g?'ecny fap green, 
verdigriie, diftilled verdigrife, and terra verte j 
' — ^cv purple ^ true Indian red, archal, and log- 
wood wa(hj — fov Itowu, biftre, umbre, brown 
oker, Cologn earth, and terra Japonica ; — for 
wbitey flake white, white lead, calcined hartC. 
horn, pearl white, troy white, and egg-fhclU 
white J — for i>lacky Indian-ink, ^ lamp-black,^ 
ivory black, and blue black. 

As water is a much lefs kindly fubflance fom: 
the fpreading and working colours than oil 
fo there is a variety of treatment neceflary fo 
rendering it a proper vehicle for the differ en 
fubftanccs that a:e to be ufed with it : an-- - 

whocvci — ' 

trsED IN Painting. 167 
Whoever, therefore, would have a complete 
fet of water colours, muft not attempt to pro- 
cure them by one general method of manage-^ 
ment, as in the cafe of oil, for all indifcrimi- 
nately; but muft attend to the nature of each, 
and accommodate to it fuch a compofition of 
the water, and what elfe may be neceflary tp 
give it a due confiftence, as may beft fuit each, 
kind. This reftri(fHon, neverthelefs, fhould 
be always obferved, that nodiing be ufed in 
the compofition of water colours, however 
well it may make the colours work at the firft 
admixture, but what will again, even though 
the compofition become perfedlly dry, fo dif- 
folve and fbften on the addition of a frefh 
quantity of water, as, by rubbing with the pen- 
cil, to regain the fluid (tate, as on the firft mix- 
ture, and to fuifer the colour to work equally 
well as then. The beft iyftems for the ad- 
mixture of the variety of water colours hither- 
to given to the public having been defedlive 
in fome material particulars, and the princi- 
pal reafon of it having been their confining 
themfelves to the ufe of gum water, and 0- 
mitting that of ifinglafs fize, I fhall be the 
more explicit in the direftions I fliall give for 
the management of each kind ; and am fatis- 
iied that.whoever follows what I advife, will 
find themfelves under no difliculty in ufing all 
the variety of colours, that arc proper to be 
commixt with water. But in order to avoid 
the repetition of the fame thing in many 
placeii it is proper firft to ftiew the manner 
M4 ^ 



cf jM'Cparing properly the gum water, and ifin*. 
glafs uzc. The gum water may be thus pre- 

** Take three quarters of an ounce of gum 
*^ Arabic, and a quarter of an ounce of gum 
*^ Senegal. Powder them; and then tie mem 
^* up in a linnen rag ; leaving fomuch unfilled 
" room in the bag, as to admit its being flat- 
^* ned by the prcflure of the hand. Having 
** fqueezed the bag till it be flat, put it into a 
<* quart of hot water; and there let it con^ 
«^ tinue, moving it fometimes about, and ftir-.^ 
ring the water, for about twenty-four hours. 
*' The gums will then be diflblvcd ; and the 
*' bag mnft be taken out ; and the fluid being 
y divided into two parts, to one half of it ada 
*' a quarter of an ounce of white fugar-candy 
*' powdered; keeping the other in its pure 
** ftate. By this means, a ftrong and weak 
*^ gum water, each proper for their particular 
♦^ purpofes, will be obtained/' 

The following method is the moft advifc- 
able for the making the ifinglafs fize.. 

" Take half an ounce of the beaten ifin* 
" glafs and a pint and half of water. Boil 
'' them till the ifihglafs be wholly diflblvcd ; 
" and then ftrain the fluid while hot through 
'' a linnen rag. Divide the fize thus made 
•' into two parts : and to one of them add an - 
"equal meafure of hot water : by which - 
" means a ftrong and weak fize wilfbe Ukc— 
^* wife obtained." 



usBD IN Painting, 169 

. Having thus prqpared the gum water and fize, 
a proper aflbrtment of mufcle fhells, or finall 
ivory diihes, muft be fuited to the colours j ac-» 
commodating the fize of each to the due propro- 
tion of each kind of colour : it being proper to 
Biix up a much greater quantity of white, hiftre, 
and the ooarfer forts, than of carndine, ultrama- 
rine,and lake ; as the laft are to be fparingly uiedj 
on account of their great price, and are only ne« 
ceflary for the lights and higher touches in the 
objet^ofthe fame colour. A very fmooth China 
or Dutch tile mufl be provided : as alfo a fmall 
ivory pallet knife : for though an iron one might 
be employed for fome purpofes ; yet it is fo noxi«r 
ous and injurious to the colours in other cafes, 
that the ufe of it is befl: rejected for the Whole. 
Vermilion, ultramarine, ultramarine aflies, 
red lead, fcarlet oker, common Indian red, 
trac Indian red, yellow oker, Venetian red, 
brown oker, verditer, indico, mafticot, umbre, 
terra verte, Sander's blue, bice, Cologn earth, 
white lead, calcined hart/horn, ivory black, 
and blue black, having been previoufly well 
ground and waifhed over, muu be mixed on 
the tile with the pallet knife, wkh as much of 
the ftrong gum water as will bring them to 
the right temper to work with the pencil ; and, 
while they are yet wet, they muft be fcraped' 
fiom off the tile, and fpread with the finger in 
the fhells intended for them : where they will 
•be ready for ufe at all times, on moiftning them 
duly with a little frefh water rubbed upon 
t&em by the finger or penciL 


170 Of THE Substances 

Praflkn blue lake, and Naples yellow, if it 
tc ufed, Ihould be firft reduced to an impal-' 
pable powder ; which may be beft done for 
this purpofe by levigation on the ftone in Ipirit 
of wine : and then they, as alfo carmine, biftre, 
Dutch pink, and Englifh pink, fhould be wdl 
mixed, by grinding on the tile or pallet, with 
the ivory knife, with as much of the weaker 
gum water before mentioned, as will bring 
them to a proper confiftence. After which 
they fhould be difpofed of in their proper fhcUs, 
as was before diredted for the other. 

Gamboge, Indian ink, fap green, gall ftone; 
and terra Japonica, as they become of a vifcid 
and adhefive nature when wet, require no guai 
water; but (hould be only moiflned and rub^ 
bed on the flxells till the furface be incrufted 
with a proper quantity : which, by the addi- 
tion of a little Water, may be worked off with 
the pencil in the fame manner as the other co- 

Verdigrife, though ufed with water colours, 
tannot, neverthelefs, be brought to a proper 
ftate for working by means of water. The 
method of rendering it fit to be ufed in water 
colours, is to powder it ; and then pour on it 
a quantity of vinegar, in the manner before 
.diredted for the making the chryftals of ver- 
digrife : which vinegar, when it has diflblved 
as much of the verdigrife as it can take up, 
muft be poured off free from the fettlings or 
undiiTolveii part of the verdigrife ; and muft 
be put into a bottle tO:be kept for ufe. The 



USED IN Painting. 171 

kind of bottles the moft'fit for ufing with this, or 

the following fubftances, in miniature painting, 

would be a finall fort of fuch as are made tor 

ink bottles ; in which the widenefs of the neck, 

and the (hallownefs of the body, make it caSy 

to dip the pencil ; and the broadnefs of the 

bottom, proportionably to the height, prevents 

their being fo liable to be thrown down, a$ 

thofe of any other form. The verdigrife may 

likewife be prepared for miniature painting by 

means of the juice of rue; which being poured . 

oh the verdigrife, after it is. well powdered, 

will diflblve it in the fame manner as vinegar 3 

and render it fit for ufe by the fame treatment. 

The verdigrife thus diflblved becomes a truer 

green than when vinegar is employed ; and it 

is much better adapted to miniature painting in 

tKis ftate ; for, as the juice of rue has not the 

acid quality of the vinegar, it does not, like it, 

change or deftroy feveral of the other colours, 

jparticui arly the litmus blue, and archal ; and 

. is therefore greatly preferable. For indeed the 

Iblution of verdigrife, though a very good green 

Avafh, is not to be ufed with a variety of other 

crolours without great care : and for this reafbn 

lap green for the moft part is chofen to fupply 

its place. 

The litmus blue muft likewife undergo a 
p>reparation by other means than the addition 
cDf water, before it be fit to be ufed in minia- 
ture painting. The moll: approved method of 
X^hich is as. follows, 

f^ Take 

172 Of the Substances 

^^ Take an ounce of litmus : and boil it ii| 
** finall beer wort, till there remain only ar 
^^ bout one fourth of the fluid -, ftrain it then, 
*^ while boiling hot, through flannel: and, 
" wh^n it i3 cold, being then of a glutinous con- 
*^ iiftence, add as much warm water to it as 
" will bring it to due fluidity for working. 
" This muft be ufed in the fame kind of bot- 
** tie as the verdigrife." 

Arehal, the yellow berry wafli, and turme- 
ric waih, logwood wafh, and tinSure of faflS-oij, 
need no other preparation than has been be- 
fore mentioned in their original produftion : 
but they muft be put in the fame bottles ; and 
ufed as the folution of verdigrife and litmus 

Gamboge, Indian ink, fap green, gall ftonc, 
and terra Japonica, as they really dinblve and 
become transparent in water, are true wafhing 
colours V a^ are alfo thofe laft mentioned, which 
are to be in a fluid form. But neither the ver- 
digrife, litmus, or the yellow wafhes, are fafely 
to be ufed for glazing over other colours ; as 
they are either liable to fuffer themfelves by 
fuch treatment, or to do injury to thofe they 
are laid upon. 

Carmine, ultramarine, and biftre, are alfb 
ufed as wafhing colours ; as they will have an 
eflfed: pf that nature when fpread very thin ; 
but they are not, neverthelefs, properly fpeak- 
ing, waftiing colours, as they are in fad; opake. 

As the producing this effeift of wafliiing is 
of great ufe, as well in miniature painting, 


USED IN Painting. 17J 

as in the colouring of prints and maps, I will 
here inip&rt a method by whicji the end may 
be compafled in a very ferviceable degree, 
even in the cafe of vermilion, red lead, PruA 
fian blue, lake, or even the moft opake co- 
lours. This is to be done by mixing the pig- 
ments, I have before direcled to be com- 
pounded with the ftrongeft gum-waters, with 
the ftrongeft kind of ifing-glafs fize above 
mentioned; and to fubftitute likewife the 
weakeft fize, in the place of the weaker gunv- . 
water, for the colours where that i$ ordered; 
80 prepared, the heavier colours will work 
and fpread, as well as carmine, biftre, or my 
^ther fubftances, except thofe wholly fluid ^ 
^nd may be ufed with great convenience and 
advantage, not only where wafliing colour^ 
«re wanted, but likewife for fliading, touch*^ 
me, and finifliing, or anv of thofe purpofe^ 
'W^nere the free working of the colours i$ par- 
ficruilarly requifite in miniature painting. In 
tli.e Pruffian blue, lake, &c. it is proper, 
however, in order to prevent their cracking, 
to add fugar candy or honey to the fii^e, iii 
•^e proportion of half the weight of the ifin-* 
gl^is; in which cafe they will be found to 
^^^ork more commodioufly in this vehicle than 
^^y other formed of water. Of which ad- 
^ntage the Chinefe are fo fenfible, that all 
^^^ir other compofitions for ufing colours in 
^^^ter feem to be of this kind, as well as that 
*?^oft ufefol one called India/i ink. 

S E C- 

174 Of the Substances 


Of the colours fit to be ufed 17% frefco ; 
or^ fainting with fize ; and the 
manner of mixing or compounding 
> them with the proper vehicles. 

BY frefco painting was originally meant all 
paintings on walls, or other parts of 
buildings expofed to the open air ; but at prc- 
lent it ugnifies in conunon language the groflcr 
paintings in water, where fize is ufed. The 
iame colours which are employed in miniature 
painting, may be ufed in this kind with fize : 
only this method being principally confined to 
fcenes and grofler forts of work, where the 
cffedt depends more on the perfpeftive art and 
the oppofition of the colours, than on their 
brightnefs, the dearer kinds are wholly omit- 
ted, or fparingly ufed. 

The beft method of compounding the co- 
lours with the vehicles, is to mix the fize in 
water ; then to levigate the colours in part 
of it ; and afterwards to put each kind in a 
proper pot ; adding as much more of the . 
melted fize as will bring it to a due confiftence 
for working; and mixing the whole well to- 
gether in the pot with a proper brufli, or wood- 
en fpatula. If the quantity of water originally 
put to the fize, do not render it fuifidently fluid 
for grinding the colours, the fault may be 
2 eafiily 

USED IN Painting. 175 
cafily remedied by adding warm water to it; 
and the fame may be done likewife, if, after 
the mixture of colours, the whole be found too 
ftifF for working. 

The compoStions of the colours and fize 
muft be prevented from drying, by tying blad- 
ders over the pots, or fome other fuch means j 
for when once they are grown dry, they cannot 
be brought again to a working ftate without 
difficulty and trouble. 

Though the grounds and the laying in, anci 
grofler parts of this kind of painting, be done 
by this mixture of the colours with fizej 
yet in higher finifhed works, that require the 
finer colours, the more delicate parts may be 
beft executed by ufing the gum-waters or if- 
ing-glafs, as above direcfted in miniature paint- 
ing : by which means the mixing up greater 
quantities of the dear colours may be avoid- 
ed, though otherwife neceflary ; as it is im- 
prafticable to keep minute quantities from 
drying; which, in the fize, renders them unfit 
for working, till they are again reduced to 
proper condition by means of heat; but, in the 
others, is not attended witli the lead inconve- 


6 Of the Substances 

S E C T I O N IV. 

y .the colours proper to be ufed in 
varnijh painting ; and the manner, 
of mixing and compounding them 
with the proper vehicles. 

IN painting in varniflh, all pigments or folid 
colours whatever may be ufed : and the 
peculiar difadvantages, which attend feverat 
kinds, with refpeft to oil, or water, ceafe 
with regard to this fort of vehicle : as they 
are fecured by it, when properly managed^ 
from the leaft hazard of chanjpng or flying j 
and will all work well, provided they be pre- 
vioufly reduced to the fbte of an impalpable 

The preparation of colours for this ufe, 
confifts, therefore, in bringing them to a due 
ftate of finenefs : this may be bcfl done hf 
grinding on the ftone, fucn as are of cohering 
texture, as lake, Pruffian blue, indico, vcrdi* 
grife, and diftilled verdigrife, in fpirit of vdne, 
or oil of turpentine ; which lafl I think the 
bettpr of the two for this ufe : but all the 
okers, or other cardiy fubftances, together 
with vermilion, red lead, and turpetn mi- 
neral, require only to be previoufly well v^rafh 
ed over; and carmine, ultramarine, an 
King's yellow, are neceffarily in a due fta 
I wh 

USED IN Painting* 177 

VfheA well prepared in their original manu- 

The heft compofition of varnifh for fpread- 
ing and penciling the colours, with re^pedl to 
the convenience of working, and the bind- 
ing and preferving of them, is Ihell-bc with 
fpirit of wine ; which, when judicioufly ma- 
naged, gives fuch a firmnefs and hardnefs to 
die work, that if it be afterwards further fe- 
mred with a moderately thick coat of fecd-Iac 
=ramifli, it will be almoft as hard and durable 
as glafs s and will bear any rubbing, or wear, 
DT even fcratching with a fliarp pointed inftru- 
oient, almoft as well as enamel. The man- 
ner of preparing the (hell-lac varnifh is as fol- 

" Take of the beft fhell-lac five ounces. 
^ Break it into a very grofs powder : and put 
^ it into a bottle, that will hold about three 
^ pints or two quarts. Add to it one quart 
^ of redlified fpirit of wine : and place the 
" bottle in a gentle heat; where it muft con- 
" tinue two or three days j but fiiould be fre- 
^ quently well fhaken. The gum will then 
^ be diflblved : and the folution fliould be 
^ filtered through a flannel bag : and, when 
' what will pafs through freely is ccme off, 

* it ihould be put into a proper fized bottle j 

* and kept carefully flopped up ftr ufe : and 

" the bag may then be prefTed with tlie hand 

** till the remainder of the fluid be forced out> 

". which if it be tolerably clear, may be em- 

** ployed for coarfer purpofes, or kept to be 

N " added 

178 Op the Substances 

" added to the next quantity that ihall be 

" made." 

The fhell-Iac varnifh being thus prepared, 
a proper quantity of it muft be put into fmall 
phials of a long form; or into fmall tin veflels 
nearly of the form of glafs-phials; but in fuch 
proportion, that they may never be filled above 
two thirds ; and the colours muft be added 
very gradually, and well fhaken with the var- 
nifh as each quantity is put in, till the pro- 
portion appear fit for working ; which muft 
be known by trying with a pencil : and, if 
the varnifh appear too thick, the fault muft be 
remedied by the adding a little rectified fpirit 
of wine ; which will at any time immediately 
dilute the mixture to any degree. The phials, 
or tin veflels, in which the colours mixt with 
the varnifh are kept, muft be always fccurely 
ftopt to prevent the exhalation of the i^irit; 
and they may be preferved in a working flate 
in that manner for almoft any length of time : 
but they muft be always well fhaken before - 
they be ufed; as well as during the time of^ 
ufing at proper intervals ; otherwife the 
lour will be apt to fettle to the bottom. 

This is by much the beft method hithcrt( 
found out of painting in varnifh : the fhell— 
lac not only rendering the fpirit of wine cap — 
able of fufpcnding the colours much better: ^ 
than any other compofition of this nature . 
but giving them tenacity and hardnefs,. tha'js 
would render paintings on copper almoft eter-":a 
nal, if not injured by fire or feme extraordi-£. 
I nar^-TJ 

USED IN Painting. 179 
hary violence : and it were to be wifhed, that 
in very elaborate works, this method had been 
always perfued inftead of painting in oil; 
which is fubjeft to fo many accidents from 
flight external violences, befides the decay and 
injurious change which the oil and colours 
fiiiFer from their own internal nature, and the 
improper means of cleaning, that few pidtures 
or paintings of older date are to be found per- 

There are, however, other compofitlons of 
varnifti, which arc ufed for painting : as the 
feed-lac varnifh; and alfo the following; which 
requires, however, previoufly, the prepara- 
tion of the maftic vamifh ; that muft be thus 

" Take five ounces of maftic in powder : 
•^ and put it into a proper bottle with a pound 
** of fpirit of turpentine. Set theta to boil 
** in balneo mariae, till the maftic be diflblv- 
** ed ; and if there appear to be any foulnefs, 
^* flxain off the folution through flannel." 

The maftic varnifli being thus prepared, it 
may be converted into a proper varnifli for 
painting by the following method. 

" Take then gum animi one ounce. Grind 
** it on the ftone with water, till it become 
*^ an impalpable powder. Then dry it 
*^ thoroughly : and grind it again with half 
^^ an ounce of turpentine ; and afterwards 
'* with the colours ; moiftening it with the 
** maftic varnifli till the mixture be of a due 
*^ confiftence for working with the pencil : 

N 2 " whea 

i8o Of the Substances 
** when it muft be put into phials or tin vcC- 
" fels, as was before direfted for the compo- 
" fition with fhelUac; and diluted, where 
" there may be occafion, with fpirit of tur- 
^' pentine." 

This is inferior in all refpefts to the fhell-^ 
lac compofition, except where touches of pure 
white, or very bright colours, are wanted: 
which fufFer by the brownnefs of the {hell- 
lac ; and are preferved in this, that is nearly 
colourlefs : on which account, in the painting 
of flowers, or draperies, in miniature, die fine 
colours may be ufed with advantage this way; 
to heighten the lights ; and the reft may be 
painted with the fhell-lac varnifh. 

The method of painting in varnlfh beings 
however, more tedious than in oil, or water, 
it is now very ufual in the Japan work, for 
the fake of difpatch, to lay the colours on 
witlik oil, diluted with oil of turpentine : tak- 
ing care to have the mixture very thin ; and 
to make the work rife from the lurface as lit- 
tle as poffible s and when the whole is pcr- 
fedly dry, to lay over it feveral coats of thick 
feed-lac varnifh 3 which will fecure the colours 
extremely well, though not Co as to render 
the whole equally hard and ftrong with the 
work done in fhell-lac varnifh. 

The method of painting varniflied work 
with oil may be greatly improved, by diflblv- 
ing the white gums or refin in the oils, as 
♦was before advifed p. 148, for common oil 
painting, in cafe of more delicate and valuable 


USED IN Painting. i8i 

indcrtakings. Which compofition being di- 
luted with oil of turpentine, would work 
^ually well with, dry much harder, and af- 
imilate more with the texture of the vamifh 
aid over or under the paintings, than the oils 
imply ufed : and it would likewife be attend- 
:d with another advantage, which is, that the 
york would be fooner dry, and fit to receive 
he upper coats of varnifh ; which, in large 
nanufafturcs, is an obje<5t of confequence. 

The manner of preparing the feed-lac var- 
lifli, and ufing it, being the fame for this as 
br other purpofes, will be (hewn in its pro-_ 
>cr place. 


Of the nature and preparation of 
paftils or crayons. 

PASTILS or crayons are cohipofitions of 
colours, whidi are reduced to the tex- 
tate of chalk ; and ufed dry, in the form and 
manner of pencils, for pdnting on paper. 

There is confiderable difficulty, ana nicety, 
n die making, to bring them to that due tex- 
:ure or confiftence, which admits of their 
bending freely on the paper, without being 
[o crumbly or brittle as not bear to have th# 
point to be duly fharpened : for, if they be 
N 3 rendered 

i82 Of the Substances 
rendered too cohefive by gums or fuch fub^ 
fiances as give them tenacity, they will not 
caft as they ought ^ and, on the other hand, 
if the particles are not fufficiently bound to-r 
gether, they take no proper hold of the grain 
of the paper, but lye on it like duft ; and th^ 
pencils in this condition are apt continually tQ 
nave the points broken or moulder away on 
the leaft ufe, to an undue thicknefs. To pror 
duce this fit texture, fo indifpenfibly requifite 
to the perfedion of crayons, many fubftances 
have been ufed, to mix with the coloured 
pigments, and to give them the proper cphe-? . 
rence : but, notwithftanding the repeated ex- 
periments that have been made by number^ 
of perfons, for the improvement of this arta^ 
it is very rare to find a fet of fuch crayons as 
may be called good. They are not, indeed, 
to be at all produced, but by an exercife of 
fome judgment and fkill in the compofition of 
each particular ; and there are few pfcrfbasi 
who either have fuch, or will exercife their 
fkill and knowledge in fufficient degree ; and 
therefore recipes are blindly followed; whkh-, 
as the different parcels of each kind of fub- 
ftance differ greatly in the proportion of their 
qualities, thppgh they may agree in tbe g&r 
neral i^atur.e of them^ fometimes produce ^f)od, 
and fpmetimes bad crayons, by the very fanxc 
rules.. WiiQ.evjpr, thereforf, would be piaficr 
pf a perfedfc fet of crayons, mufl: inform hinj:- 
felf of the feyeral.fijbflances and their natqrc, 
which ar^ pr9per for the compofition of them; 

USED IN Painting. 183 

Hnd then, having general direftions for the , 
manner, muft proportion and adjuft the quan- 
tity of the ingredients to each other, by ac- 
tual trials of the effeft -, which may, never- 
thelefs, be done with very little trouble 3 and 
^thout the danger of any lofs accruing from 
the greateft error in the compofition: fince 
the crayons can always be wrought over again, 
with fuch additions of thofe ingredients in which 
the proportion is defe<Sive, as will remedy the 
fault. I fhall, for thefe reafons, enumerate 
the feveral fubftances that are employed for 
forming crayons -, and fhew what particular 
intentions they are to anfwer, and the method 
of managing theni to effect that end; and then 
give the particular mixtures, which I believe 
to be beft for producing each kind of colour -, 
with the neareft general proportion of the in- 
gredients: but the adapting the quantities 
more exadtly to each other, in every particu- 
lar cafe, I muft leave to the operator ; ^who 
muft try the refult of his compofitions, by 
drying a fmall quantity of each fort formed 
into a crayon, after he has made the ma- 
ture : which being tried on the proper paper, 
if it appear faulty, the proportion of the in- 
gredients muft be better adjufted, by adding 
more of that which appears to be deficient, till 
the due effed: be produced. 

All the colours, which are pigments, and 

can be reduced to an impalpable powder, may 

be ufed for forming crayons : but it is proper, 

neverthelefs, to be cautious, eipecially in more 

N 4 elaborate 

184 Of the Substances 
elaborate works and paintings of any value, with 
regard to fuch as are fubjeft to fly or change ; 
particularly rofe pink, Englifh pink, lake, and 
Pruflian blue, which are apt to turn pale, and 
fometimes entirely lofe their hue : and with re- 
fpedt to white, the ufe of flake white, or white 
lead is befl: avoided, on account of their fre- 
quently turning black ; as there are others 
which will even work better, and are noway 
liable to any fuch change. But neither lake, 
nor Pruflian blue, are to be wholly rejeded 
for this purpofe, when they are known to be 
thoroughly good 5 as they will ftand extremely 
well when prepared in a right manner : only 
great care fhould be taken to be certain o£ 
the qualities of any parcel, before it be ufed 5 
as the far greateft part of the lake to be now 
met with will fly ; and the PruflJian blue turn 
pale and green in fuch manner as to vary the 
teint greatly from its original fl:ate. 

Befides the coloured pigments, which are^ 
wfed Amply, fome white fubfl:ances are necef- 
fary for the forming a proper body to fuch a^ 
are of lighter teints : or where the colours are? 
to be diluted and weakned, as in fl:raw colours,, 
pinks, carnations, Sfr. There have been many" 
diflferent forts of bodies applied to this purpofe^ 
which, moftof them, by proper management^ 
may be made toanfwerthe end. The principaft- 
are flake white, white lead, tobacco-pipe clay^ 
p'afl:er of Paris, Spanifh or troy white, lim 
pie chalk, and ftarch : but pearl white, tha 
has been hitherto overlooked, is in fome cafe^ 


USED IS Painting. 185 

fuperior to any of them. In this appllcatioti 
OT white bodies, to form the ground or bafis 
of pale coloured crayons, the greatcft care 
fhould be taken, likewife, when carmine lake, 
or any coloured pigment prepared from parts 
of vegetables or animals are ufed,, that the fub- 
ftance employed be fuch as will not prey upon 
or change the colour; which chalk, flake white, 
and white lead, with the colours, are extremely 
apt to do, when they are mixt together with the 
addition of any moifture : but in all fuch cafes 
the pearl white, and plafter of Paris, fliould be 
ufed; and with refpedt to the latter, it muft be 
wholly free from lime, or it will be worfe even 
than tne odiers. It is beft, indeed, in general to 
avoid any fuch mixture of thefe colours, by fub- 
ftituting the coloured earths, or other mineral 
fubftanccs, in the place of thofe prepared from 
vegetable or animal fubftances ; as they can 
fcarcely be affefted or changed by any matter 
ufed in painting; and will, in general, equally 
well anfwer the purpofe ; except in the cafe of 
carmine j the unrivalled brightnefs of which 
makes it neceflary for pinks, and carnations, as 
great purity and force of colour are there re- 

Flake white and white lead are not fo fre- 
quently ufed, as the chalk and tobacco-pipe 
clay for the grounds of crayons : neither in- 
deed are they fo fit for many purpofes; as they 
will not mix well with many of the coloured 
pigments ; and are liable to form too brittle pen- 
cils when cut to moderate points ; an4 the 


i86 Of the Substances 

white lead hasbefides, the dangerous quality of 
being fubjed to have its whitenefs changed into 
thq proper metallic colour of the lead : as we fee 
in many of the older drawings and fketches 
where it has been ufed. The great whitenefs of 
the flake, neverthclefs, recommends it where 
touches of very great light are required : and 
it may not be amiis, therefore, to have a 
crayon of it for fuch occafions ; but it is beft 
to omit wholly its ufe in all cafes, where the 
other whites will anfwer the purpofe. 

Tobacco-pipe clay was formerly in great ufe 
for forming the paler crayons : but it is much 
fiegledted now, except in thofe made for falc. 
For, befides its drying to be too hard, and not 
^Jending ' freely on the paper, it gives the co- 
lours a heavinefs and deadnefs that may be a- 
voided by the ufe of other whites : to fome of 
which it is, therefore, on all accounts inferior. 
It may however ferve for ordinary occafions : 
as it will produce crayons by being fimply 
mixed with the coloured pigments: and there- 
fore requires much lefs fkill and trouble to be 
compounded with them than the fofter whites, 
that demand the aid of fome binder or glu- 
tinous body to give them a due cohefion. 

Plafter of Paris has alfo been frequently ufed 
for the bafis of pale crayons; to which purpofe^ 
it is in one refpedt well adapted: becaufe whem- 
it is pure, that is to fay, made only of the^- 
powdered alabafter, it is very innocent with»- 
Feipeft to the more tender colours : but ther» 
it is too eohefive, and wants the flakinefs o:^ 
* : ' chalk i 

USBP IN Painting. 187 

cbii!&^h which dcfeft has been attempted to b« 
repiedied by the dipping the crayons fonned 
of it in olivje or linfeed oil. 

Spanlih or troy white, which as we have feea 
before, is chalk and alum calcined and wafhe4 
over, is ufed by fome for a ground for the pale 
crayons. The diiference in its effed: from 
-iimpie chalk wafhed over confifts only in it$ 
tjeing Jefs liable to prey on the colours made 
from the parts of vegetables or animals : but, 
as the pearl white, or plafter, are much lefs 
hazardous in that point than either, the ufe of 
it fecms no way neceflary. 

Chalk is the beft adapted by its texture tQ 

the forming the ground of pale crayons of any 

of the whites hitherto ufed : as it will caft 

more freely -, and at the fame time retain a due 

cohefion, when mixt with proper binders or 

glutens, better than any of the other whites 

now in praftice. It is, therefore, much the 

I>ef); fubuance for mixing with all the coloured 

Ei^gqients which are not fubjedt to be changed j 
vat with refpe(fl to fuch as are, the pearl white^ 
ox- plafter of Paris, fhould be fubftituted in it? 
pXace. It is alfo the beft for forming white 
^5rayous for common purpofes ; which may be 
^iojie by a very fimple treatment as below 

Starch has been frequently ufed along with 

ioiaae of the other whites for giving a due tex-^ 

Xmtc to crayons : but it is no where neceflary, 

except in the cafe of white flake : and, as tne 

prepared flake white of the ihops contains n 


i8S Op the Substances 
large proportion, it is unneceflary when that is 
ufed: which will generally be the cafe ; as the 
levigation of the white flake is too trouble- 
ibme for thofe who do not m»ke fuch matters 
their buiinefs. 

The laft clafs of fubftances ufed in the com- 
pofition of crayons, and on which indeed prin* 
dpally depends their perfedtion, is the lenders 
or glutens required to give pulverine bodies^ of 
which the crayons are compofed, a due tena** 
city to render them capable of being formed 
into mafles that will bear the form and em- 
ployment of pencils. There has been a va- 
riety of different matters applied to this pur- 
pofe ; moft of which may in fome degree cf- 
fedl it 5 but the principal are alcwort, — ^gum 
tragacanth, — gum Arabic, — fize, — milk, — 
oatmeal, — ^fugar candy, — olive oil, — and lin- 
feed oil. 

The wort of ale or beer, either in its ori- 
ginal ftate, or rendered more thick by boil- 
ing, has been found to anfwer the end of a 
binder, for the forming crayons, where chalk 
or earthy bodies are ufed, better than any of 
the others. As it gives them a proper cohefion, 
by its vifcidity, without drying to that brittle 
ftate to which the gums are fubjeft. It is not^ 
however, in the cafe of vermilion, and (bmc 
odicr fubftances, wb'ch have no cohefivc at-^ 
tradion of themfelves, fufficient alone to give 
the due tenacity ; and muft therefore be aA 
lifted by gum tragacanth, or fize, or fome fucb 
other vifcid matten 

2 Gum 

¥SED IN Painting.' 189 
Gum tfagacanth is ufed as a binder by dif- 
Solving it in the ale wort, or whatever fluid is 
employed for the tempering crayons. It is pre- 
^rable, for this purpofe, to gum Arabic, or the 
other gums which diflblve in aqueous fluids : 
bccauie it thickens in the water ; and mixes it- 
Jtelf equally throughout the whole fubftance of 
^lie compofition when dry ; whereas the others 
are apt to form a crufl: on the outflde of the 
zxiais ; and render the puflils or crayons of an 
manequal texture. 

Gum Arabic has been alfo ufed for temper- 
Sxig crayons in the fame view as gum traga- 
cranth : but for the reafon jufl given is much 
inferior to it. 

Size is alfo fometimes applied to the fame 
purpofe in making crayons as gum tragacanth ; 
ajld diflfers not greatly from it in its effeft. 

Milk has been ufed for the compofition o£ 

crayons, in the fame view as the ale wort, 

where only a fmall addition of cohefive power 

was required to be added to the folid bodies 

which formed them : but it is only in fuch 

cafes, it can be of any avail ; as the ale wort, 

or others of greater efficacy, are in moft cafes 


Oatmeal, or rather the decadion of it, made, 
as in the cafe of water gruel and ftrained,, has 
likewife been employed for the fame end as 
milk ; and anfwers well enough in the cafe of 
the deep Pruflian blue, indico, and fuch bo- 
dies as are apt to dry gummy j becaufe though 
the decoftion of oatmeal gives only a fmall de- 

igo Op TiiE Substances 

gree of cohefion -, yet it prevents that cdale- 

fbencc from theattradion of the parts of thofe 

bodies on ca<Jh other, which produces this* 


dUVe oil, as likewife the linfeed, have been 
ufed to give the crayons a more flaky and dialtyr 
teXftire, by dipping into it, after they have 
befen diriy heated^ fufch as are made of plafter 
df Paris, or tobacco-pipe clay, in oraer to 
fftftervthein; and remove that unkindly coJici* 
lion which prevents the flicking freely on tKic' 

' I (hall here give fome general inftruiStions, for 
the compounding crayons of the feveral colours 
and teints : but at the fame time muft leave ft 
to the difcretion of the operator, to adj.uft the 
exadfc proportion of the binders or glutens by' 
aftual trial ; as the fubftances ufed vary too 
much in the degree of their qualities in dif- 
ferent parcels, to admit of any ftandard pro- 
portion being given. 

Of white croons. 

For forming white crayons for common pur- 
pofes, chalk, in its natural ftate, is fuperior to 
any compofition : it fhould be chofen white," 
pure, and of the moft cohering texture : and' 
it muft be cut firft into fquares, by means of 
fmall faws, made for this ufe, of three inches 
length, and a quarter of an inch in thick- \ 
nefs; and afterwards formed into a proper penr- 


USED IN Painting. 191 

cil (hape, by taking off the corners with a pen- 
knife, and duly flopirig the point. 

Where an extraordinary degree of white- 
nefs is required, a crayon may be made &owl 
flake white, as prepared by the colourmen ; 
which being well powdered and mbifbied 
with milk to the confiflence of a pafte, mnft 
be formed in the pencil ihape, and then dricd^i 
b^it without heat 5 as that would tend to injure 
the whitened by changing the colour of thae 
ifeike in the fame manner as m the prodtwSioifi 
of mafticot. If the crayon thas made appear: 
to want tenacity, it muft be worked over again 
with a frefh quantity of milk ^ or a littic'gunx 
tFagacanth may be added to the milk. This: 
crayon, however, fhbuld not be ufed whete 
chalk will be fufficiently bright : for all. kinds, 
of cerufe, a6 I obferved before, are fub^eft to 
have their colour changed by accidelrts iK* 
eafily to be gtfiirded againft^ 

Of red crayons. 

For red cJr^yons of thefcarlet hue, vermi- 
lion, and red lead, may be ufed, with ale- 
wort boiled, till it appear flightly glutinous to: 
the touch, arid further infpiflated by the ad-^ 
dition of gum tragacanth : the proportion of 
which m4y Tbe'-ar fcrupk to a pint of the thick 
wort. With this gluten, the vermilion, or 
red lead, muft be reduced to the ftate of a 
pafte, by grinding them together ; and then 


'ig2 Of the Substances 

formed into the proper fhape ; and dried with 
a gentle heat. 

Where the orange caft of red kad is not 
particularly wanted, it is fafer to ufe vermi- 
lion 5 for though red lead will ftand much bet- 
ter ufed this way, than in oil, yet the vermi- 
lion is ftill more fecure, as nothing can change 
it without a burning heat. 

The paler crayons of the iame colour may 
be made by mixing wafhed chalk with anjr 
of thefc colours : which may be done in three 
proportions, the firft with an equal weight of 
the chalk, the fecond with double the weighty 
and the third with treble : but if other teints 
are wanting, the proportion may be varied 
otherwife according to the occafion. Thefc 
compofitions fhould be formed in the manner 
abovementioned, by means of ale-wort in- 
foiflated by boiling ; but the wort ihoidd be 
micker where the quantity of the chalk is Icfe, 
according to the mree proportions : becaufe 
after it has been moiftned, and is again 
dried, chalk has a conliderable coheiion of 

The fcarlet oker gives a fouler red crayon, 
but yet very ufeful, if it be compounded with 
the ale-wort infpiflated both by boiling, and 
the addition of gum tragacanth> in the pvopet 
manner directed for vermilion. 

Scarlet oker may likewife be formed, by 
compofition with chalk, into paler teints^ ia 
the fame way as vermilion. 


tjSED IN Painting. 193 
Cohimon Indian red may be, likewife, 
treated in a parallel .manner, and will giye 
otiier teints of red. 

Red oker requires no compofition ; but if it 
h>^ chofen pure, and of a good colour, will 
a./3brd ufeful crayons by the fame manage- 
lent as chalk. 

Lake muft be ufed for crimfbn crayons, and 
L^y be brought, when well ground with alc- 
A^vcDrt, to a proper texture ; but if, as is the na- 
tixare of Ibme parcels, it appear too gummy, 
3rn.3ke it up with the decocflion of oatmeal in- 
^ft^^ad of the ale- wort. It is proper to be very 
crarieful in the choice of lake for crayons : fcr^ 
^s it is very apt to fly when not properly pre- 
l>, the confequence in crayon painting is in 
l^ch cafes very bad : fmce it will much fooner 
<^liange when ufed in that manner, than in oil. 
The paler teints of the lake muft be pro- 
duced by the admixture of feveral proportions 
^f white ; in the fame manner, as the fore- 
going colours. The white employed fhould 
^ot, nevcrthelefs, be chalk, for the reafons be- 
^e given ; but pearl white, or plafter of Paris. 
I think the former much the beft : but in the 
Compounding it into crayons with the lake, a 
Wronger binder is required than in the cafe of 
Plialk. The ale-wort ifhould therefore be well 
^Ofpiflated by boiling for thofe crayons, where 
^lle proportion of lake is greateft : but, for the 
Others, it fhould be adequately rendered yet 
^^ore vifcid by the addition of gum traga- 

O It 

J94 ^^ THE Substances 

It would be extremely proper to have cray- 
ons of carmine, if the price did not make tht 
ufe of it too expenfive. Confidering that cir- 
cumftance, it is more expedient to ufe it rubbed 
in by the leather roller in the manner below di- 
refted, by which it may be conveniently laid 
oh where it may be neceflary, 

A fmall crayon compounded of the beft and 
moft fcarlet lake, with about a third part of 
carmine, fhould, however, not be wanting. 
They may be worked up with milk, and a 
little decodtion of oatmeal, with a fmall pro- 
portion of gum tragacanth ; but fbme carmine 
is fufficiently glutinous, and requires no bin- 
der J which ought therefore to be firft tried; 
before the binders are added. 

Small crayons muft likewife be made of car- 
mine, and pearl white, in different proporti- 
ons ; and the ale- wort muft be more or lels in- 
fpiflated according to the quantity of white ; 
but as the carmine differs greatly in different 
parcels as to its gummy confiftence, this muft 
be regulated by difcretion. 

Rofe pink, when good, forms a crayon, which 
has merit with regard to its beauty 3 if its defed 
in other refpefts did not fprbid the ufe of it. It 
may be made into crayons without any compo- 
jGition, in the fame manner as chalk, where it 
is of fo firm a texture as it is commonly fbund— 
to be ; but where it happens to be of a loofer^ 
it muft be brought to a proper ftatc of cohe— 
fion by ale-wort. It is, neverthelefs, fcarcelj^ 
^ Ycrth white to take the trouble of forming mj^ 

USED IN Painting. 195 
any way into crayons ; as the colour will always 
fly, if the cold air have accef$ to it -, and it can 
never th^efore be prudently employed in paint- 
ings of aoy value. 

0/ blue, crayom. 

For a deep blue crayon ^ the darkeft Pruffian 
tlue m^y be formed into a crayon by grinding it 
ivith the decodtion of oatmeal. If the tenacity 
te not fuffident, the ale-wort muft be added* 
Indico, when good, will likewife produce a. 
^eep blue crayon^ with ale- wort infpiflated by 

For paler blues^ Pruffian blue of different 
*|cgrees of lightnefs may be ufed with ale- wort : 
"but the ale-wort mufi: be inipiflated by boilings 
or the addition of fize or gum tragacanth, iii 
jprqportion to the lightnefs ; the darker kinds 
iaf Pruffian blue being of a more glutinous^ na- 
-ftmre thajni the lighter. 

Verditer will alfo make a good blue crayon: 
i:3Ut it mufl be ufed with ale- wort flxongly in- 

Bice fhould, likewife, compofe another cray- 
^an> treated as verditer. 

Crayons fhould likewife be formed of verdi- 
iicr, or bice, with chalk, in different proporti- 
c:>ns : ahd compounded by means of the ale- 
ViTort thickned by boiling- 

Ultraniarine, being too dear to form cray- 
t^ns, fhould be ufed in the manner above 
. fiirefted for carmine. 

O 2 Of 

196 Of the Substances 

Of yellow crayons. 

The prepared orpiment, or pigment, called 
King*s yellow, forms the brightnefs and full- 
ed coloured yellow crayon : but the poifbnous 
quality, and yellow fcent of it, are fuch faults 
as render it on the whole much inferior to 
that next mentioned. 

The King's yellow may, however, be form- 
ed into a crayon with ale-wort inipiiTated by 
boiling, and the addition of gum tragacanth ; 
but it muft be dried without any heat. 

The turpeth mineral well levigated, and 
wafhed over, makes a very fine crayon, of a 
cool, but very bright yellow colour. It may- 
be treated for this end exactly in the manner 
above directed for vermilion. 

Dutch pink andEnglifh pink make crayonsof 
a pretty good yellow colour -, but are not fo fecure 
from flying as the two abovementioned. When 
they are of a firm texture, they may be ufed as 
the chalk, without any other preparation ;than. 
cutting them Into a proper form: but where they 
are of a more foft and crumbly fubftance, they 
mufl be worked up with the iufpifliated ale- wort. 

Yellow oker may alfo be formed into a 
crayon in the fame manner as chalk ; or It 
may be ground and wafhed over ; and then 
ufed with the infpiflated ale-wort. 

More diluted teints of yellow may be pro- 
cured by mixing chalk with any of the above- 
jnentipned pigments ; and forming them into 
" lyons in the manner beforementioned for the 
r -Other colours. Of 


Of green crayons. 

The chryftals of verdigrife, properly ma- 
naged, make the brighteft green crayon. They 
fhould be reduced to a very fine powder, by 
grinding on the ftone with fpirit of wine, or dil 
of turpentine; and then formed into^a palie by 
ale-wort highly boiled, and infpiflated ftill fur- ^ 
ther by gum tragacanth t but as little fluid as pof- 
fible ftiould be employed in their compofition. 
They fhould likewife be dried without heat. 

Verdigrife will make a light blue green 
crayon, if treated in the fame manner. 

Pruflian blue, and turpeth mineral, com- 
pounded in different proportions, form alfo a 
variety of good green crayons. They mufl be 
worked up with ale- wort thickned by boiling.. 

Pruflian blue and Dutch pink make like- 
wife a pretty bright green crayon, being formed" 
by means of the infpiffatcd ale- wort. 

Vcrditer, and turpeth mineral, form a good 
pale green : but they require ale- wort both 
thickned by boiling, and the addition of gum 

Blue bice and turpeth mineral, or ^Dutch 
pink, make another kind of light green crayon, 
being treated in the fame manner ; except that 
when Dutch pink is employed, the ale-wort 
requires only to be well thickned by boiling. 

Crayons may, likewife, be formed of any 
of the abovementioned green pigments, and 
chalk, by the means before dired[ed with re-, 
gard to the other colours. 

O3 Of 

igS Of the Substances 

Of orange crayons.. 

King's yellow, or turpeth mineral, widi re^ 
lead, or vermilion, makes a bright orange cray-j 
on. They muft be compounded with ale- wort 
thickned, as well by gum tragacanth, as boiling. 

Orange crayons may, likewife, be formed 
from Dutch, or Englifh pink, compounded 
with red lead, or vermilion : but the ale-wort 
jieed' not, in this compofition, be fo ftrongly 
Infpilfated as for the laft. 

Chalk may be added to cither of thefe, in 
different proportions, to vary the teints in the 
manner above direfted for the reft : or good 
crayons of a paler orange, where brightnefs is 
not required, may be formed from Spanifh an- 
natto compounded with chalk ; and wotiied 
up with ale-wort (lightly infpiflated. 

The Spanifh annatto ufed alone, being IctI- 
gated wim oil of turpentine, and formed by the 
addition of the deco(5lion of oatmeal vSeA in 
the moft fparing manner, makes likewife a 
ver\' good crayon of the full orange colour : 
but die preparation of this is more tronblc- 
fome, than thofe gi\'en above ; which will in 
general anfwer the fame purpofe. 

Of purpk craycns. 

A vtr)' bright purple crayon may be formed 
of deep Prxiffian blue, and carmine, com- 
pounded by means of the decoflion of oat* 



meal : but this being expenfive muft be made 
fmall J ahd referved only for thofe cafes where 
great brightnefs is neceflary. 

Deep Pruffian blue and lake, treated as the 
above, form a crayon next in brightnefs to the 

For a lefs bright purple, indico may be ufed 
in the place of the Pruflian blue ; but the 
teint v^iil not be fo deep -, and ale- wort flightly 
infpiflated may be ufed inftead of the decodion 
of oatmeal. 

For coarfer purples, indico may be com- 
pounded with vermilion : but they will be 
much paler than the above; and for this com- 
pofition the ale-wort muft be well thickned by 
boiling, and a flight addition of gum tragacanth. 

Of brown crayons. 

For forming a full brovra crayon, neither 
inclining to the olive nor orange, mix brown 
oker, and biftre ; and work them up with the 
ale- wort inipiflated moderately by boiling. 

Spanijfh brown, umbre, and the common, 
and true Indian .red, may, iikewife, be com- 
pounded in the fame manner, with biftre, in- 
to crayons of different teints of brown : and 
ivory black may be added, where neceflary, to 
darken them, and increafe the variety. 

Spanifh brown and^uiiibre, may be, like- 
wife, formed alone into brown crayons, by 
means of the ale-wort infpiflated by boiling, 
gH<J a fmall addition of gum tragacanth. 

O4 For 


200 OftheSubstances ' ^ 

For diluted browns, calcined fuller's earth 
may be employed, either alone, or mixt with 
chalk in different proportions. The crayons 
niuft be formed by means of ale-wort mode- 
rately infpiflated by boiling. 

Diluted browns may, likewife, be formed by ^ 
bidding chalk to any of the above compofitions for 

Of black and grey crayons. 

Black crayons may be formed out of pieces 
of charcoal well burnt, by cutting them into a 
proper fliape, in the manner direfted for chalk. 
The kind of charcoal, faid to be the beft for 
this purpofe, is that made from the wood of "i^ 
tJic willow. 

Good black crayons may, likewife, be form- 
ed of ivory black mixt with a little very deep 
Pruflian blue or indico. It muft be worked up 
by ale-wort boiled thick, with a fmall addition 
of glover's fize. 

Grey crayons may be formed of the ivory, 
or lamp black, mixt with chalk in different 
proportions, and compounded by means of ale- 
wort well infpilTated by boiling. 

The carmine, ultramarine, or any other co- — ^o- 
lour which may be too dear, or not had in fuf- — ^5fc^ 
ficient quantity to form crayons, may be \ifed hv^^^^Y 
means of the leather roll above mentioned, -fcat/. 
This roll is only a piece of fliamoy leather — -*.r 
formed into a kind of long cone by rollinr .^ng 
it in a fpiral manner, and then tWmvm^^ng 

thres;^ ad 



-^usED IN Painting. 2oi 

thread tightly round it to keep it from unfoId-> 
ing. The leather muft be fo managed in the 
rolling as to form a point of the degree of 
bluntnefs required ; or if it be too blunt it may 
be ftiarpened with a pen-knife. With the 
point of this roll breathed upon, the carmine, 
&c. may be taken and laid on the painting in 
fuch touches as may be required, and the ef- 
fedl will be nearly the fame as if the point of 
a crayon had been ufed. This roll will like- 
wife be found ufeful in fweetefiing (as it is 
called) the colours, by rubbing the edges of 
the teints together, where the furface is not large 
enough to admit the finger to do that office. 

Of the grounds for the feveral kinds 

of painting. 

SECT. I. Of the grounds for oil 

TH E fubftance or matter on which oil 
paintings are made, unlefs in very par- 
ticular cafes, are canvas, wood, or copper- 
plate. The preparation or covering of thefe, 
m order to their receiving the proper colour- 
ing, muft be therefore different according to 
the different fubftance in queflion. 


202 Of the Substances 
' The pieces of canvas prepared by proper 
primings, are then by painters called chibs. 
But thefe cloths, though they are difpenfed with 
in general, bccaufe painters think it too much 
trouble to prime them themfelves, and thei*e* 
fore make fhift with what the colourmen will 
ftSord them, who on their fide likewife con- 
fult nothing but the cheapeft and . eafieft me- 
thods of diipatching their work, are yet at 
prefent prepared in a faulty manner in ieveral 
refpeds. In the firft place, the whole covering* 
is apt to peel and crack off from the cloth, ty 
Ae improper texture of the under coat, whicA 
is formed qf fize and whiting ; and is both too 
brittle, and too little adhefive, either to the 
cloth or upper coat, to anfwer well the pur- 
pofe. In the fecond place, the oil ufed in the 
compofition of any paint ufed on fuch grounds, 
is extremely apt to be abforbed or fuckt in by 
themi J and confequently to leave the colours, 
with which it was mixt, deftitute in a great 
degree of what is neceflary for their proper 
temperament. This is called, though impro* 
perly, the Jinking in of the colours y and is attend- 
ed with feveral iqconveniencies ; particularly, 
that the efFedt of the painting appears very inv* 
perfedlly while the colours are in this ftate, 
and deprives the painter, as well as others, of 
the power of judging properly of the truth of 
the performance. It is indeed praftifed fome- 
times to varnifh over the ground, which will 
prevent the finking in ; but there is a hazard 
in this, that the upper coat may leave the 

ground i 

USED IN Painting. 203 
ground ; and the painting confequcntly coiiie 
pfF. Whoever therefore would have good 
cloths, free entirely from this difadvantage, 
rtiuft direft the preparation of them them- 
felves ; and they may produce them i|i pet- 
feftioft by the following means. 

" Let the cloths be firft well foaked with dry- 
^* ing oil laid on hot, and when nearly dry, let 
^* two or three coats of drying oil and red okcr, 
^* mixed as thick as can be worked, be fpf ead 
^* over it. Then, the laft being dry, let die 
f * doth be bruflied over with hot drying oil, 
^* as long as it appears to fink in : and, laftly, 
f^ let it be covered with a coat of white lead 
*^ and oil, rendered grey, Or of any other co- 
?* lour defired, by admixture of the proper 
f^ pigments. This laft coat may be polifhed 
** to a due degree by rubbing with a pumice 
?* ftone, or by glazing it with me glafs poliflbers 
f* ufed for linnen, and called callender Jlonesy 
In priming wood, or preparing it to deceive 
the oil colours, the fame errors are generally 
pommitted : for the method almoft univerfally 
pradlifed is to clear-coat it, (as It is called) 
with fize and whiting; and then to cover it 
with white lead and oil : but the ill efFefts of 
fuch a method are ftill greater, in this cafe, 
than in that of canvas ; as if any moifture find 
accefs to the wood, the paint rifes in blifters, 
which are liable to be burft, and to caufe a 
flaking off and peeling of the paint, in a very 
detrimental manner. For paintings of any 
yalue the wood fhould, therefore, be brufhed 


204 Ofthe Substances 

over with hot drying oil, as long as it will 
Ibak it in ; and then covered with a coat of 
white lead, or flake, coloured according to 
what may be defired. Even in the cafe of 
houfe or coach painting, the clear-coating with 
lize and whiting, ought to be omitted; and, in 
its place, a coat of diying oil with Ibme white 
lead and oker, but not fo much as to make it 
ftiff, fliould be ufed as the firft priming, in- 
fteadof the fize and whiting; which method 
would both preferve the wood much better, 
and prevent both the bliftcring and peeling; 
and in fome degree the finking in of the co- 
lours that attend the common method. 

When copper-plates arc ufed, there is no 
occafion for any other priming than one coat 
of oil, and lead, or oker, rendered of the 
colour defired : but fuch plates are feldom 
employed but for delicate and elaborate paint- 
ings. The iurface of the priming ought to 
be made as fmooth as the plate itfelf, by rub- 
bing with the pumice ftone, or glazing with 
the callender ftone. But there is another me- 
thod very efFedual for making a fine ground 
on the copper-plates ; which is the ufing flake 
white and fat oil, with any colour required; 
which being laid on the plates placed in an 
horizontal pofltion to dry, will poiifli itfelf 
very highly, by the running of the oil. The 
oil ufed for this purpofe fhould be thoroughly 
fat : which, though not at prefent to be had 
of colourmen, may be ealily made by the 
method below taught, with very little expence 


USED IN Painting. 205 

and trouble ; and this method of producing 

pounds by fat oil, perfeftly fmooth, fecured 

^om any finking in of the colours, and in all 

other refpcfts much better than any other, may 

l3e praftifed with advantage on cloths or wood, 

^s well as copper-plates ; the cloths being firft 

^r>repared for the laft coat in the manner before 

^^iredted ; and the wood foaked with drjring oil. 

S E C T I O N II. 

Of the grounds for water colours. 

^ I ^ H E fubftance on which paintings with 
X water colours are ufualiy made, are 
cr^rtoon, paper, (or a kind defigned for this 
p^urpofc), common paper, or vellum. 

When paper of any proper kind is ufed, it 

13 fufficient to prime it with ifinglafs, fize 

tlnickened properly with pearl white, and any 

pigment which will afford the colour the 

ground is defired to be : but common paper 

'^^ay be rendered flronger and fitter to receive 

^^c colours, by laying on the back of it a 

^^oat of flarch boiled with water to a moderate 

^onfiflence, and rendered yet more tenacious 

^y the addition of a little ifinglafs. This 

^ould be laid very fmoothly with a brufh ; 

5^r^ the paper, when near dry, mufl be put 

^^twixt the leaves of a book, or betwixt two 

*^cets of paper ajid two boards, and comprefT* 


±o6 Of the Substances 
ed by a weight laid on the books or boards; 
Two iheets of paper cemented together hf 
the flarch and ifinglafs, and treated in the fame 
manner, make a very cx)mmodious fubftance 
for painting in miniature. It has been advifed 
to pounce paper defigned for painting with 
water cok>urs, or to rub them over with 
alum water : but as the intention of this is 
only to guard againft the defed of paper that 
will not take ink or other aqueous fluids withs^ 
out running, it is much better to avoid th^ 
ufe of all.fiich paper; for the pounce prevents 
the colours working freely with the pencil; 
and. the alum water changes feveral of the 
colours; as, for example, the litmus, and 
archal, ifufed^ would be turned to a red franr, 
blue or purple. 

Vellum nas been, likewife, dire^ed to be 
pounced by fome of thofe, who have pretended 
to teach the bqft mediods of managing water 
colours : but, if it be good, it requires no Qtbet 
preparation than the flraining on a pafle-boaidi 
or other fuch proper body, and priming it in tbi^ 
manner dired:ed for paper : and if it fhould hap 
pen to be greaftr, the rubbing it over with the 
gall of any beaft will remedy the defeft, with- 
out the inconvenience produced by the ufe of 
pounce. The ftraining the vellum on the 
pafte-board, muft be effeded by cementing 
them together with the ftarch prepared as above^ 
or with ifinglafs fize, which is better for this pur-* 
pofe : and the vellum mull be cut fo tnuck 
bigger than the pafte-board, that it may lap 
:k over 

us E n IN Pa i n t i v g* ^P7, 

over on every fide j in the doing which care 
muft be taken that it be equally ftrctchcd on each 
fide, fo as to render the whole perfeftly even. 


Of the grounds for frefco painting. 

THE fubftance or matter on which frefco 
paintings are generally made, is either 
plafter or canvas. 

When plafter of Paris without lime is ufed, 
and the furface made fmooth, there need no 
further preparation : but when any lime is ufed 
in the plafter, and any other colours are em- 
ployed, except earths, or fuch as are prepared 
from mineral fubftances, the furface Ihould 
be waftied over feveral times with fize and 
plafter of Palris free from lime, and fuffered to 
clry then thoroughly before it be painted upon* 

When canvas is ufed, as for.fcenes, Gfr, it 
muft be coated with ftrong fize and whitings 
till it be of a thicknefs to take a water poliih, 
and then it ftiould be primed with plafter. of 
Paris free from lime, and mixed up with fize. 
as before direfted for the plafter ; as it will 
then bear lake, carmine, or other colours pre- 
pared from vegetables without preying upon, 
or changing them. The manner of giving 
the water polifti is by rubbing over rhe ground 
with a wet cloth till it be perfectly fmooth. 




208 Of the Substances 


Of the grounds for var7iijlD painting 4 

THE fiibftance or matter on which varn- 
i(h paintings are made is for the moft 
part copper, iron, and wood. As the paint- 
ing ground is not covered with the colours, in 
moft works of this kind, it muft confequently^ 
be of the varnifh itfelf the work confifts of; 
but where it is intended to be painted over, as 
in the cafe of regular pictures, a priming may 
be given of (hell or feed-lac varnirfi mixed with 
the proper colours for the ground defired. 


Of the methods of varnifhing, and 
preferving pidures and paintings. 

THE method of preferving paintings 
in oil is by coating them with feme 
transparent and hard fubftance, as a varnifli, to 
fecure the colours from the injuries of the air 
or moifture ; and to defend the furface from 
fcratches or any damages the painting might 
receive from flight violences. 
The fubftances, that have been, or may be 
f^aJSsd. for this purpofe, arc gum Arabic, glair or 
"I whites 

*v tJSED IN Painting.' 209 

whites of eggs, ifinglafs iize, and varnifhes 
formed of gum refins diflblved in fpirit of 
wiric, or oil of turpentine ^ which laft, where 
oil of turpentine is ufed, are called oil var- 

Gum Arabic has been ufed, diflblved in wa- 
ter, as a varnifh for pictures and paintings, on 
account of its being both more eafily laid on, 
and taken off, than the varnifhes formed of 
fpirit of wine or oil of turpentine. It is more 
eafily laid on, becaufe it may be made exadtly 
of that degree of vifcidity with which it can 
be beft worked with a brufli or pencil; and 
becaufe it is totally free from tnat accident 
called chillingy which attends all varnifh made 
with fpirit of wine. There is, however, a- 
long with thefe, another quality of fo bad a 
kind, that its effefts more than countervail 
thefe advantages in the ufe of gum Arabic, as 
a varni(h for paintings ; which is, that as it dries, 
it is extreniely apt to crack ; and give fuch ap- 
pearance of flaws and fcratches, as obfcure and 
difibrm the painting to an intolerable degree ; 
and, therefore, this gum is at prefent much 
rejefted with refped to this application 5 and 
the fubfiance we fhall next confider fubflituted 
in its place. The addition of fugar or fugar* 
candy will greatly prevent the cracking of gum 
Arabic ; but then it gives a vifcidity or flicki- 
nefs to the gum that makes the furface of the 
painting fully, and is in a manner equally de- 
trimental with the cracking of the gum. 

P Glair 

2ia Of th* Substances 

Glair of eggs,, beat tf> aa iviftDonS) opofiSr*, 
ence, and fpi*^ witk a proper hruih over thc; 
paintings^. an£^ers much die £uac end as gav^r 
Arabic : but has the like advantages /with. 
much lefs of the bad quality of crackii>g : for 
which re^foi) it is generally preferred tck tb« 
gum. It has,, neverthelefs, one great d^fe^,. 
which is its not lafting, fdrit rcq^aire:, tQ b^ 
renewed frequently, as either moiftui^ or great- 
drynefs of the air injure it. h is uiual to- mix, 
arUttle brandy or fpirit of wine with the gbk 
of the eggs> in order to make it work more: 
freely with a brufli 5 as alio a lump of fugar ta. 
give it more body and prevent its cracking j. 
from which, after all, it will not be ijntirely frcc,^ 
after it has ibme time laid on^ if the pi^hire bc' 
put into a very dry place. 
. liingiais &zQ may be ufcjcL for a varniih ii> 
the fame manner as the iblutiQn of gum Ara^ 
bic OT the glair of eggs -, and if a little hpQcy; 
or fugaa-, about a fourth or fifth of thc Wieight w 
t|ie ifinglafs, be added to it^ it will cqi^i; looro, 
eflfedually thaa either of them^ and yet be free 
fronji cracking. This is not, however, fo lad- 
ing a varnifh as thc gum refins, eipecially if the- 
painting or pidure be brought into a damp ii- 
tuation ; and indeed in all caies it is apt to t^rn, 
very yellow with time : but where there is a p»- 
fpedt of having occafion to tafce off the vfifi^ 
foj: altering the painting, this wilJi be finmd a 
very good one j as it may be intirely ir^aovcd 
by means of a fponge and hot water, 



' *flicre have been many compofitions ki- 
^etUed for ipirit and oil vamifhes for paintings j 
but tjie naultiplying a number of ingredients in 
fUcli compofitions is by no means attended with 
^vantages that are equivalent to the trouble. 
3C will, however, give one of the applauded 
fccipes of eaph kind -, and then fubjpin to it 
^bother more fimple, which I believe will bet- 
ter anfwer the purpofe. 

** Take of gum fandarac half a pound, of 

*^ Venice turpentine one ounce and half, of the 

** gumsanimi, and copal, each three quarters 

'*' of an ounce, of maftic half an ounce, ofBen- 

•* jamin, gum elemi, and white refin, each two 

• ^ drams, of recftified fpirit of wine one pound. 

*• Powder the Benjamin and gum animi ; and 

** put to them and the Venice turpentine, con* 

*^ taincd. in a proper fized phial, eight ounces 

** of the ^irit of wipe ; to the; copal and refin 

*• powdered, put, in like manner, in a phial, 

** fix ounces j a(\d tp the powdered gum elenai 

** two ounces. Let them ftand, fhaking die 

*^ phials frequently, till the guqis, &c. be 

** di0&lved. Then ftrajn all the folutions 

** thro* a piece of iSne linnen into one bottle ; 

'* andy after the mixture has flood fome days, 

** decant off as much as wijl feparate clear ; 

'^ and keep it in a bottle well flppt for ufe." 

Some pmit the copal, which is in fa<9: fo 
0\jach the fame with the aqimi, that thcie i| 
no c^rt^iin ni^rk of diftinftion known ; and 
pijt ia its place the fame qiiMlity of gum 
farcQcol : but it is not of any confequenee-, 

P 2 which 

2\t Of the Substances 

which is admitted; nor whedier three parts ^^ 
in four oiF the ingredients be rejected : for the ^ 
following will anfwer the end equally well. 
. " Take of the gums maftic and fandarac, ^^ , 
** powdered grofsly, each fix ounces, of Venice ^=2 
" turpentine halt an ounce, diflblve them in Jcf^ 
** a quart of highly reftified fpirit of wine, ,^- -, 
** and ftrain off die folution as tne above. l^^J 
** this be wanted harder an equal weight of^i^f 
** the gums animi or copal may be added,.« Mf 
.** and die quantity of fpirit of wine doubled/'* *^-" 

In the ufing this kind of varniih great care^^ 'c 
muft be taken that the pifture receive nod^'O 
damage from it : for the diflblving power o^^f 
the fpirit of wine will fometimes reach the oiK Sil 
of the painting, and confequendy diflurb thc-^c 

The vamifli fliOnld, therefore, be fprea^Esi 
with as little and as gentle work of the pencir -5/ 
as poffible 5 and care fhould be taken, likewife -=> 
that the painting be thoroughly dry befbrc^s 
the operation be attempted. There is alio an — - 
odier nice circumftance to be attended to in th-^e 
iufe of this kind of varnifh, which, is to avoi^d 
what is called the chilling of it \ and will ccir- 
tainly happen, if the varniih be not laid on \n 
a very warm place, or thepidure itfclf warmc^ 
to a moderate degree: and this will be ftl/i 
more liable to happen, if the ipirit of wine em- 
ployed be not very highly redtified. If tip 
yarnilh appear to be chilled^ (that is when tfcc 
parts of the^gums do not attraft each other; 
but precipitate from the phlegm, left by the 
,2 fpirit 


jblrlt on its evaporating away, in the fonn of 
a powder, which gives a mifty turbid appear* 
ance to the furface, inftead of a tranfparent 
(hining one,) another coat fhould be laid over 
it, which win in general remedy the mifchief ;' 
ihd indeed lefs than two or three coats of this 
kind of varnifh is not fufficient to preferve the 
>ainting, and bring out due effedt of the co- 
ours ; if they are in that ftatc csllcd funk ///,' 
>ccafioned by the attradlion of the cloth on the 
>ils mixed with them. 

The following is a recipe for an oil of turr 
>cntine varnifh of the more compound kind. 

^^ Take of the gums maftic and fandarac, 

* each four ounces, of white refin two ounces, 

* of the giuns farcocal, animi, copal, and oli- 
^ banum, each one ounce. Powder them 

* grofsly ; and put them into a phial with two 
•^ pounds of oil of turpentine ; flop the phial, 
'^ but not too fafl, left it burft ; and place it 
** in any heat ; the greater the better, under 
" that which will make it boil. Let it ftand 
" there, till the gums be difTolved, or at leaft 
" fo much of them as will be diflblyed, then 
" ftrain off the folution for ufe." 

The ingredients, except the maftic and 
fandarac, may be omitted at difcretion : and 
with refpeft to the gums animi and copal, un- 
der which names, a variety of gums brought 
from the Eaft and Weft-Indies, as well as 
Africa, pafs, there are a very few parcels which 
will be found to diflblve in oil of turpentine, 
lodeed I h;jve never found any that would be 
• P3 fo 

414 Of THE Substances. 
fo diflblvcd : but recipes like this l>ave bfjen 
given upon very good authority. The fdllbw4 
ing, therefore, Will be found a much cheapct, 
kte troublefome, and equally good varni&vdth 
that made by this complex mixture. 

*^ fake of gum fandarac two ounces, cff 
" maftic and olibanum each an ounce andlialFi 
** or three ounces of maftic, and Venice tur- 
** pentine half an ounce : powder ihebi j and 
** diiTolve them in half a pound of oil of tur- 
" pentine ; proceeding as in the above.'* 

When this kind of varnifh is ufed, it is par- 
ticularly neceffary that the painting fhould be, 
thoroughly dry s and the pencil ufed as -^ntly 
and fparingly in the laying it on as pomble : 
for the oil of turpentine is extremely ready to 
diffolve the oil of the painting, if it l)e the 
leaft within its power : on which account the 
yarnifhes of this fort are much lefs ufed now 
than formerly. This varnifh, however, will 
jfpread much more eafily than that with fpirit 
of wine -, and is not fubjed to chill, even 
though it be laid on without the aid of ai\y 
warmth : but it is proper, neverthelefs, to be 
very careful, that there be no damp or moifturc 
on the furface of the painting ; which would 
prevent the varnifli from taking hold; and 
wholly fruftrate the intention of it. 

Varniihes have been ufed, likewife, formed 
of the gums fandarac, olibanum, and Arabic, 
with white refin and turpentine, diflblvcd in 
liniced oil -, but they are greatly out of ufe now, 
as fuch varniihes are flow in drying j and the 


USED IN Painting. 215 

iioieed oil will turn yellow ; befidcs the difad- 

.^ntage arifing from the impnifticabrftty of 

^ver teking than off ihe painting again, wliatr 

^vcr occafton there may be for it. But a very 

fecufe and good vamifh may, neverthelefs, be*. 

tnade, by diflblving two ounces of fandarac 

rand olitenum, with half an ounce df Venice 

turpentine, in half a pound of old nut or 

T^PPy ^^ which is white ; and if too fat for 

^^rtJiierufe, the better. 

All thefc varnifhes muftte carefully laid on 
•nvith a pencil or brulh, according to the circtim* 
'Aances before intimated to be proper for e^tch 
"kind : but wi A reipeft to thofe tnade of (prrit 
%>£ wine or oil of turpentine, particular care 
jtnufl: be taken not to pafs the pencil or bruih 
xnore than once over the fame place : for, o- 
tiierwife, it will produce ftreats and inequali- 
ties which fpoil the effedt. 

Pamtmgs in miniature are preferved by means 
of plates of glafs, or the talc called ifinglafs> 
placed in the frame before them. There is no 
particular method to be obferved in doing diis: 
%aft to make the frame fo compaft, that the air 
may have no accefs ; which, otherwife, will 
IcWittimes prey upon the colours. 

Paintings in frefco, where they are of con- 
iequenct enough to merit fuch care, nwy be 
tendered more durable, and preferved froir* 
fbcrtnefs, by varnifliing them with hot lizc 
boiled to a ftrong confiftence, in which a fif- 
teenth or twentieth part of honey has been dif- 

P4 Paint-1 

2i6 Of the Substances 

Paintings in varnifli require no means of pr^-j— - 
fcrvation, but from violence s the varnifli itfelf""^fcf 
being a very fufficient defence of the colour; ^^5 
againfl the air, moifture, or all other fubftances ^^rs 
that might efFedt them. 

Crayons muft be preferved as paintings with-«:Ji 
water colours, by plates of glafs or iiinglafs. — —• 
There have been many experiments made to^z^o 
difcover a method of varnifliing and ^ving^^^ 
adhefion to the colours, to prevent their b«ng^^.g 
fo eafily rubbed off, or indeed fhaken oflF, vnthMzMh 
any very brifk motion : but the fuccefs has not*"^^ 

been hitherto fuch as makes it material to com -«- 

municate the particulars of them here. 


Of mending and cleaning pidures anc» d 

SECT. I. 0/ mending piBures. 

WHERE pidhiaes have been torn, c=:?i 
parts of them deftroyed, various mi^^- 
thods have been ufed for repairing them; ar:^^ 
making good the damaged or defe<ftive part^ •' 
but there is one fimple method by means c/ 
the oil fattened together with the colours in 
what is called by painters the Imufli-pot, ot 
ycflel where diey rub off the paint from the pen- 
cils, and put the fcrapings of the pallet; which 

USED IN Painting." 217 

fcmployed in the following manner effeftually 
anfwer$ the end, at leaft equally well with the 
moil complex and elaborate method. 

Where pidtures are only cut, or torn, widi- 
out any loi^ of their fubftance, they fhould be 
laid on a flat even board or table ; and die torn 
or divided parts being carefully laid together 
with feme of the matter of the finuih-pot laid, 
as a cement, in and over die joint, they muft be 
kept in that fituation till this cement be tho- 
roughly dry ; the riling or inequality of the 
cementing matter with the furface, muft then 
be taken off neatly by means of a penknife ; 
and the part afterwards properly coloured to 
• correfpond with the pidurc. 

Where the cloth is worn out in parts, or 
deftroyed by any accidents, the defe(^ve places 
may be eafily made good in the following 
manner. Having laid the pifture on a flat 
board, cut out with a penknife, fuch jagged 
or damaged pieces, as cannot be brought to lie 
finooth and even. Then form a piece of can- 
vas bigger than the whole intended to be co- 
vered; and plafter it over, with the above men- 
tioned fat oil and colours taken from the fmufli- 
pot, on the outfide of the cloth; and fit it pro- 
perly as a patch to the place it is to make good ; 
taking care that the margin, or that part which 
projefts on every fide of the hole have good 
Xiold of the canvas of the pidure, and be preflcd 
clofe every where to it. Then Jet it remain 
till it be thoroughly dry 3 and fill afterwards 
the inequality, or finking of that part of the 


«i8 Of the Substance's 
picture where the patch lies, with the fame 
matter from the fmufh-pot ; raifing it fome- 
Ttrhat higher than the furface of the piftune to 
allow for the drying ; and if it rife too high. 
When dry, take it down with a penknife, Aner 
this is perfedlly dry alfo, the part may be paint- 
fed according to what the pifturc requires; and 
it 1/^ te found to be equally found and dura- 
ble With any other part. 

Where a pifture is cut or torn into fcvfctal 
pieces, the parts of it may be joined tbgctiicr 
and cemented down in the proper places, on a- 
piece of frefh canvas, by the feme meahsi 


0/ clea?itng piBures a7td paintings;. 

TH E art of cleaning pidhires and paint- 
ings is of great confequence to the pre— 
ferving valuable works of that kind : but has. 
been very little underftood even by thoie who 
profefs to pradlife it j on which account manjr 
very valuable pifturcs have been damaged z 
and indeed few efcape without damage, in a. 
greater or Icfs degree, which come under the 
hands of thofe who pretend to make it their 
bufinefs ; and yet moft generally know no o— 
ther than one fingle way of treating all 'the fub— 
je<5ts they art to operate upon, however dif- 

USED IN Painting^ 219 

trcnt may be tile cohditldn or arcdmfkrtecs 
>f* tiietti. 
AsapaJntihg tna^ybe, howettf, foukdwitfi 
VarietyoF dmwent kinds of matter, many of 
siii^h will hot be dilfolved, or ftifFcr their tor* 
ills to be deftroyed by die fame fobftances, it 
I neceiTary to know what will difiblve or coir- 
3de cafch fudi kind ; for there is no other 
leans of removing, or taking off ahy foul- 
efi, than by diflblving or corroding l^ iome 
roper menftruum the matter which conflitutes 
: ; except by adhial .violence ; which the ten- 
et nature of oil paintings by no means fuffers 
leln to bear. Of thefe fubftances, which vfrill 
•move, by diflblving or corroding it, the mat- 
*r which may foul paintings, fome arc vety 
pt, likewife, to aifl upon and diflblve the oil in 
ie painting itfelf ; and cotifequently to difor- 
.er or bring off the colours; whHe others are, 
»n the contrary, paflive and innocent, widi re- 
peA to the painting; and may be ufed freely, 
)r indeed in any quantity whatever, without 
he leaft inconvenience of this kind. 

As paintings to be cleaned are likewife var- 
nifhed with a variety of fubftances of different 
natures, which fometimes require to be taken 
off, and at other times are much better left re- 
maining, it is very neceflary to be able to judge 
what is beft to be done in this point ; as like- 
wife to kYiow the means by which each fort qf 
vairnifh may be taken off without injury to the 
painting : lor in fadt, witjiout this, there is no 
trty qf cleaning pidures in fome circum-^ 

ftanccs J 

220 Of the Substances. 
ftances ; but by fcouring till, as well the fur-- 
face of the pidlure, as the foulnefs, be cleared 
away. I fhall therefore firft give fome account 
of (he nature of the fubftances, which arc, or 
may be ufed for cleaning paintings in oil, as it 
regards this application of them; and then 
ihew, how they may be ufed as well for the 
, taking off the varnifli ; as the removing 
any foulneis, that may lie either upon or un- 
der it 

The firft, and moft general fubftance ufed 
for cleaning pidlures, is water. This will re- 
move many kinds of glutinous bodies, and 
foulnefs arifing from them; fuch as fugar, 
honey, glue, and many others, and alfo take 
off any varnifti of gum Arabic, glair of cggs^ 
and ifinglafs ; and is therefore the greateft in- 
ftrument in this work. It may be ufed with- 
out any caution with regard to the colours 5 * 
as it will not, in the leaft, afFed the oil which 
holds them together. 

Olive oil, or butter, though not applied to 
this purpofe, through an ignorance of their 
. efficacy, will remove many of thofe fpots or 
foulnefs which rejGft even fope ; as they will 
diflblve or corrode pitch, refin, and other 
bodies of a like kind, that otherwife require 
fpirit of wine and oil of turpentine, which en- 
danger the painting : and they may be ufed 
very freely, not having the leaft eifeft on the 
oil of the painting. 

Wood-aihes, or what will better anfwer the 
purpofe, when ufed in a proper proportion, 


USED IN Painting. k2i 

pcarl-aflies, being jnelted in water, make a 
proper diflblvent for moft kinds of matter 
which foul paintings : but they muft be ufcd 
with great difcretion, as they will touth (it 
corrx>ae the oil of the painting, if there be no 
vamifh of the gum refins over it, fo as to ren- 
der the colonic liable to be injured by very 
little rubbing. The ufe of them or fope, -isi 
however, in manv cafes unavoidable, and in 
general they are tne only fubfhnces employed 
ror this purpofe. 

Sope is much of the fame nature with the 
laft mentioned fubftances j being indeed only 
oil incorporated with falts of the fame kinds^ 
rendered more powerfully diflblvent by mcMis 
of quick-lime : for which reafbn it is foiue- 
thing more efficacious; butconfequentlymtore 
hazardous; ais it will the fooner get hold of the 
oil of the paintings. It (hould, therefore, not 
be uied but on particular fpots, that elude all 
other methods ; and there with great caudon. 

Spirit of wine, as it will diflblve all the 
gums and gum refins, except gum Arabic, is 
very neceflary for the taking off from pidlurcs 
varniflies compofed of fuch fubftances : but it 
corrodes alfo the oils of the paintings; and 
foftens them in fuch manner, as niakes all 
rubbing dangerous while they are under its in-^ 

Oil of turpentine will, likewife, diflblve 

fome of the gums ufed for vamifh : but fpirit 

of wine will in general much better anfwer 

that purpofe. There arc, however, fome- 

• times 



tklllWi ipots Qf foukefs, which. wiU give? way 
te'^irit of twrj^ptone, that nefift moft Qtbe? 
^ft^ncfs ufod w this intentipa : ao4 it rajiy, 
^IpiBlfore, be trifed: where they ippejkr to fay^ 
fc!i« wy %ftrJDgly, and with grwt cwtipn: ^ 
W if will wqf fcop jlA evcft oq tJ»e dry oil of ^ 

:Wfknm of lernws ha^. the famff powers as a 
Ctt) of fUFpcntjpe : but is^ rnqreoyer, a much j 

ftronger diflblvent ; and fhoj^ldf th?refbre| ^ 

only be ufed in d?fperate eafeSji where fpots * 

^Qmi indelible with regard to all other rae-r 
tbs^js.. Spirit of lavender and fo'fe-maiy, and - 

dher efleHtial oil^ have the feme diflblving : 

qswUtJies a^ eflence of lemons ; but they are in 
gfaewt dearer ; and fome of diem too power- 
^ to be trufted near the eolqurs. 

Whenever paintings are varni/hed with ^m 
Arabic, glair of eggs, or ifingl^s, the vamifl^ 
ihould be t^en off when they are t» be. cleaa- 
ed. This may be eafily diftipgiufhed by wet- 
ting any part of the painting> which will ftel 
clammy, if varniflied with any fubftancc dif- 
felvjible in water. In fuch cafes, tfifi t^ng 
fiif the varnifh will frequently ^Ipoe render 
the painting intirely clean : for if it h^ve been 
Wd on thick, and covered the fijrface ^very 
where, the foulnefs muft neceffarily lye upofi 
it. The manner of taking off this Jdnd of 
varnifh muft be done by means of hot wate^: 
and a fpunge ; the pidure or pointing being 
laid horizontally. The water may be neac 
boiJiog hot I and may be ufed copioufly at firft 


usBD IK Painting.' z2% 
Krith th« fpung^: but when tho varniih app^ra 
kx be foftened, and the painting more n^edi ife 
^uld be ufed cooler ; and, if the varnish td^ 
iiere, fo as not to be eaJfily brought off by » 
Ipwige, a gentle rubbing wit^ a linnen cloth, may 
be uTed; d^e cloth being frequently wrung^aAd 
wet ^esin with frefli water a li(t}e wairm^ 

Where paintings appear by dhe «boy6: j^ial 
ta be vamiihed with the gum*re£inS| or (v^h 
(ubliances as cannot be diiTolved in water,, k 
is proper, neverthelefs, to wa{h thegat \Keli 
wim water pretty warm, by means of a fpuage-j 
nrhich will fometime$ be alone fufiicieqt to 
clean them, even in this cafe : but if t](^re 
fCt appear any foulnefs, rub the painting over 
with olive oil made warm, or butter ; aod i^ 
ajay parts appear fmeary, or any foulnefs fcen* 
tp mix with the oil or butter, purfue the rub- 
bing gently j taking off the foul oil, and adding 
fepflbi till all fuch foulnefs be wholly removed* 
Let the oil be then wiped off with a wooUea 
dWh, and if the picture require further clean- 
ing, the wood-a{hes, or pearl-afhes, muft be 
ii^d in the following manner J which, indeed, 
%s to the firft part is not widely different fr omr 
the method commonly ufed, 

" Take an. ounce of pearl-aihes,^ an4 dif- 
'^ Iplve them in a pint of water : or take twa 
'^ jppunds of wood-aflies, and add to them 
" three quarts of water, and ftir them weli 
" in the water once or twice ia an hour for 
" half a day -, and then, when the earthy part 
" of the afhes has fubfided, pour off the clear 
z " fluid 

224 O^ THE Substances 

•• fluid, and evaporate It to a quart; or if it 
*• appear acrid to the tafte at that time, three 
•• pints may be left. Wafti by means of 
*• fpunge the painting well witn either of 
** Aefe folutions, or lyes (which are in faft 
•* the fame thing) made warm; and rub any 
•^ particular fpots of foulnefs gently with ^ 
** iirnien cloth till they difappear: but if they 
*• appear to remain unchanged by the lye, do 
** not endeavour to take Qiem off by meer 
** force of rubbing ; for that would infallibly 
** damage the colours under the ipots before 
^* they could be removed : but in this cafe 
5' they fhould be left to be tried by the fpirit 
** of wine, or the eflential oils of turpentine 
** and lemons. Where thick fpots feem to 
** give way in part, but yet refift in a great 
** degree to this lye, a little ftrong fope-fuds 
** may, in fome cafes, be ufed, if with great 
•* caution : but it (hould be prevented as 
** much as poffible, from touching any part 
^^ of the painting, except the fpot itfelf : and, 
** as that difappears, the fope fhould be di- 
*' luted with water, that it may not reach the 
** oil of the colours in its full flrength. If, 
•* however, all this be done upon a fhong 
*' coat of varnifh, there will be lefs hazard; 
*^ and, in fuch cafes, the wafliing freely with 
*^ the wood-afh lye, or weak fope-fuds, will 
*' frequently do the bufinefs effeftually with- 
" out any material damage : but it requires 
** fome judgment to know where, paintings 
f' may be fo freely treated ; and, witii refpefl: 
^- ■ . "to 



USED IN Painting. 225 
3 thofe of great value, it is always beft to 
roceed by more circumfpedt methods ; 
nd to try the more fee u re means I have 
bove direfted, before thcfe rougher be 

omc ufe the wood aflies with the addition 
^ater only, without feparating tlie folution 
iic falts from the earth ; which, when fo 
li aflifts in fcrubbing the foulnefs from the 
iting : but all fuch practices are to be con- 
incd ; as the finer touches of the painting 
always damaged in a greater or lefs degree, 
TC any abrading force is employed in clean- 

Vhere fpots appear, after the ufc of all 
above mentioned methods, Ipirit of wine, 
if that fail, oil of turpentine, and in the 
bier cafe of its defaujt, effence of lemons, 
\ be iipplied. The fpots fhould be lightly 
ftened with them ; avoiding to fuffer them 
3uch any more of the furface than what is 
;red with the foulnefs ; and the part fliould 
mmediately rubbed with a linnen clotjh, 
very gently ; obferving at the fame time 
efift, if the colours appear the leaft affed:- 
After a little rubbing olive oil fhould 
3Ut on the fpot, where oil of turpentine 
eflence of lemons are ufed ; and water 
jre fpirit of wine is applied ; whiqh being 
5n off by a woollen cloth, if the foylnels 
lot wholly removed, but appears to give 
r, the operation muft be repeated till it be 
rely obliterated. 

Q^\ Where 

226 Oft HE Substances^ 

Where paintings appear to have been var- 
niihed with thofe lubftances that will not dit- 
folve in water, and after the careful ufe of the 
above means the foulnefs ftiil continues, or 
where, as is very often found, the turbidncfs, 
or want of tranfparency or the yellow colour of 
the varnifh, deprave the painting fo as to de- 
ftroy its value, fuch varnifh muft be taken off. 
The doing of which, though attended with 
the greateft difficulty to thofe who proceed by 
the methods now in ufe, and which indeed is 
feldom done by them at all, but with the de- 
iiruftion of the more delicate teints and 
touches of the painting, is yet very eafily and 
' fefely prafticable by the following method. 
" Place the pidure or painting in an hori- 
" zontal fituation ; and moiften, or rather 
" flood, by means of a fpunge, the furface 
*^ with very ftrong r edified fpirit of wine.; 
** but all rubbing more than is neceflary to 
'* fpread the fpirit over the whole furface muft 
•^ be avoided. Keep the painting thus moift- 
" ened, by adding frefti quantities of the fpi- 
" rit for fome minutes : then flood the whole 
" furface copioufly with cold water ; with 
*' which, likewife, the fpirit, and fuch part 
" of the varnifli as it has diflblved, may 
" be wajQied off^. But in this ftate of it, all 
*' rubbing, and the flightcfl: violence on the 
" furface of the painting, would be very dc- 
{' trimental. When the painting is dry, this 
" operation mufl: be repeated at difcretion, till 
" the whole of the varnifh be taken oflF/' 


tJSEt) IK Painting. .2^7 
In pldiures and paintings, which have been 
long varnifhed, it will be found fometimcr, 
:hat the varnifh has been a compofition of lin- 
ked oil> or fome other fubftantial oil, with 
^ms and refins. If fuch paintings cannot be 
wrought to a tolerable ftate, by* any of the a- 
>ove mentioned means, which may in this 
:afe be freely ufed, the mifchief may be deem- 
ed to be without remedy. For it is abfolutely 
mprafticable to take off fuch a varnifli, as it 
3 more cbmpadl and indiffoluble than the oil 
)f the painting itfelf ; and could only be 
vrought upon by thofe menftrua and diffol- 
'^ents, which would adt more forcibly on the 
ointings: fuch pictures muft, therefore, be 
eft in the ftate they are found ; except by be- 
Qg freed from any foulnefs that may lye upon 
his varnifh ; and may be cleared away by the 
acthods we have before directed. The coat 
f this varnifh may, indeed, be fomctimcs 
fiade thinner by anointing the furface of the 
ainting with effence of lemons ; and then 
utting on olive oil, which, when rubbed off, 
y a foft woollen cloth, will carry away the 
(!ence with fuch part of the varnifh as it may 
ave diflblved : but this requires great nicety ; 
tid can never be pradtifed without fome ha- 
ard of difordering the colours of- the paint- 

0^2 CHAP. 


a28 Of the Substances 


Of the nature, preparation, and ufe 
of the feveral fubftances employee 
in enamel painting. 

SECT. I. Of the general nat w ^ e 
of ena7nel painting. 

ENAMEL painting differs from all c^iv 
ther kinds, in employing, as a vchic=rJc 
for the colours, (to hold the parts together, 
and bind them to the ground they are Isk^id 
upon) glafs or fome vitreous body 5 which 1>^ 
ing mixt with the colours, and tufed or mc H t- 
ed by means of heat, becomes fluid ; aanrf 
having incorporated with the colours in that 
ftate, forms together widi them a hard ma/s 
when grown cold ; and anfwers, therefore, 
the fame end in this, as oiU gum-water, fi^e, 
or varnifh, in the other kinds of painting. 

The glafs or vitreous body, applied to diis 
purpofe of mixing with the colours, in order 
to bind them to the grounds, is called zfim\ 
and makes one principal clafs of the fubftances 
ufcd in enamel painting. When this flux ij 
calily ftifible, that is to fay, melts with a lef 
degree of heat, it is, in the ftyle of thofc wb 
^worjc in enamel, fald to be SOFT^ 'ar 


U5ED IN Painting. 22^ 

when it is reluftant to mrlt, and requires a 
greater degree of heat, it is called HARD ; 
and thefe terms are as well applied to the 
matter of the enamel grounds, and all other 
vitreous fubftances concerned, as to the fluxes. 
It is, in general, a perfection of, the flux to 
be foft, or run eafily into fufion : but the 
great point, witli relped: to this particular, is, 
that when feveral mixtures of colours and 
fluxes are ufed at the fame time, they fhould 
all correfpond to each other in the degree of 
this quality : otherwife fome would be render- 
ed too fluid, and perhaps run the matter of 
the enamel ground into fufion, and mix with 
it, while ©thers remained folid and infufiici- 
cntly fufed themfelves. It is always necefl&- 
nr, likewife, that the enamel of the ground 
mould be confiderably harder than the mix- 
tures for the colours : for if they both melt 
with the fame degree of heat, they will ne- 
ceflarily run together. 

It being requifite that the body painted 
in enamel fhould undergo a heat fufficient 
to melt foft glafs, the matter of fuch body 
:an only be gold, filver, copper, porcelain, or 
[^hina-ware, hard glafs, and earthen- ware : 
uid where the metals are ufed, if the painting 
3e of the nature of a pidlure, or demand a 
variety of colours, it is neceflary that a ground 
jf white, or fome other colour, fhould be laid 
3n the metal; the body of which ground 
aiuft neceflarily be of the fame vitreous . na- 
ture as the fltux, but harder s as nothing elfe 
Q^ * can 

^3^ ^^ THE Substances 
can endure fo great a heat that is capable c^^ ^^ 
incorporating with, and binding the matter c^^ of 
the white, or other colour, to the furface czz^^oi 
die metal. The grounds, therefore, mak:^s-kc 
another principal clafs of the fubftances ufe^^^^d 
in enamel painting. 

The third clafs is the colours, which mufii m& 
likewifc be bodies capable of fuffering the hea^s -at 
of melted glafs : and fuch as will either them- -jcraj- 
felves be converted into glafs, or kindly incor-TK:r- 
porate with it in a melted ftate. This o^n^of 
courfe confines the matter of fuch colours t^ :^to 
metals, earths, or other mineral bodies; all ve-^^- 
getable and animal fubftances being calcinec^ — d 
and analyzed, with a greatly lefs degree oczzaof 
heat than tlie loweft fufficient to work enamcr ^I. 

The fourth kind of fubftance is what I fha^^^l 
call the feco7idary vehicle-, which is, fome fluL-^jd 
body for laying on the ground, and workin^g^, 
with the pencil, the flux and colours wh i n 
mixt together ; fince, as they form only a 
dry powder, they could not be ufed as paijEiait 
without fome fuch medium. But as this is ^ato 

fcrve only for fpreading and laying on the ma t- 

ter of the enamel, and not, like other vehicl€r=- s, 
to aflift in holding the colours together, ar:^d 
binding them to the ground (that being :xn 
this kind of painting die office of the flux) Jt 
is neceflary, that it ihould be fome fuch ful^- 
fiance as will evaporate and dry away withotJt 
leaving any part behind : which would other- 
wife be heterogeneous matter with regard to 
enamel } and coniequendy injurious to it. 


USED IN Painting. 231 

5Ei3ehtiaI oils have been, therefore, ufed for 
this purpoie, as they have this quality of 
wholly drying away on the firft approach of 
heat, together with a flight unftuofity, which 
renders, them capable of making the matter of 
the enamel work prpperly with the penciL 

The preparation of thefe feveral fubftances, 
ha\rc been till of late greatly monopolized by 
iic. Venetians, except what were prepared at 
Drefdcn fince the eftablifliment of the China 
aianufaftures ; or known but to few others, 
i¥ho pradtifed the preparing only fome kinds : 
md even at prefent, there are, perhaps, none 
n this . country, whp prepare more than a 
biali part of the variety neceflary. For tho' 
nany poflefs the knowledge of fome particular 
,rtides, yet they are ignorant with regard to o- 
hcfs, which are again, perhaps, known to thofc 
?ho are ignorant of thefe ; there having been 
idxerto no means afforded to the prafticers 
f it of learning the particulars of this art in a 
rftcra: and a deeper knowledge of the princi- 
Ics and praftice of chemiftry is requifite to the 
taining it, without being taught, than could 
■cU .feu to the Iharc of painters, pr other 
tifts. I Ihall, therefore, be more minute 
. my inflTU(aions for the making the feveral 
nds of Ae grounds, fluxes, and colours ; in 
xler that they who are concerned in, or may 
• defirous to apply themfelves to the art of 
anting in enamel, which is now become the 
liis of a conflderable manufadture in this 
Qj[. country. 

232 Of twe Substances 
country, may furnlfh themfelves with what- 
ever is necefiary in its greateft perfedion. 

Befides the knowledge of the preparation of 
the above fubftances, and of that part of the 
art of ufing them, which belongs to painting in 
general, there is another requifite, which is that 
of the burnings as it is called, the grounds, in 
order to forming them on the body to be paint- 
ed or enameled j as alfo the colours with die 
fluxes after they are laid on the grounds. 
What is meant by BURNING, is the giv- 
ing fuch a heat to the matter, when laid on 
the body to be painted, as will fufe or melt 
, it ; and confequently give to the flux or vi- 
treous part of the compofition the proper qua- 
lities of a vehicle for binding the colours to 
the ground, and holding the parts together. 
As this requires a particular apparatus, I iball 
endeavour to fliew the method of conftrudling 
it in the moft expedite and eafy manner; and 
to give fuch cautions for the condudl of the 
operation, both for burning the grounds and 
painting, as may beft enable thofe, who are 
lefs experienced in it, to attain to perfeclioa 
in this art. It cannot be expeded, nevepAe— * 
lefs, conlidering the nicety of the fubjedt, fucl*^ 
diredions can be given, as will infurc fuccefe 
in the firft trials, with xegard to feveral of th^ 
procefles; or even the general operations: bat 
whoever will malce themfelves mailers of the 
principles on which they depend, which are all 
along intimated, will eafily be able to corrcd 
their own errors, 


USED IN Painting. 233 

A judgment formed by fome little expe- 
rience, is likewife requifite for the preparing 
well the colours with certainty. For as dif- 
ferent parcels of the fame fubftance vary fre- 
quently in their qualities, with regard to the 
degree or proportion, it is neccflary to make 
allowance accordingly in the proportion of the 
quantities in the mixtures ; which cannot be 
done till fome little previous trial be made ; 
and the power of judging of them be gained 
by an experimental acquaintance with them. 
But as the materials in general are very cheap, 
and the experiments may be made in the fame 
lire where aftual bufmefs is done, whoever 
ivould excel in the art of preparing and ufing 
enamels, ihould take a conjiderable fcopc of 
experimental inquiry into the efFeft of all the 
various proportions and commixtures of the 
iubftances ufed. 


Of the apparatus^ or Jet of utenfih 
for the prepari7tg and laying on the 
grounds and colours in enamel paint- 

TH E apparatus neceflary for preparing 
arfd ufing the feveral fubftances em- 
ployed in enamel painting, confifts of a fur- 

234 Of the Substances 

nace for calcining and fufing the mattel' of 
which the colour is compofed ; asi alfo for 
burning or fufing the grounds and colours af- 
ter they are laid on^ — of proper muffles or 
coffins for fecuring the enameled paintings 
from the injury of the fire . while they ire 
burning ; — of pots for fufing the compofitions 
for colours and fluxes, or the mixtures of 
them together; — of crucibles for calcining 
copper and other metals, ifi order to the pre- 
paring the colours; — of mortars of^ glaisi 
agate, or flint, and of ftones and mullars of 
porphyry or- flint, for the pounding and Itvi- 
gating the feveral kinds of matter;— of tongs 
for taking the pots, muffles, &€. out of the 
iirej-^of bruihes, pencils, a fine fearer en? 

The furnaces for burning enamel are con-^ 
ftruv!led of very various fize or figure, accord- 
ing to the nature and qualities of the work ; 
and fome are made to be heated with com- 
mon coal, and others with charcoal, but at 
prefcnt not frequently. The beft form for a 
furnace for enameling pidlures, or other 
pieces of the fame magnitude, where the dif^ 
patch of great numbers are not wanted, is 
the following ; which is made to work with a 
fixt muffle ; in or out of which, the work 
may be taken without opening the door of 
the furnace, and annoying the operator with 
the heat ; who, for the fame reafbn, likewife 
may conveniently infped: the work in the 


USED IN Painting. 235 

The iron-work muft be firft prepared: 
^ivhich conlifts of a frame and bars, fuch as is 
dcfcribed in p, 1 5 ; die area of which togedier 
muft be ten inches by icvtn ; — of a door and 
frame^ fuch alfo as is defcribed in p. 16, which 
muft be five inches high and fevcn long 5 — 
and of a plate or ftrong bar to lay over the 
opening of the front, as below dire<fted, 
which muft be ten inches long ; with another 
of the fame magnitude to lay over the door 
and frame ; and one of eight inches to lay over 
the vent into the chimney ; — of a frame for 
bearing the fixt muffle, which muft fuit the 
figure of the muffle j except, that it muft be 
only three inches in depth, with the back 
part open, for the muffle to pafs through it in- 
to the cavity of the furnace; and that the plate 
which forms the bottom muft projcd: an inch 
and a half of each fide, beyond the arch or 
covering, for the brick work to have good hold 
of it ; but this will be better undei ftood by 
confidering the form of this kind of mujfflc, 
as below defcribed. 

The iron-work being prepared, let a chim^ 
ney of twelve or fourteen feet height be raifed; 
the cavity of which muft be an area of fevcn 
Qt eight inches fquare, in the front wall of 
which chimney a hole muft be left for ad- 
mitting the finoke of the furnace. The hole 
muft be fo placed, that the lower part may 
be five feet above the foundation of the chim- 
ney; and it may be four inches high and fix 
long : the plate prepdrcd for this purpofc be- 

2^6 Of TrtE Substances 

ing laid over to fupport the brick-work a- 

bove it, 

' The chimney being raifed to a proper height, 
let' a pedeftal or foundation to the furnace be 
built, by adding two walls to thofe of the chinr- 
ney, fo as to inclofe an area, fifteen inches in 
depth from the front, and eight inches wide : 
the front being left open from the default of a 
fourth wall. This pedeftal muft be raifed four 
feet and a half high ; and then the frame and 
bars for fupporting the fewel, with their crofs- 
bars, muft be laid 5 the furthermoft crofs-bar 
being laid clofe to the back of the hollow area • 
or/ in other words, to the wall of the chim- 
ney. The plate or flat bar muft be alfo laid 
clofe to the outermoft crofs-bar of thofe for 
bearing the fewel, in order that the brickwork 
may be carried over the hollow area, and in- 
clofe the fquare cavity of the furnace intirely. 
The brickwork muft be then raifed fix inches 
higher, in the fame manner as before ; only the 
front muft now be carried up, as well as the 
fides s which, together with the wall of the 
chimney, forms a complete inclofed area for 
holding the fewel : but particular care muft be 
taken in laying the firft courfe of this brick- 
work, that the flat ends of the crofs-bars, in 
which thofe defigned to bear the fewel are faft- 
ncd, be well fecured by the bricks which lie 
over them. When the cavity for holding the 
fewel is thus formed, the door and frame muft 
be placed in their proper fituation, and the 
brickwork muft be carried up on the two fides 



tJSED IN Painting. 137 

to the level of the top of the frame,: but in 
the fide mod conveniently fituated, the iron 
frame for bearing the muffle muft be fixed in 
the raifing this part of the brickwork. This 
frame mufl: be placed about four inches higher 
than the bottom of the door, and two inches 
from the back or furthermoft part of the fiir- 
nace j care being taken, that the brickwork 
have good hold of the parts of the frame formed 
for diat purpofe. The bricks contiguous to the 
.frame fhould be properly floped to the hole 
formed by it, that the opening into the muffle 
may be wider and more commodious for the 
taking out and putting in the work to be burnt; 
as alfo for the more eafy inlpeftion of it while 
burning. The brickwork being brought to a 
level with the top of the frame of the door, 
the plate or flat iron bar provided for that pur- 
pofe muft be laid over it, in order to fupport 
the building over it : and the fides of the fur- 
xiace muft be raifed five inches higher, and the 
<:avity or hollow then covered with a dome of 
iire-ftone, made a little concave on the inner or 
under fide, and of any figure the ftone will beft 
admit on the outward or upper. This dome 
muft reft on the brickwork; and they (hould be 
lb fitted to each other as to make a$ clofe a joint 
as poffible J fo that a coat of fire-lute being 
laid on the bricks when the dome is put, oi), 
the fiirnace may be perfedly tight. Windfor 
bricks (hould be employed for all that of the 
furnace which is above, the bars for bearing 


^3^ Of The Substances 

the fewel, and they ihould be laid in Windlbf 


Where greater quantities of pieces arc to be 
enamelled, and difpatch is required, furnaces 
muft be built in the manner proper for con* 
taining coffins inftead of a muffle : for the 
conflruiSing which the following is a very good 

This furnace muft be built till the fabric rife 
within two inches of the top of the door, in 
the fame manner as the former ; except with 
regard to the dimenfions ^ and the adding a 
back wall againft that of the chirapey, which 
muft be eight inches in breadth, and twenty 
inches in length. The dimenfions of the ca- 
vity oltthe chimney, till it rife to the height of 
five feet ten inches, muft be twelve inches in 
breadth 5 and feven or eight inches in depth, 
from the front : and the hollow or area under 
the bars for bearing the fewel muft be eleven 
inches and a half deep from the backwall to the 
front, and twelve inches wide ; and that of the 
furnace where the fewel is to lie eight inches in 
depth from the front wall to the back wall, and 
twelve inches in breadth ; to which dimenfions 
the bars and corfs-bars muft be fuited. The 
building being carried up to the height here 
mentioned, a door and frame of the fame form 
with that for feeding the fire muft be fixt in 
the moft convenient fide of the furnace : the 
inteation of which door is to ferve for putting 
in and taking out the coffins : and it mufl there- 
1 fore 

USED IN Painting. 239 

fore be placed fo that one end of the frame 

may be clofe to the chimney. The dimen- 

iions of this door muft be ten inches in height, 

and eight in breadth. Then the brickwork of 

the chimney may be proceeded with in the 

lame manner as before j except that the back 

wall againft the chimney muft be raifed no 

higher j but the fpace it would take, if car-* 

ried up higher, muft be added to the cavity or 

hollow area of the furnace ; the top of this 

wall ferving as a fupport to the coffins, which 

are to be placed upon it ; only two pieces of 

fire-ftone of ten inches length, and of the 

thicknefs of two inches fquare, muft be put 

"W^ith their lower part fixed, at about three inches 

diflance in the brickwork from the wall of 

"the furnace, that the coffins refting upon them, 

tiiG flame and heat of the fire may pafs under 

as- well as over them, and heat every part 

equally. Two vents into the chimney muft 

l>c, likewife, made clofe to each fide wall of 

tihe furnace • and* may be placed at the height 

of two inches above the level of the top of 

this wall, and of the dimenfions of four inches 

i» breadth, and three in height. When thefe 

Several parts have been compleated, and the 

Xvb6le fabric is raifed fifteen inches above the 

level of this wall, a dome of fire-ftone muft 

%3e fitted to it, in the fame manner as was 

directed for the former furnace } only it i^ 

tieccflary, in this cafe, that though the inner 

or under fide be concave, the upper (hould b^ 

flat, for the coffins to fland upon it to heat, 


240 Of the Substance* 
before they be put into the furnace, to pre- 
vent their cracking from too fudden an effeft 
pf the fire. 

It is fometimes pradlifed to burn enamel on 
t hearth with charcoal ; in order to which no 
apparatus is ncceffary but a proper hearth of 
fire-ftone or bricks, and a fkreen of brick, or 
feme fuch other material, through which to 
pafs the nozzle of the bellows to blow the fire 
without burning them. 

The bellows for this purpofe muft be made 
in the manner of thofe ufed for chemical ex- 
periments, to work with a weight, and to be 
moved by the operator as he ftands by the fire; 
but a very fmall pair of that kind will ferve for 
this purpofe. 

Melting pots for fufing the fluxes or colours 
are indifpenfibly necefFary ; the common cru- 
cibles being of too loofe a texture to con- 
tain vitreous bodies, when perfedUy liquified. 
Thefe melting pots are not to be purchafed» 
but muft be made for the exprefs purpoit. 
The proper materials are tobacco-pipe clay or 
Sturbridge clay (which is much cheaper liere) 
two parts, and crucibles ground to powdo: (qt 
in default of them fine fand) one part; which 
muft be tempered with water, and well mixed 
together. The dimenfions muft be regulated 
ty the quantity of matter to be fuied ; and the 
(hape may be a little conical, rather deep than 
ihallow; to form which a iblid mold of wood 
flxxild be procured for working them upon to 
bring them to a regular figure. When they 
I are 


USED IN Painting* 241 

arc formed, they muft be firft well dried, and 
then dioroughly baked, before they be ufed. 

Muffles and, where the quantity is great, 
coffins formed of the fame matter, arc requi- , 
fitc for the burning, as well the grounds as 
paintings in enamel. The ufe of muffles is 
to preferve the enamel from being injured 
yy die falling of the coals upon it, or by the. 
inoke and fumes of the coal, which in nmny 
z^es is very detrimental to the colours. The 
natter of which the muffles may be fabricated 
aacay be the fame with that juft now given for 
die melting pots ; and they muft be alfo dried 
and well baked before they be ufed. The form 
oif the muffles may be 01 two kinds ; the one 
that comonly ufed : the other a clofe muffle 
fixt in the fire, which is a much more com- 
modious method than the having them loofe. 

The ftiape of the common muffle is only a 
flat fquare piece bent into the form of an arch, 
of fuch dimenfions, that being laid over the 
enamel work to be burnt, it will cover it. 
Theie may be beft made by fpreading the 
matter properly tempered on a piece of wood, 
tamed to make a round correfpondent to the 
^ordi of the muffle, and working it even on the 
outfide by a knife or other flat inftrument ; and 
it may be left on this mold or round piece of 
wood till it be moderately dry and firm. It is 
proper alfo to make a bottom to this kind of 
muffle, on which the plate may be laid : but 
this may be either a detached part, or joined to 
it. It is only a flat piece formed of the fame 
' R fub- 

2^i Of the Substances 
ftihftance, and of fuch magnitade as to fuf^ 
fcr the muffle to reft upon it every whore,, and, 
if lode, to have a margin of half an inch for 
the better taking it out of the fire i but if fixt 
to the mufHe, it need only be of the fame tx^ 
tient with it. 

The fixt muffle muft be of the feme gene- 
ral figure with the loofe kind ; but the bottoiQ 
muft be always a proper part of it, and cxaftly 
of the flze fuitablc to the extent of die arched 
part, without any margin. 

The fize of this kind of mtrfflcs muft be 
adapted to the fort of enamel work te be 
burnt in them : the breadth fhould be ftttk ts 
Villi fufFer the pieces to be eafily pnt in and 
taken out ; and the height of the arch, where 
the form of the pieces does not acquire ifr to be 
higher, fhould not be above two inches. Ttft 
cqd of this arch within the fire mttft'be 
ctofed up, fo that when the muffle h paflM 
through the iron frame in the fide of the 
furnace made to fupport it,, and the jcSnt 
made good by fire-lute, the hollow or«K 
vity of it may be intirety inclofed, exeept 
the mouth or opening on the outfide ef ifce 
furnace. 'The length of this kind of wiitfKk -^ 
Ihould be fufficient to admit its paffing five-o! — ^ 

fix inches into the fire*, and yet having a pro^ 

pet proportion remaining to projeft on the ou^ - — 
fide fomewbat beyond the iron frame. BUt^^ 
thefe proportions iare to be a^'uftcd by the-^^ 
room wanted. There muft; be a faMb hntfoni ^ 
likewife made to this kind of mofflc, whidL^ 



muft fit the other bottoqn, fo as to flkle in ftn4 
out of the muffle upon it; bu| if ffcouW bfl 
m^do of fuch lengths that when it \% thrift botne 
ii(to ^e raufila^ a part of it may pft^i^.; that 
aix>p6r hold may be always tfik^zi 6k ^(awing 
It put. The defign of this fai£et bottom 'm 
that the enamel work to be burnt) b^iog Uu4 
fipon it, may be put into the mufik aftd takeri 
out wi&out that difficulty and havard of in** 
jmy, which would otherwife refiilt fyom tb) 
iorm of the muiHe. 

Coffins for burning larger quAntitiet of 

fsnnad work may be mads of the idme 

inattfr with the above. The figare of them 

ffk/ky be tha( of iquare bo::i|[fts of the len^» 

loi^ifii intended for a furnape of th^ dimcn^^ 

QofM ^bove given, of ten inches; of th() 

(tfl^l^ of iix; and of the height of fkytn i 

w}(tkh (qeafui-es fhoold include al6> th^ thick-^ 

nefs of the fubftance of which th^y are fi)mj-r 

fdr In the cavity of theie boxes^ Uttle Co- 

blflniia^ or projeAing parts, Hiould be placed fpf 

ff^inik the fides, rifing to half the height of C>)^ 

cay^^ : in order that a fquare plat^ or piece of 

th^ form and fize of the area mny be Uid oa 

ft^m^hoUow, 4S a flooring to fuppoft a feeond 

XM^ or layer of the enamel work : and a lid 

mnfi: b^ bkewiie fitted to reft in a proper groove 

mtd^ in ^e fides of the boxes or cc^ns, at the 

top o£ them, that the fire and fmoke may be 

vhoil^y Mchjded from the cavity. 

. i^ntfiiMee of proper fizes muft likewiie be 

JitAht calcimiig the metals y but as diey arc 

R2 to 

244 O? THE Substance? 
to be obtained every where eafily, it is need* 
lefs to fay more of them. 
• Mortars for levigation muft be likewife had 
of various fizes ; they fhould be either of agate, 
flint, or glafs 5 for thofe of iron, or copper, 
would be liable to deprave greatly many of the 
colours ; and to thefe fhould be added, a por- 
phyry ftone and muUer ; marble being too 
foft to bear the attrition of many of the fub- 
flances ufed in enamel, without imparting too 
much of its own fubftance in confequence of 

Searces or fieves of fine lawn muft be alio 
provided, for fifting fome of the levigated fob- 
ftatices, as alfo for fpreading the potvdered 
enamel to form the grounds : they fhould be 
like thofe of the apothecaries and droggifls, 
with a cover and under part for preventing the 
wafte of the matter, which attends the fifting 
in the open air. 

Tongs with points bended at right angles 
muft alfo be procured, for taking out of the 
fire the crucibles and melting pots ; an iron in- 
ftrument like a baker's peel is likewife neccf- 
fary, where the coffins are ufed : the flat part 
muft be fomething broader than the coffins, 
and of nearly the fame length ; and the han- 
dle fhould be about three feet in length. 

To thefe muft be acjjjed brufhes, pencils, 
tiles, and other ccHnmon implements of paint- 
ing : but as they are to be had every where, 
and their flrudure is generally underflood, it is 
not necefTary to be more particular about thenK 


0SED IN Painting. 245 


Of the general nature and application of 
. tbefubjiances ufedin enamel painting ; 
with their previous preparation. 

Of the fubjiances ufei for forming fluxes. 

MINIUM or red lead is ufed, as a flux- 
ing body, for forming the enamel for 
grounds i as alfo in compounding fluxes for the 
colours. It requires no preparation for thefe 
purpofes 5 only it is proper, it fhould be purej 
which may be known by the method before 
given p, 48. This flux renders the enamel foft 5 
but producing fbme proportion of yellow colour 
is not fit for all ufes. 

Fixt alkaline fait of vegetables is fometimeS 
ufed alfo in forming the mixture for enamel 
grounds ; as likewife in fome compofitions of 
nuxes for the colours. It makes a lefs foft ena- 
mel than the lead ; but is free from yellow, or 
any other colour s and therefore proper for fome 

Borax is a fait of very peculiar qualities; a- 
mongft which, is that of promoting vitrifica- 
tion, and the fufion of any glafs when vitrified, 
in a greater degree than any other fubfl:ance 
known ; on which account it is of the greateft 
confequence, in forming fluxes for enamel. It 
requires neverthelefs either to be previoufly cal- 
cined or brought to a vitreous ftate, which it 
fuffers fi-om the application of moderate heat a- 
R 3 lone \ 

246 Of the SuftsxANCEt 
lone ; and then finely powdered before it be 
mixed with other ingredients in ftux<£5. Its 
xtk 1$ not much known in common pra£tioe $ 
though of. the greateft confequence to the 
art (» enameKng ; as tmi only a fet of fiiftci* 
colours mky be pmduced by ttie aid ^ it, 
^than can be otherwifc had ; but the degree dF 
each may be brought to correfpond, by- the em- 
ploying it in different proportions according to 
the refpedlive hardnefs of the other ingredientt» 
which differs ib much> as not to be regihl^cdl 
j^ftly by any other means^ 

O>mmon fait may b^ alfo ufed flB a jj^ia m 
enamelkig> particularly where there is oOei^Mi 
ibr glarings : whore, as it is extremely flftMj 
and free of tenacity when fufed, as alfo le& Ai^ 
jo<3: to crack th*n any other vitreous bodys k lA 
of great ufe. But for fluxes for grduiids ^md 
colours in enamei it is not frequ^t^y nectiikry 
to multiply ingredients, as the above thfee &tb« 
iftances may, when properly applied, fufficicot- 
ly acfwer moil purpofes : and the fame teaibm 
ing extends to nitre and arfenic s which tboM^ 
they have the qualities effluxes, pofTeisyet*- 
long with them fuch other, with refpeft to 
their eflfeft on feveral of tiie fubftances that <»m- 
pofe the colours, as renders the mcfthods of «£ng 
them difEcuU and complex. 

©f iire Jubjhjices ufed for forming the M^ gf 
manul^ orfiuxes. 

White fend is ufed as a body for die fluics- 
ted, grounds of enamel: it^hoold berediicedi 


€6«D IN Painting, tsfj 

jpetvioufly to an impalpable powder^ in order 
that k may be mixed more intimately with the 
olhor jagredtents ; whidi not only accelerates 
tlie vkrincauoa ; biit renders the glafs greatly 
nSM^PC f)drfe^. The kind of fand proper £>f 
thi9 fb^feic that brought from Lvnn in Nor*- 
folk :; Md i)tlkd by the name of tnat place. 

Flints are ufed for the fame purpofe as the 
white fand : and it is proper to ufe them, when 
that cannot be procured of the right kind; 
ITiey require to be calcined before they aj'6 
applied to any ptirpbfe of vitrification : which 
18 to be dofie, by putting them into any fire, 
tod odntilKiitig th^ there till die whole iub'^ 
tfsuite become white : when they muft bf 
lalfim due ; and^ while of their full heat, va\^ 
mvMi in cold water ; and kept there &yt £>nie 
timf ;: ^r W^ttch treatment, they wiU be rendered 
x£ H very brittle tod calcarious texture s dn4 
*Wr^cafy to be poWde^ed : whk^h muft be done 
to ft perfe6t degree for the reaiba above given. 
Wlierc final! tfuantities of the matter of any 
fcifid of enamel is to be prepared, calcined flints 
fx<t praferabk to fand ; as diey are much more 
eftfily i>edttced to an impalpable powder, and 
-dole tipikible of the .prevkus calcination is very 

There i^ a fort <sf ftoiie which the French 
call ffKMlQHft that fqrfns the upper cruft, and 
lies jrOund the free (tene in nioft quarries. This 
ftope will lofe its tenacity in a moderate fire, 
and wheli calcined, runs much focner intovi- 
in&;;adon thain either flints oi faiad. It is there- 

R 4 fore. 


^4^ Of the Substances 
fore, when it can be obtained, a better m^ittef* 
for the body of fluxes or (oft enantelthan either 
of the other : as it will, with the fame proper- 
don of the fluxing ingredients, make a muck 
fofter flux ; or it otherwife, admits of the di- 
tninution of the proportion of fome of thiem j 
which, for reafons we fhall fee below, is in 
certain cafes an advantage. 

Of the fubjlances ufed for producing a white cokttr 
in enamel', or for Jorming the grounds. 

Putty or calcined tin is ufed as a body of co- 
lour for the enamel grounds. As tin is very 
troublefome in calcining, requiring a- long 
continuance of fire, and to be fpread ' into n 
very large furface, it is much the beft way to 
procure it for the purpofes of enameling ready 
calcined, of thofe who make it their proper 
bufinefs to calcine it, for the ufe of lapida- 
ries, and other artifts who ufe it ; as they 
have large furnaces, fitly conftrufted for peri- 
forming that operation in large quantities, and 
can confequently aflbrd it much cheaper than 
it can be prepared in fmall quantities ; be- 
fides the fparing the trouble. It muft be dc^ 
manded of them by the name of putty ; and 
care muft be taken that it be not fophiflacated : 
'which it feldom fails to be before it comes out 
of their hands for common purpofes. The fo- 
phiftication, which is generally by chalk, lime, 
or fome fuch white earth, may be diftinguifhed 
by putting the putty into a crucible with fome 
I tallow 

USED IN Painting. 249 

tallow or other grcafe ; and giving it the heat of 
'fuGotiy or what is fufHcient to melt it ; fupply* 
ing the greafe in frefti quantities as it burns a- 
way, till the calcined tin appear to have re- 
gained its metallic ftate : when fufFering the 
remainder of the greafe to burn away, the 
chalk or earth, if any were mixt with it, will 
be found fwiming on the furface of the metal : 
to which however the afties of the greafe muft 
•be fuppofed to have added fome little quantity. 
•There is, neverthelefs, another body with 
which, the putty or calx of tin may be adul^ 
'terated, that will not diicover itfelf by. this 
^method of redudlion of the tin. It is white 
4ead, which, in diis manner of treatment, 
-would run into fufion, and mix with the 
'tin 5 and could therefore not be diftingulfhed 

• from it. But it may be eafily rendered per- 
ceptible by another manner of proceeding : 

• which, is to take the putty fufpedted to be adul- 
terated with it, and having put it into a cruci- 

■ ble, without any admixture, and inverted ano- 
ther crucible over it as a cover, to give it a mo- 
derate heat, carefiilly avoiding that the fmoke 
or coal of the fire may have any accefs to it to 

•» change its colour. If there be any white lead 

• mixed with the putty, it will fhew itfelf, when 
removed from die fire ajad become cold, in a 

' yellow or brown colour: and if no fuch colour 
iiipervene, but the putty appear equally white 

• as before it v^s heated, a conclufion may be 
iafely made, that it was not adulterated by 

' yrhite le^d ; .but, . if fophifticated at all, by 


a$o' Of the Sitbstance-s 
feme ivfaite etrdi, which may fae made pfe«* 
ceptible by the rodudjon of tin ja the 
ner before mendoncd. 

Where a very pure white is wanted for ' 
^nad, the eaiieft and beft method is to oskiiic 
the tin by means of nitre; which m^ be 
thus done. 

'' Take half a pomid of fait petre, aad 
^ put it into a meldng pot^ fuch $s is <k«- 
*' fcribed p. 240 ; and put it into a £re to 
.^^ meh it. When it £8 meltcd» throw in |pra» 
^ dually ten ounces, ^r a half of a ponnd of 
*^ tin filings, which fhould be rafped as £00 
^^ aa poifible ; but give time for die ex^o&m, 
*^ diat will follow, to ceafe betwixt teeh 
^^ quantity diat is thrown in ; itimng, ham^ 
^^ ever» the matter in dK mean tim6 with the 
** eitd of a tobacco pipe. Afttr die whole is 
^^ put into die mehing pot, iftir it Igain wvU 
<* about for fome time; and dten 1^ it twt 
i( of the fire ; pouring all die matter cart tif 
" the pot, that can be got fi-om it by diat 
'^ means ; and then ibak the pot in water tilt 
'* the remainder be ibft tnoa^ to be ibraptd 
^ from it : taking great care not to let any 
^' part of the finance of the^pot betxrib- 
** miired widi the calcined matter. That 
*^ which is moi(ftened in order to be got oat 
" of the pot, muft be dried^ and put to the 
*^ other, and the whole well poujnded ; wad 
** kept flopt up in a bottie for ufe. There 
^* is no occafion for edukotadc^ or waihing 
'^. the £^ts frc»n the calx, for diis purpofe, 
2 ** bccaufe 


** becauie they arc by no means detrimental^ 
** but rather advantageous to the enamel/' 

Antimony has been alfo applied to the (amc 
ufe as tin : but the expence and ttxnible of re* 
dueing it to a calx, which muft be by defla** 
grating it with nitre, renders the ufe of tin 
iiuich more expedient. Merret in his notes 
on Neri, recxanmends equal parts of the an- 
timony and nitre ; but as that propordon docs 
Hot calcine the antimony to whitenefs, but pro- 
difces the crocus metallorum, or liver of anti- 
mony, which is of a foui orange or reddiih 
yellow colour, it is by no means fufficient : 
ke fays likewiie, that reguios of antimony will 
afifwtfr the &me end ; but in this he is ftiU 
ibrtfaer mMbken ; for the regulus, which is a 
metallic body, in &}mt degree malleable, oould 
never be reduced to powder, as he directs all 
die ingredieiits in the compdStion he prefcribes 
'to be : nor if it were, would it form a whole 
body on the fufion with the other matter. 

When antimony is ufed for the colouring 
white enamel, it fliould be previonfly calcined 
by means of nitre, in the following manner. 

" Take of antimony one part, ialt petre 
** three parts/ Powder them well together j 
^* and then tfirow it, by a fpoonfol at a timc» 
•* into a crucible heated red hot j waiting be- 
•* twixt each time till the explofion the mix- 
^^* ture will make be entirely over. When 
*^ the wiiole matter is pot into the crucible; 
<' and* has remained jfome time in a quiet 
*^ ftate, take it Oit of the Hre.^ and pit)ceed 

« in 

252 Of the Substances 

V in all rcfpedts, as was above diredted for the 

** tfn, when calcined in this manner." 

The calx of antimony fo produced will be 
of a finer white than the calx of tin can be 
eafily brought to, unlefs by this method of 
calcination : and therefore more fit for pur- 
pofes, where great purity of colour is wanted, 
either in grounds or painting. But as the tin 
prepared in the fame manner may be render- 
ed very white, it will be lefs expenfive, as it 
requires lefs nitre to calcine it, and produces 
a much greater proportion of calx than the 
antimony. . 

Arfenic is alio uied for forming a white co- 
lour in enamel : but it is a very nice matter to 
manage it well ; as it is very foon changed by 
the heat into a tranfparent body, being itfelf a 
ftrong flux 5 and it is therefore much better to 
omit the ufe of it, unlefs for fome particular 
purpofes, in the ftate of white glafs, as I fhall 
below have occafion to mention. Arfenic is 
alfo ufed as flux : but its eflfefts on ibme co- 
lours renders it not very fafe without great 
knowledge of its qualities, and caution in its 

Of the fubjiances ufed for producing r^d^ hlue^ 
yellow^ &c. colours in enameL 

I Ultramarine (the preparation of which we 
have before given) is ufed in enamel, where 
.very bright blues of a lighter teint is wanted ; 
and fometimes, indeed, in other tafes, by 



thofe who do not underftand the right ufe of 
zafFer and fmalt : but there are few inftanccs 
where zaiFer, when perfeAly good, fluxed with 
borax and a little calcined flint, or Venetian 
glafs, to take oflf the foluble quality of the bo- 
rax, will not equally well anfwer with the beft 
ultramarine. The ultramarine requires no 
preparation when ufed in enamel painting,* 
previoufly to its being mixt with the proper 
flux : and what relates to its general qualities, 
and the means of diflinguifhing its goodnefs 
or genuinenefs, we have, along with its prepa- 
ration, before taught, p. 67, and the following. 

ZafFer is ufed for producing blue, green, 
purple, and black colours in enamel. It is 
an earth obtained by calcining a kind of fl:onc 
called cobalt', and when it is mixed with any 
kind of vitreous bodies, it vitrifies ; and at the 
fame timeaflTumes a flrongblue colour; but for 
the mofl part verging to the purple. It is to be 
had, in a flate proper for ufe, of thofe colour- 
men who make it their particular bufincfs to 
lupply the glafs-makers with colours. The 
goodnefs of zafFer can fcarccly be known but 
by an aftual trial of it ; and comparing the 
cffed: of it with that of fome other known 
to be good and ufed in the fame proportion. 

Magnefia is an earth, which, when fluxed 
-with any vitreous body, produces a broken crim- 
ibn, or foul rofe colour. It is to be had, pre- 
pared fit for ufe, except a more perfect levigaticn 
from thofe who fell colours to the glafs-ma- 
ker. It is ufeful not only for fome purpofes 


£54 Op the Svbstancbs 

as a red, but for feveral compofitions fdi 
black, purple, and fbme browns. The good^ 
Deis of magnefia muft be determined^ by the 
£une means as that of zaffer. 

Smalt k xafier vitrified, with proper addi« 
tbns ; which are generally fixt alkaline falti 
and fiind, or calcined flints > and 13 ibmetimes 
ufed as a blue in enamel : but being hard, it 
requires, for fueh purpofes, to be ufed with a 
flux ; which increafing the body of glafi in 
too great a proportion for the tinge, is $^ 
to dilute the colour too much, where great 
force is wanted : and therefore the u£t of the 
zaffer itfelf is in moft cafes ptieferaUe. Smalt, 
however, ground very fine, and mixt with a 
fourth pvt of its weight of borax, (whk:h ia 
much the moft powerful and kindly dm for 
zafier) will run pretty well, and may be ufed 
where either a full colour is not demanded, 
or where the work will admit of the co- 
lours being laki on thick. The gcodncfi of 
fmalt may be judged of by its bright and dttf 
colour ; and the leis k inclines to the purple 
the better. In order to judge of the Ifarength 
of the colour, the fmalt fhould be reduced to 
a fine powder: for in a grofler ftate, every de- 
gree of finenefs renders it fo diflfcrcnt, tiiat a 
judgment cannot be eafily formed of it. Smalt 
is to be had of all colourmen, and is n6t fub^ 
jedl to adulterations, which would not be ob- 
vious on infpeftion. 

Gold is u&d ia enamel to prodiice a crim- 
fon or ruby coloi^r; whjch, by the miftakcn 


tfSSD IN PaiNTINgI 9|5 

k^fk of die Latin word purfmrany has been 
c^tle4 /tt/]^/^ 1^ all the EDglUk and French 
vvtifier^. It muft be previw^' reduced to the 
ftMe of a precipitated powder, by diiiblving in 
»qua FCgia; and making a prodpit^ation by 
iiMOM of tin, iixt alkafine iak» or £>me othec 
neietatlic or alkaline body. There has been 
fewFal methods ufed fer the making this pre« 
eipitate of gold; but due following will peiv 
^ly aafwer the end with great eafe and oeiw 

^^ Take of pure fpiiit of nijiare ta^t ounce?. 
" AddtokoffalamnMniaciimibrapedper£ed>« 
^^ ty clean and powdet ed two ounces y, which 

< win convert die i|>iritof nitre to aqua regia. 
^ Dil^ve, in fbor ounces of tht^aqua regia» 

< put into a proper phial, half an ounce of 
^ purified gold, in the ftatc k is to be had of 

< ti^ refiners, under the name of grain gold. 
> In order to h^a this folntion, the phial 
^ inay be put into a gentle heat» where it 
"■ mirift continue till the gold i»tirely difap- 
' jpear. Take, in the mean time, about the 

»rae quantity of aqua rcgia. in anodier phial j 
2SiA put into it filings or fioaall bits of pure 
t)teck tin, fb long as any brifk effervefcence 
»Jfes on the adding frcfh quantities: but 
this muft be done gradually, efpecially tf 
the filings, be u&d ; odierwife the mixture 
wiB heat h much as to boil over or break 
Ae phial. Drop then thirty or forty drops of 
the folution of the gold into a half pint glafe 
of water ; and imoiodiately afbec about fifteen 

«* or 



4j6 Of the SuBstancbs 
^ or twenty drops of the folution of tin. The 
*' gold will be then precipitated in a red pow-^ 
*' der from the folution in the aquaregia 
^* dropped into the water ; and this operation 
" muft be repeated till the whole quantity of 
" the folution be thus treated. When the iaft 
*^ quantity of the red powder has been pred- 
*^ pitated, pour off the clear fluid; and fill 
*' the glafs with fpring water : which, when 
•' the red powder has fettled, muft be poured 
off likewife. Hold then a fponge wet, but 
well fqueezed, to the fiirface of the fluid re- 
maining with the powder; and when as 
much of the water as can be conveniently 
" feparated from it, by that means, is drawn 
" off, lay the powder on a marble or porphyry 
" ftone to dry : taking great care that it con- 
" trafl: no duft or foulnefs/* 

Inftead of ufing the folution of tin to pred^ 
pitate the gold, the crude tin is moft frequent-^ 
ly employed : but the precarioufiiefs of this 
method, which requires much more attention^ 
overbalances the trouble of making the fo- 
lution. For if the folution be mixed with as 
much water in this method as in the other, it 
is very flowly afted upon by the tin : and if 
the folution be not diluted with fo niuch 
water, it forms a gelatinous body, when 
ftrongly faturated with the tin, which can 
never be feparated from the predpitated gold, 
but by means that are deftruftive of its qua- 
lities as an enamel colour. When the crude 
tin is ufed, however, the folution muft be di- 

USED IN Painting. it^y 

lilted with about treble its quantity of water | 

and the tin muft not be longer continued in it, 

than while the gold appears to form a red 

powder on the furface of it, on its being freed 

from that which before adhered to it. It is 

better, neverthelefs, on the whole, to ufe the 

two iblutions : as it is more eafy to preferve 

a fcarlet colour, by that means : for if the tin 

be too long continued in the mixture, it gives 

the colour a tendency to the purple. When 

a red colour k wanted, which verges greatly 

oa the purple, a precipitation of the gold 

ihould be made by means of any fixt alka^ 

line fait. Which may be thus done. 

** Take the folution of gold in aqua regia, 

U as before diredied : and drop in it a folu* 

" tion of fait of 'tartar (which muft be made 

" by melting half an ounce of fait of tartar in 

** a quarter of a pint of water) fo long as 

'* there appear any effervefcence or' ebullition 

** or the further addition. Let the precipi- 

** tated powder then fettle ; and proceed as 

•* was above direded for the calx caffii, or 

precipitation with tin. The powder thus 

produced is called aurum fulminans^ from 

its quality of exploding when expofed to a 

** moderate heat: which muft therefore be 

^* carefully guarded againft in the ufe of it, 

*^ by keeping it out of the reach of any fuch 

** heat till it be mixed with the flux for en- 

amelbg : and it will be the lefs hazardous 

from being thoroughly well freed from the 

iait, formed in its produdion, by wafliing/' 

S The 




258 Of the Substances 

The gold may be likewifc precipitated, in 
the fame manner, by volatile ialts: in 'which 
cafe the volatile fait in the proportion of half 
the w^eight of the aqua regia may be diflblved 
in four times its own weight of water. But 
this method does not produce fo fcarlet a red 
in the gold precipitation, as that of ufing the 
folution of tin, as before directed. 

This precipitation may be alfb made by 
mercury diflblved in aqua regia ; and it is £dd 
that a finer colour is produced by this method 
than with tin : as likewife, that if the aurum 
fuiminans, or any of the other precipitations, 
be fufed with common fulphur, they will be 
rendered of a much brighter red ; but the liil- 
phur muft in this cafe be fufFered to bum a- 
way. Thefe methods, neverthelefs, arc at- 
tended with much more difficulty and hazard 
than the fimple method firft given; and, pef — 
haps, unlefs by accidents not be command^ — 

ed, will not produce a better pigment for en 

amel painting. 

Beiides the application of gold to form ^ik 
red colour, it is ufed to produce the efieft 
gilding in enamel 5 for which purpofe it mi) 
be reduced to the ftate of a precipitated pow — 
der in the following manner. 

" Take any quantity of gold diflblved i:r^ 
** aqua regia, as mentioned above. Pctt 
" into it long flips of copper plates ; and cora- 
*' tinue them there till the gold no longer 
" appear to form itfelf in a powder on their 

« furface : 

USED. IN Painting. 259 
^^ fur&ce : in order to the obferving which, 
" the gold ' already cohering, muft be from 
" time to time (hakcn off; or they may re- 
^* main till they no longer appear to excite 
" any efferveicence or bubbling in the fluid. 
" The flips of copper being then taken out, 
^* the water muft be poured oflFfirom the pre- 
^* dpitated powder, and feveral frefli quanti- 
^^ ties added to free it intirely from thie fait 
•* formed by the aqua regia and copper : after 
'* which it may be dried, and will then be 
^ £t for ufe," 

Silver is ufed for producing a yellow colour 
n enamel. It muft be previoufly reduced to 
he ftate of a powder : which may be done 
ather by precipitation from fpirit of nitre, or 
>y calcination with fulphur. The precipitation 
if iilver from fpirit of nitre, may be perform- 
d by diflblving an ounce of filver, in two or 
hree ounces of fpirit of nitre ; and precipi- 
adng and edulcorating it exadlly in the fame 
cianner, as was above.direfted for precipitating 
he gold from aqua regia, by means of cop- 
ier for gilding in enamel. A precipitation 
nay otherwife be made by pouring brine on 
he folution of filver in the fpirit of nitre : but 
[ think the other method preferable. The 
alcination of filver with fulphur may be thus 

^* Put plates of filver into a cracible, with 
^ as much of the flowers of fulphur betwixt 

* them as will cover the furface of each plate : 

* and then place the crucible in a fire, that 

S 2 " will 

26o Of the Substances 
« will heat it red hot. When being takca 
" out, the filver will be friable or brittle, and 
•« muft be reduced to a fine powder in a 
" mortar of glafs, agate, or flint. The cal- 
'^ cination may be otherwife made, by mix- 
" ing filings of filver with flowers of fiilphur» 
*Mn the proportion of one ounce of the filvet . 
" to halt an ounce of the fulphur ; and heat* 
" ing them red hot in a crucible ; or the ful- 
** phur may be thrown in to the crucible aftec -z 
" the filver is already made red hot*" "'-^ 

Copper is ufed, in enamel painting, for the 
forming green, blue, and red colours : but it 
mufl: be previoufly either calcined, or reduced 
to the ftate of a powder by precipitation. 
The calcination may be performed, by means 
of fulphur, in the fame manner as is above 
dircfted for filver : but it requires a ftrong fire 
for two hours : when the copper v^U be found 
converted into a blackifli red powder, which 
mufl: be well levigated by grinding and fifting. 
When the copper is fo prepared, it is callea 
Ferretto of Spain. It may be otherwife cal- 
cined by fl:ratilying it in the fame manner widi 
Roman vitriol : but a much longer continu- . 
ance of fire is required in this method : and 
Neri fays it ought to be fix times repeated to 
have the ferretto perfe<a:ly fine. When all . 
this is done, neverthelefs, the fubftance pro--. 
duced cannot be really different, notwith- 
ftanding the intimation of Neri to the contra* 
fy, from that of copper calcined with fulphur; 
if the quantity of fulphur employed be finally 


USED IN Painting. afii 

tnd the time of the calcination well adjufted"; 
which muft be judged of by the goodnefs of the 
fcrretto when prepared ; the criterion or mark 
of which, is its appearing red when levigated: 
jforifitvergc to the black or purple, either 
the calcination has been too long continued, 
or the proportion of fulphur employed was 
too great. 

Inftcad of crude copper, the kiiid of latten 
called, by artificers in metals, ajjiduey may be 
tded : but as the plates of it are too thin to be 
treated in the way of ftratification, or layers, as 
the quantity of fulphur ufed would be much 
too great a proportion, it is better to clip the 
afiidue with fciflars into fmall fhreds; and 
mix it by that means with the flowers of ful- 
phur: afld the extreme thinnefe of the plates, 
n this cafe, renders the neceflary time of cal- 
dnation very fliort. 

Copper or brafs in thin plates, latten, or 
i£due, may be, likewife, calcined without 
iilphur, by expofing them to a ftrong heat 
Jt a confiderable time. But as foon as the 
icat has rendered them friable or brittle 
nough to bear levigation, it is the beft way 
o powder the matter, and place it again in 
he fire thinly fpread on a tile, or other fuch 
onvenient thing ; flirring it fometimes, that 
very part may be expofed to the open heat j 
nd, by this means, the calcination may be 
:iuch accelerated : a due regard fhould be 
ad likewife in this cafe to the red colour of 
S3 the 

262 Of the Substances 

the calcined matter, as well as in the cafe of 

that calcined with fulphur. 

But, notwithftanding, that it is requifitc, 
for many purpofes, to have the copper calcin- 
ed only to a ftate of rednefs : yet it may b& 
expedient, likewife, for fome particular ufes, to 
prepare other quantities with a higher calcina — 
tion ; which muft be continued till the coppe«r" 
appear a dark purplifh grey, or light black:^ 
when powdered : but it muft yet retain fome=°s 
tinge of the red : for if the calcination 
puflied beyond that point, the calx become 
very difficult to be fluxed ; and does not af^^^^— 
ford any colour in a kindly manner to th^^ 

The other method of reducing copper tc::^ 
an impalpable powder, is by precipitation : tcr:^ 
which end, the copper muft be diflblved ii^* 

any acid, (for all will diflblve it) and preci ' 

pitated, by adding of a folution of pearl-aflie^^ 
in water, in the (ame manner as was direfie(^3 
p. 86, for making the kind of verditer calle^S 
Sanders blue^ except in the ufe of flarch, whicfc=^ 
muft be here omitted : and for making grcerrrrn 

colours in enamel, this will be found prefcr^ • 

able to the calcined copper. 

To avoid the trouble of diflblving the cop 
per as above advifed, Roman vitriol, which ^Ss 
only a combifiation of copper with oil of v^S- 
triol, may be ufed in the place of fuch fbli^--- 
tion. It muft be previoufly diflblved, by ad(^B- 
ing hot water to it in a powdered ftate : an ^ 
then the copper may be precipitated, l>^ 


USED IN Painting. 263 

means of pearl-afhes, in the fame manner as 
from any other folution of it. 

. Iron is ufed to produce an orange red, or 
foul fcarlet colour in enamel ; as alio a tran- 
iparent yellow ; and to aflift, likewife, in the 
formation of greens, and other compound co- 
lours. It is prepared many ways, both by 
corrofion, and precipitation ; fome of which 
indeed make a real difference, but moft of 
them lead to the fame end. The only diffe- 
rence in h£ty is, that whea the iron is highly 
calcined, and freed in a great degree, not 
only from all acid, but even its own fulphur, 
the appearance of the crude calx will verge 
moft upon a purple colour ; and produce a 
foul purple enamel, if compounded only with 
a quantity of flux not fufticient to vitrify it ; 
but when compounded with a greater quantity^- 
of flux, will vitrify into a tranfparcnt yellow, 
ibmewhat inclining to the red : whereas when 
it is lefs, or not at all calcined, but retains its 
own fulphur, or perhaps fome proportion of 
acid ufed in the preparation, it will in pro- 
portion be yellow, or verge towards the yel- 
low, when ufed with the lefs proportion of 
flux, and produce a cooler or lefs red yel- 
low, when ufed with a quantity fufficient 
to vitrify it. Inftead of ufing the crude iron 
in thefe preparations, where it is to be preci- 
pitated, or calcined, it is much better to ufe 
common green vitriol ; which confifts only of 
iron and die acid of vitriol^ from whence con- 
fcquently the iron may be obtained in the ftate, 

S 4 to 

a64 Op the Substances 
to which thefe preparations lead» by eafier abd 
lefs expenfive means, than when ufed crude* 
But the preparation of the ruft, fornoed by 
vinegar, requires the iron itfclfj and if found 
neceflary, is, neverthelefs, the only inflance 
where the precipitated bafis of vitriol will not 
anfwer the fame end as the iron* 

The firft preparation of iron is, therefore^ 
the ruft by corroiion with vinegar, which may 
be thus made'. 

" Take of iron filings any quantity ^ the 
" finer they are the lefs trouble mcy will give 
*' in the preparation ; and fprinkle them with- 
** vinegar, rubbing them together after it is 
" added, that every part may be moiftened 
" equally. Spread them, in any cool place, 
" where they may be free from duft, on a 
y board or paper ; and let them remain there 
** till the moifture appear to be dried away : 
*' and then try if they be fo corroded as to 
** bear powdering : which, if itisfoundprac- 
'* ticable, muft be performed on a porphjrry 
" ftone with a muUer, or in a glafs or agate 
*^ mortar : but if they appear not fuffidently 
*^ corroded, they muft be again moiftened 
** with vinegar; and laid out as before i and^ 
" when become fit, powdered in this manner. 
" The powdered ruft muft then be fifttd 
** through a fine fearce ; and the groflfer part, 
** which will not pafs, moiftened again with 
" the vinegar : which muft be repeated till 
" none of the iron worth further notice re- 
** main uncorroded. The whole muft then 

** again 

irsBD IN Painting. 165 

^' again be levigated, till it be a perfeftiy im^ 
•^ palpable powder; which will be then fit 
" for ufe." 

The iron prepared thus by vinegar, is pro- 
per for making a tranfparent or glazing yellow 
in enamel : or for compounding with blues to 
form green colours. But this procefs is great* 
ly more troublefome and laborious than thofe 
Mlow given : and is attended with no be- 
nefit in the produce, except that this rufl 
will afford a cooler or lefs red yellow than the 
others ; and may therefore be of advantage in 
ibme particular cafeS) for forming very bright 

It has been ufual to calcine the ruft, pre^ 
pared thus with Vinegar, to form what is call- 
ed the crocus martis ; but it is a very injudici- 
ous method of proceeding; becaufe where 
calcination is to oe ufed, the vitriol, or the 
iron corroded by fulphur, are equally good^ 
and &ve a confiderable trouble and delay. 

Iron is fometimes calcined per fe, that is» 
without any mixture, by expofing the filings 
fpread with a large furface to the adlion of 
flame for a confiderable time ; which converts 
the iron into a crocus martis, that, when levi- 
gated, is fit for ufe. But this preparation is 
aUb troublefome, and inconvenient; requir- 
ing a fb*ong and continued fire : and, when 
made, affords nothing but what may be much 
eafier obtained by the methods below given. 

Iron is alfo calcined by means of fulphur, 
which mufl be performed in the fame man- 

266 Of the Substances 
ner as was diredted above, p. 260, for the cai« 
cincd copper^ There is not, neverthelefe, any 
diiFerence betwixt this and the calcined vitrioL 

The precipitation and calcination of green 
vitriol are the moft expedient preparations of 
iron ; and anfwer all the purpofes of the others 
folly, except in the inftance before mentioned 
of not producing quite fo cool a yellow, as the 
ruft formed by vinegar. The precipitation of 
vitriol may be formed in the following man- 

•' Take any quantity of green vitriol ; and 
*' diflblve it in water. Add gradually a 
" folution of pearl-aflies in water, (which 
•• need not in diis cafe be purified if the felts 
" be clean) till no more efFervefcence arife ; 
" and then pour off the fluid when the pre- 
** cipitated powder has fettled.. The remain- 
" ing fluid, which cannot be poured oflF, may 
V be feparated from the powder by means 
** of a filter ; and the powder then dried z 
" for as the falts will be no way injurious ta 
" the enamel, there is no occafion for wafli- 
" ing in this cafe." 

This oker or precipitated iron will nearly 
anfwer the fame end as the rufl by vinegar ^ 
and will afford a tranfparent yellow almoft as^- 
cool : this is therefore the beft and much the 
eafieft preparation of iron for forming greens— 
by the admixture of blue. 

The calcined vitriol mufl be prepared fromu- 
crade vitriol, where a red colour is wanted, 
in the fame manner as was before direfted, 

P- 49> 

USED IN Painting. 267 
p. 49, for the fcarlet oker, which is itfclf 
indeed the fubftance in this cafe wanted ; and 
•will either afford, with lefe flux, a red colour 
in enamel, verging to the orange, or widi 
more flux a tranfparent yellow of die warmer 
caft. But where calcined iron is wanted, fear 
forming more purple teints, the precipitated 
oker, as produced by the above means,' (houkl 
be taken ; and calcined with a ftroflg fire, 
till it acquire the degree of purple defired : to 
which it may be brought by a much Ihorter 
calcination than any other preparation of iron. 
Antimony is ufed for producing a yellow 
colour in enamel, as well as the white before 
mentioned : and, indeed, is the moft ufeful, 
and mofl: ufed of any fubflance whatever for 
that purpofe. It is prepared only by leviga- 
tion; to which its texture, notwithflanding 
its being a femi-metal, very well fuits it. An 
orange colour, but not bright, may alfo be 
produced by antimony calcined with an equal 
weight or lefs of nitre, and then feparated from 
the fcoria that will furround it, and levigated. 
But as there are methods of compounding 
thefe colours from other necefl&ry preparations, 
there is no great occafion to have recourfe to 
this. There is a great difference in the antimo- 
ny itfelf in different parcels: fome being great- 
ly debafed by mineral fulphur; and others 
more free from it. That is befl: which is 
ilriated, and has more the appearance of me- 
tal ; or rather fcems formed from needles laid 
parallel to each other; the blacker andmore 


268 . Op the SuBsxAt^cfes 
fpoiigy, being more impregnated with crude 
iuiphur. But the antimony is fo cheap^ that 
it is of no confequence, if the better part only 
of jany parcel be ufed, and the reft thrown a- 
W4y • and one fide in almoft every lump is 
good ; as, in the fufing to feparate it from the 
oar, the moft metalline part of courfe fubfides 
;and finks to the bottom of the mafs. 

Glafs of antimony is alfo ufed fometimes in 
enamel painting: being itfelf a fine tranfparent 
orange colour. But as it wants body, it has 
JTio great efFedt but in compofitions. They who 
liave occafion for this glafs may purchafe it at 
fo eafy a rate as renders it fcarcely worth while 
to prepare it (hemfelves; being manufafturcd 
at Venice and elfewhere in very large quanti*- 
tics by thofe who make it their bufincfs. The 
only care fliould be to chufe fuch as is not adul* 
terated by the admbcture of glafs of other kindsi 
which may be diftinguifhed by the force and 
deepnefs of the colour 5 or the want of them. 
Mercury is fometimes alfo ufed in enamel 
painting ; hut it requires to be prepared by 
fome chemical proccfs before it can be ufed. 
There arc two preparations already pracflifed 
for medicinal purpofes, which fit it alfo for 
enamel painting the bcft of any: the pro^ 
duce of one is called turpeth mineral ; for 
which we have already given the procefi 
p. 100 : by a careful treatment of which a fine 
cool yellow may be produced in enamel : the 
other affords the red precipitate; which is a 
fine fcarlet red, but extremely tender with rc^ 


USED IN Painting. 269 

IpeA to the fire. As this fubftance can be 
)rocured at a very moderate rate, of thofe who 
/end it as a medicine, and requires a particu^ 
ap nicety in the operation, I (hall wave giving 
Uiy procefs for it here; efpecially as every bopk 
i/?hich treats of the chemical pharmacy con- 
:ains one : and indeed the ufe of both this,- 
md the turpeth mineral, demand fo delicate a 
management of the fire, and are £3 liable to 
lavc their effeft deftroyed by a fecond bum- 
ng, (if, as is fo frequently the cafe it ftiould 
be neceflary,) that I cannot greatly recom- 
Enend them in preference to other prepara- 
tions, which will anfwer the fame ends nearly 
IS well with eafe and fafety. 
: Orpiment has been alfo ufed in enamel for 
producing a yellow colour: but it is very 
lender with regard to the fire 5 and requires 
h foft a flux, while at the fame time antimo* 
ny, properly managed, will fo* well, fupply the 
place of it, that it is rarely ufed. 

Powdered bricks have been alfo ufed for 
[impounding yellow colours in enamel ; but 
IS they aft only in confequence of the oker 
they contain, mey are certainly inferior to the 
prepared okers we hgye given : efpecially as 
they are liable to great impurities ; and are 
[larder, or require a greater force of flux, thaa 
the pure okers or calcined iron. When they 
arp ufed, they fhould be chofen of the reddeft 
colour, the foftefl: and evenefl: texture, and 
intirely free from all ftones or cinders. The 
Windfor bricks, therefore, are much the befl:, 


270 Of the Substances 
that are to be procured here; as they an- 
fwer to the circumftances required much bet- 
ter than any other. 

Tartar is alio ufed* in forming enamel co* 
lours: tho' not from any tinging quality it has 
in itfelf ; but for its effe<ft in modifying magne- 
.fyty and fbme other fubftances. The crude 
red tartar fhould be chofen for this purpofe; 
and requires no odier preparation, but to be 
freed from all impurities and well levigated. 

Thefe are the feveral fubftances that are ma- 
terially neceflary for compofing as well the 
grounds as colours and fluxes in enamel. 
There have been many other introduced into 
the pnuftice of particular perfbns ; and fomc 
indeed into more general ufe ; and the prc^ 
parations of thofc have been likewife greatly 
varied and multiplied : but what I have given 
are more than fufficient for every purpofe ; 
as all the variety of teints, with all the de- 
grees of the attendant qualities, may be pro- 
duced by a proper application of them. And 
the increafing unneceflarily the number of 
fimples and original preparations can only lead 
to confufion and embarrafTment. But who- 
ever acquires a moderate knowledge of the 
principles and fubjedts here laid before them, 
may eafily proceed to examine or ufe any other 
colouring fubfbnce, which is fitted by its tex- 
ture to endure the heat of vitrification. 


usEO IK Painting. 271 


^f the compounding and preparing the 
fluxes for enamel painting. 

[N order to the iinderftanding, and confc- 
quently managing more advantagcoufly, 
he feveral cx)mpontions for fluxes, it will not 
>c improper to inquire a little more particular- 
y into the nature of the ingredients, and their 
operation on each other ; as well as the pro- 
lortion of power each has ii^ producing its 
woper efFcd: : fince by this means, the feveral 
nixtures may be better adajJted to the pur- 
)ofe, on each occafion, when their nature and 
legree of efficacy is well underftood, than 
hey poffibly can by any particular recipes; 
hough in order to give fuch an initiative know- 
edge of each particular, as may lead to proper 
experiments, I fhall fubjoin a complete fet, as 
yell for the preparation of diefc, as the colours. 
There are two kinds of fubftances infer the 
X)mpofition of enamel fluxes. The one in- 
lued with a great propenfity to run into the 
/itrcous fufion, or be converted into glafs : 
(vhich is not meerly a paffive capacity of foon 
becoming glafs itfelf ; but when become {o^ 
rf changing and aflimilating other bodies 
commixt with it to its own vitreous nature. 
This kind confifl:s of falts, lead, and arfenic: but 
as falts, when vitrified alone, or with a fmali 
2 pro-. 

2/2 Of the Substances 
proportion of other bodies, are ftill liable ta 
be diflblved by aqueous moifture, and as gla& 
under the fame circumflances, i$ extreiliely ape 
to fiifFer a corrofion by the air, and turn black, 
and dull on its furface, it is neceflary to com^ 
bine Ibme other bodies with them; which may- 
counteradl thefe bad tendencies ; and render 
the compofition durable under all circum- 
ftances. Thefe corredlive bodies of the 
proper matter of the flux, which therefore 
make the other kind of fubftapces enamd 
fluxes are compofed of, are calcined flints, iand, 
or fuch calcarious matter : which being per* 
feftly white and reiifl:ing, in a vitreous ftatc, 
the corroding or diflblving adlion of all men* 
ftrua, give bodv and firmnefs to the fluxmg 
compofition without difcolouring, or any other 
way changing the proper fluxing ingredients; 
except by weakning, in a certain degree, their 
vitrefadive power; and confequently render- 
ing them foraewhat weaker as fluxes, than they - 
would be alone. 

The mofl: aftive flux amongft. felts is 
borax : which, indeed, poflefles this power in 
the greatefl: degree hitherto known of any 
Ample whatever. The next is lead 4 whic^ 
vitrifies with a very moderate degre© of heat; 
and afiimilates to gla& with itfelf, not only 
many kinds of earths, but all niietals and femi* 
metals, except gold and filver in their intire 
ftate. Arfcjaic is the next powerful flux, or 
only it requires to be fixed 
fome other b^dy already 

OStDlNpAINiiNG. 273 

^triiied ; otherwife it fublimes and flics away 
before it arrives at the vitrefeftive heat. The 
fevcral kinds of other falts have the next degree 
of fluxing power; and among them fea fait pof- 
fefles the greateft : but they are not fufficiently 
ftrong themfelves to form an enamel flux foft 
enough to be ufed in painting: though as they 
are colourlefs, which is not the cafe of vitrified 
lead, diey are very neceflfary to be compounded 
with lead ; or ufed in its place, aflifl:ed by bo- 
rax, where abfence of every degree of colour 
is necefl!ary in the flux. 

Of ihe general method of preparing finxes^ 

The method of preparing the fevicral fluxes 
below given is the fame. The ingredients arc 
to be well levigated with each other, on a por- 
^hyty fl:one, with a muller of the fame mat- 
ser, or of flint ; or in a mortar of agate, or 
lint with an agate peftle : though where great 
juantities are to be prepared, a mortar and 
3efti6 of the common green glafs may be^re* 
rioufly ufed. 

Being levigated, the matter fhould be put 
tito pots of a proper fize, made of the fub- 
bmces, and in the manner, direftcd p. 240 ; 
jid placed in a furnace where the heat is nearly 
hat of a flrong culinary fire : for though a 
greater heat accelerates the vitrification, yet it 
renders the compofition harder, that is, weak- 
ens its fluxing power. When the vitrification 
i» perfeft, which mufl: be known by the mat- 

T ter's 

274 Of the Substances 
ter's becoming tranfparcnt, and fret from aif 
bubbles, it muft be taken from the fire ; and 
poured out on an iron plate clear of any ruft : 
and then, being powdered when cold, if the 
operation appear to have fucceeded, it muft be 
kept for ufe ; but, if any turbidnefs or foul- 
nefs appear in particular parts, fuch parts fhould 
be picked out ; or, if the whole be depraved 
with fpecks or cloudy, it fhould be again pow- 
dered and fufed ; and then treated in the fame 
manner as at firft. 

Of glafs of lead. 

Simple glafs of lead, though rfbft flux, is 
not proper to be ufed alone : for the air, as was 
before mentioned, corroding it, a cloudincls 
or fkim is apt to come on the furface j which 
gives a dulnefs and unpleafing appearance to 
the enamel ; and fomctimes fouls the brighter 
colours. As it forms, however, in a more com- 
pound ftate, one of the beft fluxes, the pre- 
paration of it Ample is neccfl!ary to be known: 
for though the ingredients which compofe it 
might be fluxed together with the other ingre- 
dients of the fluxes and colours j yet it is bet- 
ter to vitrify it feparately firft, and confequcntlv 
purify it from thofe feculenciesand drofs, which 
are apt to be formed in the firfl: fufion. The 
manner of preparing glafs of lead, fuch as is 
to be underftood to be meant in the fucceeding 
recipes, is as follows. 

irsBDiN Painting.' '2yg 

•*'Take of red lead two pounds, of flints 
' calcined and levigated as above directed 
p. 247, or, in default of flints, of white 
fand ground to fine powder, one pound : 
vitrify and prepare them according to the 
general diredtions before given.** 

'impofition of a flux^ for common purpofeSj mo^ 
derately foft. 

No I. 

*• Take of the glafs of lead one pound, of 
pearl afhes fix ounces, of fea fait two ounces. 
Treat them according to the general direc- 
tions for fluxes." 

This is a very cheap flux ; and will ferve 
rtremely well for all purpofes where a tinge 
F yellow will not be injurious ; or where the 
ux is not required to be extremely foft. 

Compoftion of a foft flux for common purpofes. 
N^ 2. 

*^ Take of the glafs of lead one pound, of 
• pearl afhes fix ounces, of borax four ounces, 

of arfenic one ounce. Proceed according to 

die general diredlions." 

This is a very foft flux; and will vitrify a 
cry large proportion of zaffer, or the precipi- 
itcd powders, or calxes of metals. It is, there- 
ire, very proper for forming ftrong glazing 
T 2 colours. 

ik'^ Of the SuBSTANCi-fe 

colours, where harder fluxes arc ufed widi the 
reft : or for all purpofes, where there is any 
neceffity for, or conveniencfc in, bummg the 
enamel with a flighter heat. 

Compojttion of a tranfiarenf Jlwc^ perfe&ly wtdtty 
and moderately foft. 

" Take of common flint glafs powdered 
" one pound, of pearl aflies fix ounces, of fca 
•* fait two ounces, of borax one ounce. Pro- 
" ceed as with the others." 

This is proper for purples, crimfbns, and 
fuch colours as are injured by any tinge of ycl* 
low; as alfo for white, where purity is TC- 
quired. It is rather harder than N* i abc(f« 
given ; but that may be corrected where nc* 
ceflTary by any intermediate proportion of hor 
rax, betwixt that given here and in the next. 

Cotnpojition of a tranfparent fux perfeSHyibbiU} 
and veryfoft. 

No 4. 

'* Take of common flint glafs powdered 
*' one pound, of pearl afhcs and borax eaA 
** four ounces of common fait and arfcnic eadi 
" two ounces. Mix, and flux them accordif^ 
*^ to tlic general diredlions : but they muftre- 
^* main in fuflon longer^ if any cloudineA ap^ 

" p«r 

trsipp IN t^AiNTiNfet iyf 
^* pear in confequcncc of the arfettit; whidi 
•* though indued with a ftrohg fiuxing pw^ti 
** when in a vitreous ftate, does hot neverthc- 
** lefs vitrify, when the proportion is large 
^* with refpcift to the other ingredients, fy 
** quickly as they do ; but gives a milky tur- 
^* bidnefs to the glafs, till its own vitrification 
** be perfe<a." 

This is a very fbft flux; aftd proper in all 
cafes, where fuch is ncceflary, and the yellow 
tinge of the common foft flux above given 
would be detrimental. But the proportion of 
borax or arfenic may be varied as is above in- 
timated, either in this, or any of the other 
ccKnpofitions ; or the arfenic, and fea fait, 
Mnitted according to the occafion : but the 
pn^rtions of the other ingredients fhould be 
Adhered to ; becaufe they are fuch as are mofl 
advantageous with refpe<3: to the relations the 
qualities of each have to the others, and to th6 
general intention. 

Of the white Venetian ghfs^ as afiux. 

The principles on which fluxes are formed, 
ttnd the nature of the fubftances proper to form 
^leoi, having been very little underftood, of 
indeed known, and the compofitions of the 
fluxes ufed having been kept fecret at Venice, 
tad Ehefden, or by the few elfe where who 
have learnt them,, it has been almofl univer- 
fidly pradlifed to ufe the white Venetian glafs 
as a flux : butit has not, that I know of, been 

T3 latcljr 

278 Of the Substances 
lately imported into this country, or any where 
regularly fold for this purpofe 5 but obtained, 
by thofe who ufe it, by feeking out drinking 
giaffes, fmall vafes, or other fuch wrought 
pieces : and indeed I am in ibme doubt, 
whether the fame glafs be now made at Ve- 
nice, or any where : but that what is found is 
the remains of a kind formerly made, and 
difperfed ail over Europe, while the Venetians 
had the the monopoly of fuch fort of manu- 
faftures wholly in their hands. This glafs is 
of a moderate foftnefs -, and agrees very well 
with the colours in general : but having a 
milky turbidnefs mull certainly be lefs advan- 
tageous to the tranfparent or glazing colours 
than a flux perfectly pellucid. The compofition . 
of this glafs is not known at prefent to any her^ 
for all 3ie kinds defcribed by Neri fecm much 
harder than this ; though, as he gave all the 
compofitions then in ufe in Italy, and particu- 
larly underftood the Venetian manufadure, 
one might have expeded he would have taken 
it in, as it muft have been made in very large 
quantities from the copious remains of it we 
find in every part of Europe. This glafs may 
be known, from any common kind,.. .by its 
having a milky turbidnefs ; by which it may 
be diftinguifhed from all traniparent forts 5 
and by its yet coming much nearer to tran- 
fparency, than any of the white opake- kinds 
made at prefent. 



& E C T I O N V. 

Of the compojition^ and preparation of 
white enamel for grounds ^ and other 

- - ■ ■ - _ 

^mpojition of common, white enamel of moderate 

TA K E of glafs of lead one pound, 
of pearl afhes and calx of tin^ each 
half a pound. ^ The ingredients being tho- 
roughly mixt, by grinding them together on 
a porphyry ftone, or by pounding and rub- 
bing them well in a glafs mortar, put them 
into a proper melting pot ; and give them a mo- 
derate heat, till they incorporate thoroughly : 
but the fufion (hould not be either ftrong, 
'^ or long continued ; for, if the glafs be per- 

* feftly liquified, the calx of tin is apt to fub- 
r fide ; and, confequently, to be unequally mixt 
'* in the mafs when cold. When the heat has 

* had its due effedt, take the pot out of the 
'* fine \ and pour the matter op a clean iron 
^* plate * or into molds to form it into cakes, like 

* the Venetian enamel, if it be fo defired." 
This is fofter than the common white glafs, 

md about the degree of the common Vene- 

:ian enamel. It is not very white, nor confe- 

juently fit for dial-plates, or other purpofes 

T 4 wh^r^ 

2So Op the SuBSTANexi 

where the cleamefs of colour is required : but 
for paintings where it will be covcroi, or where 
pure white is not neceflary, it will extremely 
well anfwer all purpofes. 

Compojition of a veryfoft white enamel for c6m^ 
mon purpofes. 

" Take of glafs of lead one pound, of pearl 
" aflies and calx of tin each half a pound, o^ 
^^ borax and common f^lt each two oupces, ancft 
" ofarfenic one ounce. Treat them as the forc-^ 
5* going: but be very fparing of the heat^ and 
^* take the. matter out of the fire as ibpn as ic 
*^ forms one homogeneous mafs, without {v£^ 
^' fering it to fufe till it be perfedly fluid." 

This is very foft ; and will fcarcely admits 
if ufed as a ground, the fluxing of colours upom 
it without running into fufion itfelf with th^ 
fame heat j and, confequently, mixing with» 
and depraving them: but where it is ufed 
without s^ny view to painting over it, either im 
its own pro^r colour, or mixed with any other, 
particularly with black, it is preferable to hard^ 
enamel ; bcqaufe it can be worked with aniuch. 
lefs heat 3 and confequently is both more cafy^ 
to be managed, and lef§ liable to giv^ occafion^ 
tp the warping or calcining the metal platen, or" 
orher bodies, pn which it laid* 


V9tf> IN Painting. aSi 

^SMij^pim of enamel J of modirati bardnefs^ kit 
tnore ferfedihf nvbite. 

^* Take of flint glafs one pound, of calx of 
^^ tin or putty of the firft degree of whitencfe 
'* half a pound, of pearl aflies and common fait 
'^ each four ounces, an4 of borax one ounce. 
'^ Treat them as the foregoing : but the fire 
y mny be mpre freely ufed th^ in the etfe of 
? thelaft.?' 

This enarn^J^ if the calx of tin or putty be 
perfectly goody will be very white; and is proper 
lipr dial-^f^ates^ or other foch ufes ; where the 
amity of ^ white ground is eflential to the 
ir^ue oi th^ work : and it will, alfo, bear co- 
lours very wcW, where fiich a ground is wanted 
Per any painting : but if it be found too foft^ 
Ji proportiofi to the fluxes of the colours, it 
aiay be prepared of a greater degree of hard^ 
nefs by omitting the bcM-ax, 

Ompoftiw offoft mamel tmre perfiBly njohit^^ 

" Take of flint glafs one pound, of pearl 
^ afhes and commcm fait each four ounces, of 
' borax two ounces, and of arfenic one ounce. 
* Treat them according to the general direiti- 
^* onsi but be fparing of the fire asivith N"* 2/' 


i22 Of the SuBSTANCtes* 

This is too foft for a ground for colours : but 
is fit for any other purpofes where enamel of 
greater whitenefs is required; as alfo for ufing 
with other colours where there is occafion to 
paint with white. 

Compojition of a very foft enamel^ of thejirft 
. degree of ivhitenefsy proper for painting. 

N» 5. 

** Take of flint glafs one pound, of anti- 
*' mony calcined to perfect whitenefs accord- 
" ing to the diredions in p. 251, or of tin 
" calcined with nitre according to the difec- 
** tiorisin p.'250, h^ a pound, of pearl aflifts- 
" an(3 common fait each three oiinces, ofbo- 
*^ rax three ounces, and of arfenic one ounce. 
•^ Proceed According to the geiieral dire<fti- 
** ons : but be very careful to avoid fuch a 
•* fufion, as will render the matter perfectly 
'' liquid/' 

This compolition produces an enamel ex- 
treftiely white, and very foft ; and is proper to 
ufej in painting, for linnen, or other obje^s, 
where ftrong touches of white are advantage- 
ous. If it be found too foft, according to the 
tone of the fluxes, for the other colours, the 
arfenic may be omitted, and part of the borax ; 
but it will, in this, proportion, fuit the other 
colours, when the fluxes are judicioufly adapted 
to each kind. 


USED IN Painting. z^i 

X)f common white glafs as an enamel ground. 

The white glafs made at Mr. Bowie's glafs- 
houfe in Southwork, is frequently ufed for 
the grounds of enamel dial-plates, and other 
painted works. It is a glafs rendered of an 
opake whitenefs by the admixture of a large 
proportion of arfenic, which, intimately mix- 
ed with the glafs by a flight fulion not fiiffid- 
ent to produce a vitrific incorporation, retains 
its opacity 5 and, confequently, gives a white* 
nefe to the glafs ; though if the fufion were 
lo^^^nough continued, it would affimilatc 
with the glafs, and the whole mafs confe- 
qiiently become perfeftly tranfparent. This 
tendency to lofe its opacity, of courfe ren4er$ 
the uie of it, as a ground enamel, more li- 
mited and difficult : becaufe where colours arc 
to be ufed, which require repeated burning, 
or to be continued a longer time in the fire, 
there a great hazard of changing the 
opake whitenefs into tranfparency, or fuch an 
approach to it as deftroys the efFedt of the 
ground: and, indeed, in the hurtling it, even 
as a ground, particular care is required in the 
manner. It is, likewife, harder than the Ve- 
netian common glafs, or any of the above pre- . 
parations of ground enamel : as likewife much 
more brittle, and liable to crack and peel off 
from the body painted with it : but notwith- 
ftanding thefe difadvantages, its Ipw price, and 
^at whitenefs, which much furpafles that of 


a84 0^ THE Substances 

the Venetian, or any enamel commonly to be 
had, have recommended it to the {Mra^ce of 
many, who are concerned in cheaper works 
of enamel. 



Of the comfofitim of the tolauring fub^ 
^ antes y toother with the fropet 
fluxes y in order to the painting with 
all the variety of caUurs in enanM. 

Comj^ion for the fcarkt $r trim^ red^ im^ 
pr&perfy tdtei purple of gold; 

« np AKE of the fluxes, N^ i, or 2, of 
^' X Venetian glafs fix parts, and of the 
•' calx caflpu or precipitate of gold by tin as (t-» 
" reftcd p. 255 one part. Mix them well to- 
" gether ; and paint with them/' 

This will pioduce a very fine fcarlct, or 
crimfon colour, according to the tcmt of the 
precipitate of gold tifed : for it may be pp&i 
pared very fcarlet by the means above direfted, 
as I have noore th^n once feen \ though a§ it is 
commonly prepared, a crimfon only is pro- 
duced; and tjbat. fre<]tucjntly , verguig towards 


irsBX) IN Painting* aBg 

the purple. If the cfFeft of red be not ftrong 
enough^ but the colour tend too much t6 
tranfparency, it may have a greater body given 
it by adding more of the precipitated gold. 

Co^o/kian for tran^rwt Jcarkt^ «r crirnfon 



" Take the flux N^ 2. fix parts/ t^e precipi^ 
« tate of gold with tin one parti Flux them^ 
" together, virith a ftrong fire, till the whole 
^* appear a tranfparent red glafs. Then pour 
^ out the matter on a dean iron plate ; and 
^* levigate it well ; whm it will be fit for 
" painting." 

This preparation will anfwer the end of 
lake in oil painting, either for glazing or mak^ 
mg dark fludes ot red. A greater quantity of 
the gold precipitate may be added where a 
ftronger foi;ce of colour is defired to be had : 
and me compofidon muft in that cafe be longer 
continued in fufion. But the flux will not air- 
ways vitrify more than this proportion fo as to 
render it perfeftly tranfparent. 

If this preparation be mixed, after it has 
been levigated, with a fixth part more of the 
gold ^precipitate, and ufed without a fecond 
fluxing, it wHl give a veiy fine deep qrimlbn, 
extremely ferviceable in many cafes. 

2^6 Of THE Substances 
Qmtpojitionfir a bright orange red. 

«« Take of the fluxes N* 2 or 4, two parte 
** of rod prcdpitate, rf mercury one part, mix 
" them for painting/* 

This makes a very bright orange red ; but is 
▼cry delicate, requiring only juft fb much 
heai^ as will ran the parts of the flux together; 
and js' therefore difficult to ufe where harder 
compdGdons are to be burnt with it. 

Compojitim for a cheaper but fouler fear let red. 

" Take of the flux N* t. two parts, and of 
*' the fcarlet oker as prepared in p. 49 one part. 
*' Mix them well together; and avoid too 
*' much or too long heat/* 

This is the common red in China, and o- 
ther enamel paintings. It may be enlivened 
by mixing one part of glafs of antimony with 
one part of the flux, iiiilead of ufing the flux 

Compojition of a cheap crimfon. 
N°4. - 

" Take of the flux N° i. four parts, of 

/^ magnefia one fourth of a part : and fufe 

*- a *' them 

USED IN Painting* 287 

*^ them till the whole mafs be tranfparent^ 
" Mix them then with one part of copper 
" calcined to rcdnefs ; and paint with the 
** compofitjon. Where this is required to be 
** transparent, the calcined copper fliould be 
" vitrified with the other ingredients: but 
" this requires great care to take the compo- 
** fition out of the fire as fbon as the vitrifica- 
*' tion is perfe6ted." 

A little white enamel, or, what is better, 
a little of the tin calcined, by means of nitre, 
as in p. 250, may be added, to give the co- 
lour a body. But diis heceflarily dilutes the 
colour, and weakens the force of it. 

This red is very tender j and requires only 
fo much heat as will incorporate the fub-' 
ftances together : but if it be. found too loft 
for the tone of the fluxes of die colours, in- 
ftcad of ufing the flux, flint glafs with a fmall 
part of flux may be employed for niixing 
with the magnefia. 

The management of this colour is, how- 
ever, fo difficult and nice, where it is ufed in 
very light touches, that in nicer paintings it is 
better to ufe the precipitate of gdld properly 
broken by the admixture of other colours, 
where a fouler crimfon is wanted, than to be 
troubled with watching this. But in groffer 
works, where the colours are ufed in great 
quantities, and laid on with a ftronger body, 
this- becomes very ferviceable. 

In the recipes given for the red formed by 
calcined copper, it has been ufual to order an 


288 Op the Substawce* 
equal, or fbme fuch proportion, of red feutaf} 
but where die gkfs contains afty lead, I am 
apt to believe a reduction of it would follow j 
which would decompound the body of the 
flux, and render the compdfieio«l harder. If 
tartar be ufed, the flux ought to bo formed, 
therefore, of glafs of falts. 

> Compofition for pink and rofi reds. 

W 5. 

" Take any of die above compolitions} 
** and add of any of the white enamels, of 
*^ of the calx of tin prepared with nltrei or 
'* calx of antimony, as much as fhall be fuf- 
" ficient to dilute the colour to the degree ^ 
'' quired." 

Ctmpojkknfor the bright e^ blue. 

" Take of the fluxes N^ i. or N^ 2. or of 
" the Venetian glafs fix parts, of Ac fineft 
" ultramarine one part. Mix them wtll fbt 
" painting. If a tranfparcnt blue be defired 
" from ultramarine, a fixth or eighth part 
*' mufl: be added to the flux N* 2. and the 
*^ mixture kept in fufion till the ultramarine 
*' be perfedly vitrified, and the whole become 
** tranfparent/' 

1 If 

' USK6 IN Painting. ±^ 

• If the body of colour be not fufficient, more 
ultramarine may be added : but in order to 
ipare the ultramarine, a finall proportion of 
zafFer, fluxed with four or fix times its weight 
of borax, maybe added : which, if the csaffer 
be perfeftly good, will make the uhfamarine 
appear much darker without impairing its 

Compofition of a lighter blue, 

*': Take of the fluxes N^ 3. or 4. five part^, 
'* of ultramarine-afhes one part. Mix thera^ 
"Jfor painting/' 

This is ufed by thofe, who do not know 
the proper manner of ufing zafFer; but as the 
pure ultramarine-aflies have a ftrong tinge of 
the red, and are never of the firft: degree of 
brightnefs, the fame effeft, or indeed a fu- 
perior one, may be produced by the compofi^ 
tions below given, 

-If the ultramarine-afhes are adulterated^with 
copper, as is mofl frequently the cafe, a green 
aud not a blue will be produced. 

Compofition for a tranfparent blue, 

" Take of any of the fluxes four parts, of 
** zaflFer one part. Mix and fufe thjpm with 

U ♦ a 


«^ a ftreng fire, till the whole m«6^ bf per^ 
^* fedlly tranfparcnt: but, if the quanti^ q£ 
<V flux be not fufficient to vitrify the z^er, 
^^ ad4 more, or a fmall proportion of borax. 
** When Ac vitrification of the ^hole is pei^ 
^* fe£l, po9r out the compofition^ aad levigate 
« it for ufe." 

This will pi;oduce a very fine tnmipdrent 
blue ; and being extremely deep, will make 
very ftrong fhades, and give the efieft of 
blacknefs, where there is a ftrong body of it 
laid on. 

This may be made with lefs naffer, when 
a lefs ftrong cSk& of the colour is wanted* 

"^ Compaction of a Jky tbitm - - ■' 

*' Take of any of the above preptra^ns} 
•' and add of any of the white enaniels, a 
" calxes of tin or antimony, as much as wiU 
" be fufficient to produce a blue of that lig^ 
" nefs, which may be wanted.'* 

By forming a blue in this manner, frcmi the 
compofition N° 6. the effed of the ultrama-* 
idneraflies may be fully produced as is abofS 

Con^ojition of azure blue from copper, 

N° 10. 

*' Take of the fluxes N^ 3. or 4. five parts, 
^^ of copper calcined to a purple colour and 

^ of 

tirSEb IN PAlNTiNO; igt 

*^ ef tkfftt each oht part. Mix and flux 
*^ thetti well togcthet; and then levigate, with • 
^^ the iliiittuit}, of the calx of antimony or tin, 
*^ calcined by nitre, one part ; ahd keep the 
'' ihftfter for paiiitiiig." 

This is fb pecarious with iref^ecSt to the 
faceefs, that it is rately ufed: but it will 
Ibnietinies produce a good blue -, and is theii 
cooler and bfetter for fome purpofes than the 
blues formed, either of zaffers and white, oir 
the ultramarine-afhes. 

Compofition.of a bright opake full yellow. 


" take of the fluxes N** li 6r i. four parts^ 
** of filVer calcined with fulphur as iii p. 258, 
•^ and of antimony each one part. Mix and 
** flux them well together till the whole be 
** perfedily vitrified. Then levigate, with 
** thefti, olie part of atititnony, or tin, calcined 
** by means of nitre j and keep the matter for . 
*' painting/' 

This is a full trtie yellow, and the bright- 
eft coloured compofition that can be ufed. It 
'may be made deeper by dimiriifhing the pro^ 
portion of the calx of antimony or tin. 

Compofition of a bright trahjparmt yellow. 
N* 12. 

" Taie of the flaxes N** i. or 2. fix parts^^ 

** of calcined filvertwx) pars, and of antimony 

U 2 " one 


292 Of the Substances 
** one half part. Flux them well till the whole 
" be tranfparent : and then levigate the co- 
" lour for ufe. Where great tranfparency is 
" wanted, the antimony may be omitted.'* 

This is a very deep bright yellow ; and pro- 
per for fhades or glazing, where great force 
and purity of colour is required : but for moft 
purpofes the cheaper tranfparent yellow will 
anfwer the fame end, not being greatly faul^ 
in .point of brightnefs. 

Compojition of a bright tranfparent yellow from 
Jilver and iron. 

N° 13. 

Proceed as in the above : only, inftead of 
the antimony, take the precipitated iron as ob- 
tained from vitriol according to the diredions 
in p. 266. This will be more tranfparent in 
general than the fame preparation with anti- 
mony ; which, differing in the proportion of 
crude fulphur it contains, does not always 
fubmit to be vitrified to a greater degree of 
tranfparency. The yellow prepared in this 
manner will likewife be very cool and trucj 
and confequently proper for forming fomc 
kinds of greens. 

Compojition of a cheaper opake full yellow. 

N° 14. 

" Take of the fluxes N^ i. or 2. or Ve 
" netian glafs, fix parts, of antimony or 

USED IN Painting. 293 
^5 part, and of the iron precipitated from vi- 
** triol half a part. Mix and flux them well 
" together, till the matter be thoroughly vi- 
** trifled j and then levigate them with one 
** part of tin calcined to whitenefs/* 

This will diflfer only from the yellow of 
N® 1 1, in not being quite fo bright and full: 
"but will neverthelefs be a very flrong pure 
yellow; and flt for all ufes, where the great- 
«ft brightnefs is not requifite. 

Compojition of a warmer opake yellow. 

N- 15. 

- Proceed as in the .above, only inftcad of the 
precipitated iron, take the fcarlet oker pre- 
pared as in p. 49. 

Compojition of a cheaper trarfparent yellow. 

" Take of the fluxes N° i. or 2. fix parts, 
" and of the precipitated iron one part. Mix 
" and fufc them in a ftrong fire, till the miafs 
" be tranfparent." 

Compojition of a warmer tranfparent yellow. 
N^ 17. 

- " Take of the fluxes N° i. or 2. fix parts,^ 

** of fcarlet oker one part, and of glafs of an- 

U 3 " timony 



f* timony, half a part. Mnc and fui^ ^m 

«* till the mafs be tranfparcnt,'* 

Compofition of a tranjfarent yetim ft^m wfi^ 

N^ 18, 

« Take of the flux N^ z. three paitat WmJ ' ^ 
^* of the refined orpiment or King'si yeUaw "^ 

^* one part. Mix them, by l^gati6n> for ' 

^' ufc/' 

This compofition is extremely tender, and 
piuft have no more fire than will juft make 
the parts of the flux cohere. 

If this yellow be defired warmer? a )ittl9 
glafs of antimony may be added. 

Compofition of lighter yelhu^s. 
N^ 19. 

Add to any of the above commoQ calx of 
tin or putty ; or, if great brightncfs be ncccf- 
fary, die calx of tin or antimony calpncd by ' 

picans of nitre. 

Compofition of a very bright opake ^een^ 


^* Take of ultramarine and ydtow N* 1^1, ^ 

^^ each one part, of the fluxes N® i. or 2. 

usBD IK Painting. tgg 

^ two parts. Mix didm weU ttigetber far 
** painting/' 

Compofition of bright tranfparent green. 

•* Take of the fluxes N*" i. or 2. &x parts, 
** and of copper precipitated by alkaline falt« 
^^ one part. Mix and flux them till the mafs 
f^ be tranfparent," 

This will be a very fine deep green ; but 
inclining to the blue 3 which may be eafily 
<X)rredted, when not agr'eeable to the purpofe, 
by the adding a proper quantity of the tran- 
fparent yellows N* 12. or 13. 

Xkmpofifm of a bright tranf^arent green by 

N° 22. 


Take of the yellow N^ 13. and of the 
^* blue N® 8. equal parts. Levigate them 
^* well together for ufe." 

Cheaper compofition of an opake green. 

** Take of the flaxes N^ r. or 2. fix parts, 

"** rf copper cakined to a purple colour, and 

^^ csf Atf apake yellow N"" 14. each one part. 

'-^n- . U 4 " Mix 

2g6 Of THE Substances 

^* Mix and flux them well ; and dicn le^gat6 

*' them for ufe with one part of calx of tin/^ 

Cheaper compofition of an opake green by mixture. 
•N^ 24. 

** Take of the yellow N^ 14. and the blue 
" N® 8. each equal parts/' 

By varying the proportion of thefe mixtures, 
fea greens, grafs green, or any other teints^j 
may be produced at will. 

Compofttions for lighter greens. 

• Noa5. 


Add the calxes of tin or antimony to an; 
6f the above, in the proportion the lightnc: 
of the colour requires; 

Compofition for a bright orange colour. 


Take of the yellow N° 12. two part^ 
^' of the red N° i. one part, and. of the yeM 
'' low NM I. half a part. Levigate them tci 
<* gether for ufe." 

A^. jB. The compofitions, which are vx<=^ 
direfted to be fufed when ufed alone, mu^ 
not undergo any in the mixtures to be macJ^ 
of them \ but muft only be levigated with th^ 


USED IN Painting. 297 

other ingredients ; and ufed, for paindng, in 
that ftate. 

Compojition for a bright tranfparerd orange. 
N° 27. 

" Take of the red N° 2. and of the yellow 
** N® 12. equal parts. Mix them well to- 


Compofition J or a lifter tranfparent orange 
extremely bright. 

N^ 28. 

** Take of the above and glafs of antimo- 
" ny equal parts. Levigate and mix them 
« for ufe. 

Compojition of a cheaper tranfparent orange. • 
N* 29. 

" Take of the fluxes N* i. or 2. fix parts, 
** of copper calcined to rednefs one part, and 
*' of red tartar one part. Flux them till the 
" matter become tranfparent; but avoid if 
** poffible continuance in the fire a moment v 
" longer. Levigate it till it appear red, ?Lnd 
" mix v^ith it an equal part of glafs of anti- 
" mony." 


29^ * Of the Sobstancbs 

Compofition of a bright opake purple. 
N^ 30. 

" Take of the red NM. and the blues 
" N' 6. and 8. each half a part. Mix them 
*^ forufe." 

Compofition of a bright tranjparent purpk. 

^' Take of the red N** 2. and the blue 
I' N* 8. Mix them for ufc." 

Compofition of a cheaper opake purple. 


" Take of the fluxes N* 3. or 4. fix parts, 
** of zaffer one part, and of magnefia half a 
*^ part. Fufe them, widi a ftrong heat, till 
•' the whole be tranfparent 5 and then add of 
" the red N° 4. one part, and of calx of tin 
*' half a part. Mix and levigate them well 
** together for ufe/' 

Compofition of a cheaper tranfparent purple. 

N° 33- 

" Take of the fluxes N° 3. or 4. fix parts, 
•^ of magnefia one half part, and of zafFer 

" one 

irsie D IK PAINTIN0, 999 

^f oAe fixth of a part. If a red purple bo 
^* wanted omit the zaffcn" 

This, and the foregoing, may both be vari- 
ed, either to a more red or a more blue purple, 
by diminifhing or increafing the proportion of 
zafFen If the laft be wanted more red, it 
may be mixed with a proper quantity of the 
^a6 of antimony. 

tJbmpoJitkn bJ gn opake brcwn colour inclining 
to red^ 

** Take of the red N° 3. four parts, and of 
^' the bluQ N^ &. one part Mix them for 

Compojition of a tranjparent red brown colour. 
N^ 35- 

" Take of the purple N^ 33. and glafs of 
** antimony equal parts^ and of the jrcllow 
^' N^ 17, one nftb of a part. levigate them 
♦^ together for ufe," 

Cqmpo/itim of an opake otive brown colour ^ 


^* Take of the yellow N° 14. two parts^^ 
« of the blue N"* 8, half a part;^ and of thq 

300 Of the Substances 

" red N^ 3. a fourth of a part. Levigate 

" them together for ufe/' 

Compojition of a tranfparent olive brown colour^ 
NO 37. 

^' Take of the yellow N^ 16. one part, and 
" of the blue N° 8. and glafs of antimony 
«* each half a part. Levigate them together 
« for ufe." 

Thefe may all be varied by changing the 
proportions of the ingredients ; or they may 
be converted into different teints of light 
browns, by adding the due quantities of calx 
of tin : which may be commixt with them 
when the mixture is made of the other ingre- 
dients, or afterwards. 

Compojition of black moderately hard. 


" Take of the flux N^ i. fix parts, of zaf- 
^* fer one part, of glafs of antimony half a 
^* part, and of the fcarlet oker and magne- 
" fia each a fourth of a part. Mix and fufe 
" them till the matter become a. clear black 
" of the deepeft caft." 


USED IN Painting. 301 

Compofition of black veryfoft. 
N- 39. 

" Subftitute flux N^ 2. ihftead of N° i. 
*• and proceed as in the lafl/* 

This compofition is extremely well accom- 
modated to the painting enamel dial-plates, or 
painting on enamel or C^iria grounds in the 
manner of prints, or chiaro obfcuro : foi* as it 
*will run with a very fmall degree of heat, the 
flighteft touches may be brought to fhew 
themfelves perfectly without the leafl hazard 
of fufing the ground fo as to run them toge- 

The above compofitions may be diverfified, 
by recompounding them with each other, fo 
as to form all the variety of teints to fuit every 
purpofe ; and the hardnefe or foftnefs of the 
fluxes may be likewife adapted to each occa- 
fion by mixing them together. With refpedt 
to the proportions in every compofition ; they 
may likewife be varied according to the pur- 
pofes they are ufed for ; there being no pofitive 
rules to be laid down in thefe matters with re- 
lation to quantities, the different degrees in 
which different parcels of the ingredients pof- 
feffes the requifite qualities, as well as many 
Other circumftances, preventing the effeft fron^ 


362 Of TttE SuSSf AMCflSi 

being the fame even in compofitions exa<^Iy 
the fame as far as regards the quantities. I have 
however endeavoured to give iome leading pro- 
portions of every kind, by which the neceflary 
mixtures may be adjufted according to every oc- 
eafion, by a flight confideration on the proper^ 
ties of the ingredients ; which I have, to this 
end, previoufly explained; as the want of iuch 
knowledge had in general obligedi even thcf 
moft fkilful and experienced artifts who work 
in enamel, to adhere in many Cafed implicitly 
and blindly to the ftridl forms 6f recipes, whcM 
the preparations have by no means been fo w^Il 
adapted to their purpofe a^ they might hato 
been by flight alterations. 


Of the manner of laying on and burn* 
ing the enamel grounds. 

TH E matter of the enamel fflufl be firft 
finely levigated and fearced : and thd 
body to be enameled fhould be made perfectly 
clean. The enamel mufl be then laid on dsi 
even as poffible by a br afh or pencil, being 
firft tempered with oil of fpike 5 arid the dif^ 
tance of time betwixt the laying on the ground 
and burning the piece fhould not be too great j 
becaufe the oil will exhale and leave the matter 
Df the enamel a dry incohering powder; which 
I will 

USED IN Painting. 303 

w21 be liable to be rubbed or fliaken off by 
die leaft violence. This is the common me- 
thod ; but there is a much better way of ma- 
naging this part of the work by means of a 
iearce ; in which the enamel is fpread with 
very little trouble 5 and the greateft part of the 
oil of fpike faved. The method of perform- 
ing this is, to rub the furface to be enameled 
over with oil of fpike j and then, being laid on 
a ihcet of paper or piece of leather, to favc 
that part of the enamel which dbes not fall on 
a proper objed:, to fearce the matter upon the 
oiled furface till it lie of a proper thicknefs ; 
but great care muft be taken, in this method of 
proceeding, not to fhake or move too forcibly' 
the pieces of work thus covered with the pow- 
dered enameL 

It is ufual to add oil of turpentine to the oils 
cf fpike or lavender, in order to make them 
go further, and fave the expence attending the 
ftce ufe of them ; and others add alfo a little 
olive or linfeed oil, or fome, in the place of 
them, crude turpentine. The ufe of the fpirit 
of turpentine is very allowable ; for it is 
the fame for this purpofe as the oils of fpike 
cr lavender; except that it wants the glutinous 
quality which makes them ferviceable in fpread- 
ing the enamel : but with refpeft to the ufe of 
the oils of olive and linfeed, or any other fub- 
itantial oil, it is very detrimental tending to 
reduce the metalline calxes; and leaving a 
^nall proportion of black coal or afhes, which 


304 Of the Substances 

muft neccflarlly injure the white colour of the 


When plates, as in the cafe of pidhires, dial* 
plates, &c. are to be enameled, they ihould 
always be made convex on the outerfide, and 
concave within ; and all pieces of enamel form- 
ed of metal, where the figure does not admit 
of their being thick and folid, fhould be of the 
fame kind of form : otherwife they will be very 
apt to warp in the heat ; and cannot be brought 
ftreight, aftei*they are taken out of the fire, 
without cracking thie enamel. For this reafon, 
Jikewife, it is proper to enamel the work all 
over, as well on the wrong as right fides, to 
prevent the heat from calcining the metal ; 
which would both contribute to its warping, 
and weaken the texture of it. 

The enamel being laid on the body to be 
enameled, when the fixt muffle is ufed, the 
piece muft be gently lifted on to the falfe bot- 
tom ; and put in that ftate into the muffle fiirt 
in the furnace defcribed p. 235, by thrufHng 
the falfe bottom into it as far as it will go. But 
it is beft to defer this till the fire be perfedtly 
in order, w^hich muft be known by putting a 
bit of tile or China with feme enamel on it of ■ 
the fame tone with that ufed as a proof ; and 
another proof of the fame kind may be alfo 
put along with the work into the muffle ; 
which, being taken out, may fhew how the 
operation proceeds. 

When coffins are ufed, the fame general 

method is to be perfued : the pieces of work 

I to 

oSEfi IN Painting. 2<^^ 

t6 he enamded are to be hid on the bottom of 
itte coffin tin it be covered : and then the 
fecond fJocwing or falfe bottom is to be fixt iQ 
ife place, and covered in the fame manner ; 
after which the lid is to be put on ; and well 
feeured, in the joints it forms with the fides of 
the coffin, by fire-lute. The proof, in this 
c^, fhould be laid on the lid, on the part next 
the' fide door of the furnace ; and it may be 
expedient, efpecially till the \yorkingof the fur- 
nace, and the kind of enamel ufed be very well 
imderflood, to have two or three of thefe 
proofs. The enamel work being put thus in- 
to the coffins, they fhould be fet on the dome' 
of the furnace, which mufl be of the kind 
defcribed p. 239, that they may be moderately 
heated, before they be put into the furnace ^ 
which would otherwife endanger their crack- 
iftlg; and when they are fo heated, proof 
^ving been made, by means of a fmall bit of . 
Qiina^ or copper covered with the enamel, 
ibAt thfe fire be of a due force, they mufl be 
cjonveycd into the furnace through the fide 
dfior, and mufl refl on the pieces 6f fire-flone 
placed for that purpofe on the flooring in the 
back part of the furnace. It is requilite never- 
thelefs, that the convepng them into the fur- 
nace fhould be managed v^th particular care 
fe> prevent the fhaking off the enamel j and it 
mufl be done by means of the peel or inflruf 
ment adapted to this purpofe ; on which the 
coffin being laid, it mufl be gently thrufl 
into the furnace till the coffin be in its proper 
X fituation 

3o6 Of the Substances 

'fi^uation, with refpedl to diftance from ifyi 
fides of the furnace; and then the further end 
qf^ the peel muft be turned flowly towards thc^ 
front of the furnace j the coffin being at the 
fame tinae fhovcd off from it by means of the 
flat end of the tongs before defcribed, intro- 
duced through the door for feeding tiie fire, 
till it ftand intirely on the firc-ftones, whea 
the peel muft be withdrawn. The operatioa 
being finlflied, the peel muft be again intro-- 
duced under the coffin, by raifing firft the- 
neareft end of it, by means of the tongs thro* 
the door in the front ; and then the other parts- 
gradually, till the peel fupport it j and then they" 
muft be drawn out together ; and may be beffes- 
placed on the dome of the furnace, that by^ 
cooling more gradually the temper of the ena- 
mel may be improved. 

• If it be required to burn a fingle piece OT^ 
two in this kind of furnace, it may be done by^ 

means of the common or loofe muffie dc 

fcribed p. 241. In which cafe the enameE.-- 
work being laid on the bottom or flooring of^ 
the muffle, and the muffle put over if, thc^ 
whole muft be conveyed into the furnace, b^^ 
means of the tongs with turned points, thro*"**" 
cither of the doors; and a proof may be at thc^^ 
fame time put in, on a piece of tile or ipar 
bottom of a muffle : and the proceedings 
other refpeds may be the fame as with the 
fixt muffle, or the coffins. 

Where there is no furnace, and it is defire(^3 
to burn enamel work on an open hearth, pre- 

USED IN Painting. 307 

paration muft be made according to the direc- 
tions in p. 240 : and the flooring of the muffle 
being laid at a proper diftancc from the* nozzle 
of the bellows, the work muft be laid on it j 
and covered with the muffle : which being 
done, pieces of charcoal muft be heaped over 
them ; and the fire being lightedl, muft be 
blown uj> widi the bellows, till it be fufficient 
to flux the enamel ; which muft be examined 
by the proof put into the fire along with the 
work. The coals muft then be taken off^from 
the muffle ; and the muffle, with the flooring 
and enameled work, removed out of the fire; 
but keptJnearit to prevent their cooling too 
feft : and, if there be more work to be burnt, 
another muffle, &c. may be immediately put in 
the place of the other, and the fame operation 
repeated; for it is a matter of indifference, whe- 
thei: the coals be burning when the work is put. 
on the hearth, or kindled afterwards. 

Pit coal may be ufed in the furnace, where 
enamel is burnt with the fixt muffle, or in cof- 
fins : which is indeed one principal conveniency 
attending the ufe of them; as it faves a con- 
fiderable expence of charcoal : but where the 
open muffle is ufed, charcoal alone fliould be 
employed : as the fumes of mineral coal are 
very detrirnental to fome colours ; and deftruc- 
tive.of the grounds, if whitened by arfenic, 
as the common white glafs. 

Xz SEC- 

3o8 Op THE SviSTAHCti 

... • .|. . , 


Of the manner of laying on and bum^ 
ing the enamel colours. 

THE colours being prepared, mas abotre di- 
rected, and reduced to powder by due 
levigation, and wa(hing over where they are re- 
quired to be extremely fine and there is no un- 
vitrified fait in the mixture, they muft be tem- 
pered on a China or Dutch tile with cmI of fpike 
or lavender, to which moil artifts add likewife 
oil of turpentine ; and fome (but I think errone- 
oufly, as I have before mentioned) a little linfeed' 
or olive oil 5 and then ufed as paint of any o- 
Aer kind. But it fliould be avoided to mix 
more of the colours with the eflential oils than 
will be immediately ufed 5 becaufe they dry a-* 
way extremely faft, and would not only be 
wafted, but give a cohefion to the particles of 
the colours, that would make them work left 
freely when again diluted with the oil. 

The colours being dius laid on the pieces to 
be painted, the proceeding muft be in all re^ 
fpefts the fame as with the grounds, in what- 
ever manner they are to be burnt, either in 
the muiBes or coffins ; but greater nicety muft 
be obferved with refpeft to die fire j asr the cf* 
fefts of any error in that point are of much 
greater confequence^n the burning the colours 
than grounds 3 efpccially. if the white of the 
a grounds 

USED IN Painting^ 309 
grounds be formed from the calx of tin or an- 
timony J and not arfenic. 

Pit coal, as was above obferved, may be em- 
ployed for burning as well the colours as the 
grounds, where the muffle or coffins are ufcd ; 
or any other method perfued that wholly^hin- 
ders die fmoke and fumes from having any ac- 
cds to the enameL 


Of the metliod of painting on glafs by 
burning, or with tranfparent colours 
that vitrify. ^ 

SECT. I. Of the general nature of 
painting on glafs with vitreous colours. 

THE art of painting on glafs with colours 
that vitrify has been efteemed, as far 
4IS regards the compofition and burning of the 
^colours, a myftery known perfectly in the 
•:^>raier ages ; but loft in a great degree to the 
piefent times. It will appear, however, on 
due examination, that the cafe is far otherwife : 
that from default of artifts who cultivate this 
xnanner of painting, which probably would not 
ifind many patrons at prefent, the dexterity or 
experience of making an adv^tageous ufe of 

X3 the 

jio Or THE Substance's 

the colours fo as to form good pidlures iS want-' 
ing ; but that as to the knowledge of the pre- 
paration of the colours, and the method of burn— ^ 
ing them, we poflefs them from the modem im — 

provements of chemiftry, in a much more ex 

tenfive degree than the former times : and thai 
if any able painters were to apply themfelves t 
this way of working, undoubtedly much bet- 


ter picflures would be now produced than thofe 
we fo much value as remains of an art, of whict 

we miftakenly fuppofe the methods of execu 

tion at prefent loft. For the fake, therefore^^-^, 
of thofe, who, from views either of profit or^E-r 
amufement, may chufe to apply themfelves ta — *> 
the reviving this fpecies of painting, I vnltL ^I 
give fuch lights into the nature of the fubjeft^,"^=^ 
and the manner of perfuing it praftically, a^»-S 
may enable any who can paint in oil, water^T^' 
or other vehicles, foon to become mailers o^^^* 
every thing peculiar to this art. 

The painting with vitreous colours on glafs^ -^ 
depends intirely on the fame principles, as^^ -^ 
painting in enamel ; and the manner of exe— — ^" 
cuting it is likewife the fame ; except that in thi^ ^^ 
the tranfparency of the colours being indilpen- 
fibly requifite, no fubftances can be ufed tc 
form them but fuch as vitrify perfedly ; fine 
without fuch vitrification, there can be nc 
tranfparency. In other words, the whole my- 
ftery confifls^ in finding a fet of colours, which 
gcon ftituted or compofed of fuch fubftances, 
" " e admixture of other bodies, that may 
:e their vitrification and fufion, are ca« 


USED IN Painting^ ^ij 
pable of being converted into glafs ; and melt- 
ing, when in that ftate, with lefs heat than 
wUl melt fiich other kinds of glafs as may be 
chofen for the ground or body to be painted ; 
in tempering thefe colours, fo as to make them 
proper to be worked with a pencil 3 and in 
burning, or reducing them by heat, to a due 
ftate of fufion without injuring or melting the 
glafs which conftitutes the body painted. 

The circumftances of this art are fo analo- 
gous to thofe of the art of enameling, that the 
iame means will, as I have before intimated, 
[erve for almofl every particular purpofe that 
Kcurs in the profecution of it : and I have, 
herefore, but little occafion to enter into the 
Ictail, either of the preparation of the co- 
ours, or the ufe of them ; as it will be fuffi- 
3ent to refer to what has been before faid ; 
ind only to fhew how the methods there taught 
ire applicable to this intention. 


y glafs as a ground for painting with 
. vitreous colours^ or by burning, 

rH E firft objedt to be regarded, is the 
choice of grounds j which Hiould be 
lates, or veflels, of glais, that is of the firfl d&o 
;ree oS. hardnefs, but at the £iine timecolour- 
X4 lefs* 

gift Of thb Substances 
left, ind without fpecks or wavings. The 
glafs, which has thefe qualities in the great^ 
degree, is, the beft of the kinds of that ufed for 
windows, except fuch as is made for looking- 
glafles, which though moft colourlefs and clear^ 
is fofter from the quantity of borax and other 
fluxes which enter into its compofition. This 
fortj which is called crown glafs, being a glafe 
of falts, is hard and tranfparent ; and, being 
xeady formed into plates, may cpnfequently be 
had in a ftate proper for ufe j but where paint- 
ings of any confequence are undertaken, a 
.compofition, ftill better fuited to this purpofe^ 
ihould be employed ; and the glafs wrought in 
the iame manner as the looking-glafs plates a- 
ione are at prefent. 

When larger objeifls are to be depiiSted than 
the lize of fingle plates of glafs can contain, 
it is pradtifed to join fevcral fquares together : 
which may be prepared for the painting in this 
manner. An even board, of the fizeof the whole 
of the plates laid together, ihould be Iprinkled 
with a mixture of refin and pitch ; which being 
melted by a flat iron held^ver it, the plates of 
glafs fliould be placed on the board as cloie to 
each other as poflible ; and will he firmly 
JBxed in, the fituation they are laid, by the ce- 
ment of refin and pitch as it cools. The glafs- 
being fo fixt mufl: be cleaned from any of the 
cement, which may have run through iht 
joints, firfl: by fcraping, and after by rubbing 
with fpirit of tujpentine > and it will t^n be 
in a condition to be painted with the ground 





.amours: which being performed, the plates 
may be taken ofif the board, by pafling the flat 
iron heated over them at a proper diftance ; 
i0^hich melting the cement will let them loofe 
£T>m the boani : and they may then be burnt 
icparately withwi any inconvenience. 


0/ the fluxes and colours to he ufed 
in painting on glafs by burning. 

THE fame fubftances and manner of 
preparation of fluxes and colours, 
which ferve for the purpofes of enameling, 
■will ferve equally well for the purpofes of 
painting on glafs by burning ; except, as was 
before obferved, that all thofe bodies, which 
will not pcrfetfUy vitrify with fuch a force of flux 
and heat, as can be applied expediently with 
orefpeft to the glafs which forms the ground 
painted upon, mufl: be wholly omitted. 

I fhall therefore wave any particular in- 
-ftruftions, for the preparations of the fluxes 
-and colours for this kind of painting, as need- 
ticfs repetition ; and only enumerate the com- 
^ im before gb^eo, which are proper to be 

referring to the 

ing diredions 

mem, when 


applied to this end, where any fuch is no- 

The fluxes above given may be ufed as" there 
prepared 5 and the fame difcretion muil 'be 
'cxcrcifed in adjufl:ing the ftronger or weaker 
to the ground, as in the caft of enamel. But 
if the hardefl of the two kinds of fluxes fhould 
be found too foft, in any infl:ancc of its ap^ 
plication, it may be mixed with a due propor- 
tion (which muft be found by trial) of the 
glafs of the ground, levigated to perfedl fine- 

To produce white in this kind of painting, 
the artifice of leaving the ground unpainted, 
or flightly obfcured where a fouler teint is want- 
ed, muft be' ufed, inftead of an adlual white 
body: unmodified light fupplying the place 
of the reflefted; and with the fame eflfeift in 
thefe circumflances as the reflefted in the o- 

The lighter taints of all the colours, fuch 
as rofe or pink colour of crimfon or fcarlet,-^ 
carnation of orange, — ftraw colour of yellow, 
' — and fky colour of blue, muft be produced 
on the fame principle as white, by laying on 
a lefs body of the colour ; and confequently 
fuffering it to be diluted by the light pafling 
through the glafs, inftead of that reflefted 
when bodies are mixt with the colours. The 
method of effedling tliis muft, therefore, be ci- 
ther to fpread the colours thinly on the ground; 
or, when the compofitiohs given appear to 
have yet too great a body, to dilute the colour 


USED IN Painting^ 31J 

by mixing with it an additional quantity c£ 
flux 5 or, if that render the mixture too fofti 
of levigated glafs the fame with the ground. 
In this manner, teints of all degrees of light- 
Jiefs may be produced with equal certainty and 
eafe, as by the addition of white in enamel, 
ftnd other kinds of painting ; and with this 
further advantage, that, tf the colours are 
wanting in brightnefs, they yet bear up and 
fopport their force much niore than thofe c- 
qually foul would in the other method of ufe. 
I fhall therefore omit any diredtions for the 
^ producing the diluted colours, (that is to iky^ 
thofe which in other kirtds of painting are to 
be formed by the addition of white) as like- 
wife all fuch others as are to be obtained by 
the compofitions above exhibited in treating 
of enamel ; and proceed only to enumerate 
them ; fubjoining only remarks on a cafe or 
" two, where they are peculiarly material. 

For a bright red take N^ 2. which will be 
crimfon or fcarlet, according to the colour of 
the gold ufed : — ^for a fouler red, take N° 4* 
but it is extremely tender ; and muft not be 
run to perfeft fufion, nor continued long in 
the fire: — when a very fcarlet red is wanted, 
mix N^ 2. with glafs of antimony* 

For a very bright blue, take N° 6. render- 
ed perfedly tranfparent by fufion : but this 
being formed of ultramarine, which, whea 
good, is of very high pric6, the ufe of it may 
in moft cafes be avoided by fubftituting the 
following compofitions 5 as the effedt which 


3i6 Of the Substakces 
colours have in this way of painting, is fo ad- 
vantageous even to thofe that arc fouler, as 
renders brightnefs of lefs coniequcnce than in 
any other cafe : — for a full blue, which will 
not be wanting in brightnefs, but rather in- 
clining to warmth, take N** 8. : — for a very 
cool blue, take N^ lo. without the calx of 
antimony or tin : — for a truer blue than either 
of the laft, mix them in the proportion ^at 
will produce the teint defired ; but the blue 
of N® lo. verges more towards the green, 
than in proportion to the warmth of N** 8. 
when good. 

For a very bright yellow, take N*" 12. with- 
out the calx of antimony or tin, or N® 13. :— 
for a cheaper yellow, take N^ 16. :— for a 
cheap warm yellow, take N*" 17. 

For a very bright green, take N* 16. pre- 
pared tranfparent, and N® 12. without anti- 
mony; and mix them in that proportion, 
which will render the green produced more 
inclining to the blue or yellow, according to 
the occafion ; but this compofition being cx- 
penfive, on account of the ultramarine in 
N^ 12. and extremely great brightnefs being 
feldom effential, as was before obferved, in 
this kind of painting, the following may, in 
moft cafes, be fubftituted for it to advantage: * 
•—for a cheaper bright green, take N* 21. 
with the addition of a proper quantity c€ 
N** 1 6* if it be required to incline more to the 
yellow ; — for a cheap but lefs bright green^ 



take N" 8,, and N^ i6. and mix them in the 
proportion to form the teint^ wanted. >. 

For a bright orange colour, 1take N*°2. and 
N"* 12. without antimony : — ^for a cheaper bat 
more (triited orange, takie glafs of antimony^ 
or a mixture of it with the forcgoirig:-^or 
jthe diluted orange called camationy take glaJ& 
0^ andmbity ten part^, : the purple o/ Jsr 33* 
the ssaf&r being omitted in th6 prepirjEition of 
it, one part y and tnix them with the fluxes 
N** I* or 2. according to the body of the co-^ 
lour defiredL 

For black, take N" 38. oif 3^* 

For a red brown, take N" 3 5,: — for an 
olive brown, take N* 37,:— or foul any of 
the reds or yellows before given, with a duo 
proportion of black. 

From the combinations of fome of thefe,' 
all the other variety of teints, both with re- 
ified:; to difference of hiie or of lightnefs of co- 
lour, may be jw'oduced f andj if the manner 
of painting fhould ever make it neceflary to 
diminifh the tranfparency of any of them, it 
imay be done by adding a ihiall quantity of 
iny of the compofitions for white enamel, in 
Aat proportion which will produce the fcifea 

S E C^ 

JlS Of the SuBsTAMCEft 

S E C T I O N IV. 

Of the manner of laying the colours m 
glafs grounds^ and burning them. 

THE fame affinity betwixt painting in 
enanfxel and on glai& by burning, vrhicb 
rend^s.die preparation of the colours Ho much 
the (ame in both, .jextends itfelf. alio to the 
manner of faying the colours on the grounds, 
and burning diem. 

The manner of tempering the colours and 
painting with them on glafs, may therefore 
be exactly the fame as was before diredled for 
enamel ; the oils of fpike or lavender, and of 
turpentine, being alike fuitable in this cafe as 
in the other : but with refpe<5l to the mannd 
of burning the colours, though the genecal 
methods muft be the iame, yet a variation in 
certain particulars is in fome cafes neceflary • 
which I fhall therefore take notice of here. 

Smaller plates, or other figured. bodies o* 
glafs, may have the colours burnt in the fi^* 
or loofe muffles \ .but larger plates require coi^ 
fins, which may be farmed in the fame vodxy 
ner as was diredled for enamel, though, as tb^ 
form of the plates in this cafe are flat, and not 
convex, as is neceflary in the other, a number 
of layers or ftrata may be put into the fame 
coffin : for it is not material how near the fur- 
faces of the plates ar^ to e^h other, provided 


USED IN Painting/* 319 

they do noUquch,,..Thebeftmetl?iodof plac-; 
iflg, .therji to advantage in the coffins, is tp- 
have hon plates adapted to the cpffins s . which i 
iron plates fliould have at evejcy corner a faiall . 
IPHt of iron going o£F at rigltt aisles,, ;tbat the : 
plates being put over e^cko^er, may be fup-: 
ported by uiefe bits of ^ irons a^ |hprt piUars i,» 
and kept at fuch diftance from eacii oUier, as! 
will fufFer the glafs to lye betwixt them clear 
of all cofitadt with any other body, as fer a*, 
regards their upper furface : the bottom plate, 
neverthelefs, muft have jtio .pjillars ; as there 
will be nothing under it, but the^'fubftance of 
the- coffin. Thefe iron plates muft be madgi 
£0 much biggdr than the pljites ef glafsj tliat 
the latter may lye upon them clear of the pil- 
lars, which fhould reft on the iron plates un- 
der them, and.inot on the glaiS^ ' The i5)iv 
plates being, in this manner, adapted to ^c 
ijoffins, the bottorn muft be put into it- and 
oae of the plates of glafs laid upon that ; Jbut, 
at fuch an exaft diftance from each fide, that 
die pillars of the next iron plate may not reft 
upon it, but on the bare part of the iron plate 
uftder it J another plate of glafs muft be then 
laid: in the fame manner on this plate of iron ; 
and 'the fame proceeding continued till the 
coffin be filled : and then the lid muft be lut- 
ed on ; and the fame method obferved in aH 
other particulars as was before direfted for 
the burning enamel paintings. As there. may 
be occafion, however, to ufe larger coffins for 
painted glafs than enamel, the diq^enfions of 


the furnace muft, when fuch arc wanted, fee' 
vauticd accordingly : but it wiH not be neccrf^^ 
£ksy to iniarge the area of that part of tfife foiy ' 
ttiCty whidh contains the fewel in dep&; 
for if it be ijicreafed in leiifg^, fcom fidis W- 
ikb> in propbrt^ to the increalM magnitude: 
c£ llie Qoffins^ il will fuffickiitly augnient the! 
bodyt)f fiff. 


4W gfldiiig eQamel arid glais by' 

THERE'are two methods of gilding: 
enamel and glafS) by burning or anneal 
ing: the one is the producing acoheficm of the 
gold with the giafe or enamel, by the inters 
mediation of a flux ; the other without any: 
but the principle is the lame, nevertheleis, in 
both; and is in fad: no other, than the caufing 
the gold to adhere to the enamel or glafs in 
confequence of the fufion or approach to that 
ftate, either of the flux ufed, or the body of 
enamel or glafs itfelf ; by which the gold b 
cemented to fuch body. 

The flux, when any is ufed, may be either 
fimple glafs of borax, or any of the abovfii 
direfted ptcparations of fluxes powdered. 


usfiD IN Painting. 321 

There are other differences likewife in the 

manner of this gilding, which rcfpedl the ftate 

of the gold : for it may be either ufed in the 

form of leaf gold, or in that of powder. 

When leaf gold is employed for gilding 
enamel or glafs, in this way, without any flux, 
the enamel or glafs may be moiftened with a 
irery weak folution of gum Arabic, and again 
dried. Being fo prepared, it fhould be breath-^ 
sd upon, till it become a little adhefive or 
fticky ; and then it fhould be laid upon a leaf 
of gold 3 and if that be not fufficient to cover 
it, the remaining part muft be laid on others, 
md the work afrefh breathed upon if it ap- 
[>ear dry before the whole furface be gilded. 
When the gold is thus united to the enamel or 
^lafs, by the cementing quality of the gum 
Arabic, which is ufed in order to keep it clofe 
md even to the body to be gilded, the work 
s ready for burning. 

If the leaf gold be ufed for gilding enamel 
)r glafs with the aid of any flux, fuch flux, 
)eing finely levigated, fhould be tempered 
vith a very weak folution of gum Arabic, 
jid very thinly fpread on the part of the work 
o be gilded -, and when the gum water is 
tear dry, the leaf gold fhould be laid on the 
►art thus prepared for it j or if the work be 
:ept beyond the time, it muft be breathed 
ipon, till it become flicky : the gold thus fix- 
d on the work, it is in a ftate proper for 

Y Th(? 

J22 Of the Substances 

The advantage in omitting to ufe any ffuXy 
is the rendering the gold leS promiBent, and 
tineven, with refpeft to the body gilded 5 
which is in fome cafes material ; but unlefi* 
thfc ground, whether of enamel or glafs, be 
very fbft, it requires a ftrong heat to make the 
gold take hold of it ; and diis, in die cde of 
etiainel, endangers the ground, or any paint- 
ing upon it : for, if the degree of heat be not 
vfery nicdy adjufted, the glafs or enamel will 
ruti into too liquid a (late in fbme inftances^ 
and in others not be foftened fufficiently to co- 
here with, the gold. The advantage of uling 
a flux, lies in avoiding bodi thefe inebnveni- 
cnces; and, particularly in the cafe of vfery haid 
jglafs, the being certain that the gold will 
take; which is, without this medium, ibme* 
times dubious r but the flux lying under the 
gold prevents it neceflarily from being fo level 
with the furface ; or having the limie cven- 
iiefs as when laid on the body itfetf without 
any intermedium. 

Before we fpeak of the method of ufing the 
gold in powder for gilding in this way,, it is 
proper to mention the manner of preparing 
this powder ; which may be beft made in the 
following manner. 

" Take any quantity of gold, and diflblve 
** it ii> aqua regia, according to the dire<9ions 
" given in p. 255, in the procefs for making 
•* the calx caffii, or. gold purple. When it 
" is diflblved, make a precipitation of the gold 
" by putting into the folution flips of copper 
I " plate; 



tJ^ElilNPAlkTtNG. 323 

^ plate ; which muft be continued there till 
^"^ they no longer produce any efFervefcence 
** in the fluid. Thefe flips of copper being 
5^ then takeii out, and the gold adhering id 

them gently beaten ofl^, the fluid mufl: \^e 
** poured off from the precipitate, and frefli 
*' water put -in its place; which mufl: be re-^^ 

newed, in like manner, feveral times, till 

the fait formed by the copper and aqua re- 
*' gia, be intirely waflied from the gold t 
** which, being dried, will be ready for uie." 

Where it will not anfwer the trouble to 
prepare this powder, that formed of leaf gold, 
in die manner below taught, may be ufed in 
Its place : but this precipitate is a more im- 
palpable powder than can be obtained by any 
dimrent method $ and Will take a finer bur-*' 
iiifh than any other kind when employed ia 
^is ibrt of gilding. 

The manner of ufing this precipitate of gold 
in gilding of glafs or enamel, may be varied 
two ways, as well as that of the leaf gold ; 
viz* by adding to it or oinitting any flux* 
The convenience of uiing flux is the fame 
with that before mentioned, with the further 
advantage of rendering the gilding extremely 
durable, even to degree of bearing to be fcraped i 
but the difadvantages are greater; for not lying 
undSr the gold as in the other cafe, but being 
|!|ixt with it, the flux deftroys the rich me- 
talline look ; and what is ftill much worfe^ 
in many cafes prevents its taking a burnifli 
with the true luftre. 

Y 2 In 

324 O? TH.E Substances 

In which way focvcr the powder is ufed, 
it is to be tempered with the oil of fpike, and 
worked as the enamel colours : and the quan- 
tity of flux may be a third of the weight of 
the gold. When the gold is thus Isud on, the 
work is ready for burning 5 which operation 
mufl be performed in the fame manner, ex- 
cepting what regards the degree of heat, in 
all the different methods of gilding that have 
been here mentioned* 

The manner of proceeding for burning or 
annealing the w^ork in this kind of gilding, is 
the fame with the treatment of the enamd 
or glafs in the ufe of the colours : except that 
the pieces may either be put into the: muffles, 
or cofHns : or, in the cafe of the glafs, if there 
he no painting, the operation may be perform- 
ed in the naked fire. 

After the work is burnt, if it be defigned 
to be burnifhed, a proper luftre may be given 
to it by rubbing the gilded part with a dog's 
tooth, or with a fine agate, or iron, bur- 


USED IN Painting. 325 


Of the taking of mezzotinto prints on 
glafs, and painting upon them with 
oil, or varnifli colours. 

THE painting on glafs, by means of mez- 
zotinto prints, is performed by cement- 
ing the printed fide of the prints to the furface^ 
of the glafs, by the afliftance of fome glutin- 
ous body which will not diflbive in water j and 
then deftroying the texture of the paper by wa- 
ter, fo that it may be rubbed intirely off from ' 
the cement upon the glafs ; leaving, at the fame 
time, the whole of the ink of the print upon 
the cement, and glafs, in the fame manner a$ 
if the original impreflion had been made there; 
by which method, a complete drawing of the 
piifture deligned is obtained on the glafs ; and 
may be coloured by the ufe of oil, varnifli, or 
water colours. 

The method of performing this is as follows. 
Procure a piece of the beft crown glafs as 
near as poflible in fize to the print to be taken 
ofF; and varnifli it thinly over with turpentine, 
rendered a little more fluid by the addition of 
oil of turpentine. Lay the print then on the 
glafs beginning at one end ; and prefling it 
gently down in every part in proceeding to th^ 
other: to prevent any veficles of air being 
formed, in the laying it on, by the paper touch- 
Y 3 ing 

3^6 Of the Substancis 
ing the cement unequally in (Merent parts i 
and to fettle the whole more clofely to the glafs, 
it is well to pafs over a wooden roller over it ; 
which roller may be made of any kind of wood 
turned, and may be about two inches in diameter. 
Dry the glafs, with the print thus laid upon it, 
^t the fire, till the turpentine be perfectly hard j; 
and afterwards moiften the paper well with wa- 
ter, till it be thoroughly foaked. ^Then rub 
off the paper intirely from the cement, by 
gently rolling it unaer the finger; and Icfc 
it dry without any heat : the impreflion of the 
print will be fourtd perfeft on the glafs ; and 
* may be painted over with cither oil or varniih 

The choice and treatment of the colours 
for painting in this way upon glafs, in eiAcr 
oil or varnifh, may be the fame as for any o- 
ther method ; and it is therefore needlefs to 
enumerate any fiirther particulars, but to rcfiar 
to the parts of this work where the nature and 
preparation of them, as well as the mannerof 
compofition of them, with the oils and var- 
nifti, is before explained. 


USED IN Painting. 327 


Of colouring or wafliitig maps, prints, 

THE colouring maps, or other prints, is 
performed, either by fpreading opakt 
colours fo thinly on the fubjed, that the full 
45flfeft of the printing jnay appear under them ; 
j0r by ufing tranfparent colours, which Hain the 
ground and dry away without leaving any 
cpake body: this lafl method is called wajhing. 
The ufing opake colours, or fuch as have 
a fblid body, in this way on prints, depends in- 
tirely on the kind of vehicle ufed. For if the 
colour be fufpended by the vehicle, that it can 
be fpread io as to lie in the moft fjparfed, and 
yet equal manner, it may be applied to this 
purpofe with fuccefs : and fuch as are very 
ftrong and bright, even though of the moft 
opake body, as vermilion, verditer, ultrama- 
rine, or turpeth mineral, will anfwer the end. 
The beft method of doing this is the ufing the 
ifinglafs fize, as I before intimated, prepared 
with fugar or honey, according to the direc* 
tions given in p. 1 68 : which makes the colours 
of this fort work fo freely, that they rnay be dif- 
fufed almoft as eafily as the tranfparent kinds y 
and with nearly as good effed:. The propor- 
tion of the ftrength of the (izt to each par- 
ticular fpirt is Tikewife beforementioned in 

Y 4 ^ p. 1 73, 


p. 173, and it is therefore unncceflary to give 
It here : but it is proper in moft cafes to dilute 
the compofition more for the wafhing maps, 
and fpreading the colour over large furfaccs, 
than when employed in painting. 

Befides the opake, there are a number of 
colours, which are femi-tranfparent, and yet 
have a body in a greater or lefs degree ; thefc 
are carmine, biftre, and gall-ftone in the firft 
degree, with lake and Pruflian blue in the fe- 
cond ; all which may be treated in the fame 
manner, but require very different proportion 
in the ftrength of the fize ; for the firft of thefc 
claffcs ought to have as little as poflible of the 
fize ; and the latter to be more copioufly fiir- 
mflied with it. 

The tranfparent colours (hould be pre- 
ferred for this purpofc to either of the other 
kinds ; as their cffedt is better, and they require 
no preparation. Thefe colours are, for red^ 
red mk'j—for blue^ litmus ;~;/ir green^ fap 
green, and verdigrife (in vinegar \)—for yeJ^ 
Jowy gamboge, the yellow berry wafli and tur-^ 
meric wafh;— y^r purple ^ the logwood wafJ* 

and archal;— ^r brown^ Spanifh liquorice; 

and/ir blacky Indian ink. Thefc require only XO 
be diflblved in water \ which fhould be mor^ 
copioufly added where they are employed fo^ 
wafhing prints or colouring large grounds o^ 
any kind. 

With refpeft to the manner of ufing any of 
thefe clafTes in the colouring maps and prints, 
there is nothing more required, than in any 



■Other painting; except that it muft be care- 
fully obferved in employing the opake or 
femi-tranfparent colours, never to cover any 
parts fo ftrongly with them, as to prevent 
the diftinft appearance of the (hades of the 
printed defign -, as they are to (hew them- 
felves through the colours ; and form the 
ihades of the pifture made by the colouring. 

In the illuminating (as it is called) maps, as 
little peculiar in the manner is neceffary as in 
the cafe of other prints : only, the intent of 
colouring them being to diftinguifli the divi- 
fions of the maps with refbeft to countries, 
diftrifts, &c. care muft be taken not to lay the 
fluid colours on lb copioufly as to flow beyond 
the limits of what they are intended to cover: 
and the reft depends on the difpofing of the 
variety of colours fo in different parts as to 
give them a ftrong and plealing effeft ; v. hich 
muft depend more on fancy and good tafte than 
on any rules. There is indeed one thing in par- 
ticular, which it may be proper to remark, 
fliould be always avoided : it is, the laying 
thofe colours, that have any affinity or lilce- 
nefs, clofe to each other : for by an error in 
this particular, they will be rendered much 
lefs efFedlual with reipeft to the purpole they 
are to ferve; as it is by fuch a difpofition made 
more difficult to the eye, to diftinguifli the li- 
mits and bounds they are intended to mark 
out : and indeed, befides, for want of due ap- 
pofition, the diverfification of the colours is 
made lefs pleafing, when they are feen at a 


53<^ O^ THE Substances, &c. 
diflance^ and confidered only with rcfpt& to 
their ornamental appearance. There is one 
other rule^ I will likewife recommend the ob- 
fervance of, though many think they are giv- 
ing mod perfcAion to their work when they 
pioft deviate from it > it is, the never ufing 
too ftrong and deep colours for this purpofe j 
as they render the legible charafters of the 
maps lefs diftindt and perceptible -, fuch a prac — 
tice is therefore repugnant in a certain degree tarn 

the principal intention of the maps ; and more 

.over gives them a tawdry glaring appearance _ 
which is very inconfiftent with good tafte ; on«fc- 
great principle of which is fimplicity, and tho^^ 
avoiding a falfe and unmeaning fhowinefs. • 



Of the feveral arts ufed In making 
outline {ketches of defigns from na-- 
ture, or depi<9ted reprefentations ; 
and of the means of taking cafts 
and impredions, from figures, bufls, 
medals, leaves, SPc. 


Of the devices emplojred for the more 
eafily obtaining a juft outline in 
making defigns from nature 5 and 
the various methods of ofF-tracing, 
calking, and reducing, pidures, 
prints, or dravi^ings. 

AS the drawing accurately and readily 
after nature, and depided reprefenta- 
tions, by the unafHfted hand and eye, 
requires greater pra<3ice and command of pen- 
cil than fall to the fhare of many, who never- 
thelefs may not want abilities to colour or 
ihade a pidture or drawing when a proper out-.. 
Une iketch is preyioufly procured, and as the 


332 Op Sketches from Nature 
convenience of quicker diipatch is a matter of 
importance even to thofe who are moft ex- 
pert, various means have been devifed to lead 
and diredl the eye or hand in forming juft out- 
lines- of the principal objeds which compofe 
the defign. Thefe means cohfift of a multi- 
plicity of methods, founded on different prin- 

In the drawing after nature, the interpodng 
a tranfparent plane is commonly pra<ftiied ; 
through which the objects being feen from a 
fixt point of view, the outlines of their parts 
are traced upon it, by chalk or fome kind of 
crayon ; — or fuch tranfparent body is divided 
into fquares, through which the objefts being 
viewed, the eye may be enabled to form and 
difpofe them with more certainty, on a paper, 
or other proper ground, divided into a fimilar 
number of fquares ;— or fome reflefted image 
is obtained by means of a camera obfcura, 
which affords an opportunity both of draw- 
ing the figure, and imitating the natural co- 
lour of the objedls. Thefe are the devices 
employed for drawing after nature: but, where 
pictures, prints^ or drawings are to be copied, a 
much greater variety are ufed. The mofl: 
common is by off-tracingy as it is called, which 
is the laying fome tranfparent fubftance over 
the picture, print, or drawing; and paffing 
over the outlines of the principal parts with 
a pencil or crayon, which delineation is to be 
afterwards transferred from this tranfparent 
body to the ground intended for the painting 



or drawing. The fecond, which is indeed 
only another kind of ofF-tracing, praftifed 
fomctimes in the cafe of prints and draw- 
ings, is effedled by laying the originals on 
the ground of paper or vellum defigned for 
the copy ; the back of the original being 
ihieared with black, or with vermilion mixt 
with a little butter 5 or a paper fo prepared be- 
ing laid betwixt the original and copy j and 
tracing over the principal parts of the defign 
with a needle, or fome other fuch like inftra- 
ment; by which means an outline iketch of it 
will be formed on the ground of the copy. 
This method is called calking -y and is per- 
formed alfo in another way, by punfturing or 
pricking the original print or drawing 5 and 
producing an outline on a new ground, by 
tranfmitting a coloured powder through the 
pundurcd holes. The diird is by diffolving 
part of the printing ink by means of fopcj and 
impreffing it on a frefh ground in that ftate. 
Another method much pradtifed is the ufing 
fquares in the manner above fpoken of, in 
die expedients for drawing after nature ; ex- 
cept that here they are to be laid upon the 
picture : and this method is, likewife, applied, 
to the more certain copying of pidures or 
drawings, where the new defign is to differ 
in magnitude from the original ; in which 
cafe it is called reduSiion : for the anfwering 
which purpofe there is likewife another me- 
Aod, by means of a machine I fhall below 


^34 Of SieETCHES fIom NATlrttt 

ddcribe, for off-tracing in a manner^ wktfif 
by fimply drawing over the lines of the ori« 
ginaly the new fketch may be made greater or 
lefs at pleafure. 

The particular manner of ufing the tran<« 
f(xu:ent plane for taking defigns fix)m nature is^ 
by framing a piece of tii&ny or fine lawn^ 
of the fize of the pi(%ire or drawing intended ; 
and fixing it fo diat the whole view of what 
18 to be painted may be feen through it ; a 
fight boards that is, a flat piece of wood, VFidi 
a hole in it, being placed parallel to the 6f^ 
fimy or lawn, in fuch manner, that the eye 
may command the whole view through it, at 
die £une time that the hand may r^ich widi 
convenience to draw upon it. The outlines of 
the objefl, as they appear through the hole in the 
fight board, muft then be traced out, on the 
tiffany or lawn, by a crayon formed of white of 
red chalk, charcoal, or any proper fubftance; by 
which means, a fketch of the defign will be pro- 
duced. Inordertoformamorecompletedraw^ 
ing from this crude fketch, on paper or vellum, 
the tiffany or lawn containing it mufl be carc- 
, fully laid on fuch paper or vellum, in an ho- 
rizontal pofition ; and, being well fixt down 
upon it, mufl be flruck with fome flat body ia 
every part ; by which means, the chalk or 
matter of the crayon will be transferred from 
the old to the new ground -, and produce the 
fame delineation of the objei5t upon it as was 
before on the other. The imprefiion, thus 
made on the new ground, fliould be then over- 


traced with a black lead pencil ; and after- 
wards corredted, if there be occafion, from 
the natural view through the fight board ; and 
this paper or vellum will then contain a proper 
outline drawing, if the defign was intended 
for a painting in water colours. But when thi» 
method is perfued with a view to a painting ifi 
oil, the tiffany or lawn, after the fketch is 
drawn, muft be laid upon the ground of the 
intended pifture 5 and proceeded with in 
the fame manner as with the vellum, or paper; 
only, in this cafe, the over-tracing muft be 
made with fome kind of crayon inftead of the 
black lead pencil. 

It is advifed by fome to ufe paper made 
tranfparent by means of oil of turpentine, in- 
ftead of the tiffany and lawn : but the ufe of 
it is only pradticable in this way, in a darkned 
room or other confined place 5 and the paper 
riius prepared does not become tranfparent 
enough, even then, to fhcw minute or remote 
objefts fb diftinftly as is necefi!ary. If, how-^^ 
ever, any chufe to ufe it, the ufual preparation 
of the paper is, only to bru/h it fevcral times 
over with the oil of turpentine, and to fuffer 
it to dry. The tranfparency will be much im- 
proved, if a third of nut or poppy oil be 
added to the oil of turpentine ; or otherwife a 
little crude turpentine or colourlefs varr 
hifh : any of which will render the oU 
of turpentine more efficacious for this pur- 
pofe : and fave the trouble and expence of 
rubbing the paper fo oftea over as is otherwife 


336 Of Sketches f^rom Nature 
Jieceflary. The paper employed for this pui* 
pofe fliould be that called jan-paper j which is 
to be had of the fan-makers : or, if that cannot 
1>e procured, fine poft paper may be fubftituted: 
and where the defign is too large to be con- 
tained in one fheet, feveral may be joined to- 
gether, by laying the edges of the fheets a 
very little over each other; and cementing 
them by ifinglafs glue ; which, if neatly done, 
will efFedt the tranfparency in the joints, but 
in a very minute degree. When the original 
fketch is made on tranfparent paper, the trac* 
ing or drawing may be performed by a black 
lead pencil, inftead of crayon, which renders the 
drawing much more perfedb and durable : and, 
being tnus completed, it may be ufed for off- 
tracing the (ketch on any ground intended for 
a painting in either oil or water. If it be in- 
tended for a pifture in oil colours, the back of 
the paper may be fmeared with pounded black 
lead, charcoal duft, or any odier powdered 
crayon; or, what is much better, vermilion 
mixed with juft fo much butter as will makck 
adhere to the paper : and it muft then be laid 
on the ground of the pidture, and overtraced by 
a copper or iron ftiif, or blunted needle j which 
will make an impreffion of the iketch, on the 
ground, by means of the colour on the back 
of the paper : or another paper may be co- 
loured, with the black lead or vermilion, inftead 
of the back of the tranfparent paper; and being 
betwixt that and the ground will anfwer the 
lame end. The means arc no way different, 
2 wh^rc 


where die iketch is to be tranfmitted to paper 
kiftead of oil 3 hut in colouring the back of the 
feraniparent paper, or t^at inteirpofed where any 
fuob is ufed, care fhouid be taken that die co- 
r lour be fo wipedoiF, as jiot to fmear the ground, 
cripffoduce any effed, except where comprefled 
by the inftrument in the overtracing : and this 
indeed fhould be regarded to a certain degree 
farfapL widi tthe.oil ground. Where the fketch is 
large, and made on feveral fheets of paper, it 
is convenient to have weights to place on the 
jfour comers of the conjoined fheets to keep 
<diem even and fteady on the ground. They 
;atc rbeft formed of fquare pieces of lead with 
liandles 5 and may be about two or three 
•pounds weight each. 

.v-JThe iketch on tran{parent paper may be 
cirthccwife tranfmitted to any ground by punc- 
:l|ariiig it Avith holes made near each other in* 
/<be lines of the dravidng, and then fixing it on 
«lfae groxmd, and dufting over it black lead 6r 
,ai^'>other coloured matter finely powdered; and 
•laqd up in a >fine linnen clodx : which duil 
ipafliog the holes of the pickt p2^>er will deli- 
jKfitc the Iketdh on the new ground, fo that 
4t«iqay then be overtraced by any kind of pen- 
ccil or crayon. Glafs has been alfo lifed in the 
i^me view, as the lawn or tranfparent paper : 
4Mit its texture hinders it fi"om being well ma- 
•iiaged with chalk or any other crayon or pencil. 
Wbough there is a method, that has not, as far as 
rLknow of, been hitherto pradifed, by which a 
'ikct^ might be well obtained jhrough its ufe : 

Z it 

338 Op Sketches from Nature 
it IS, by drawing the outlines of the objeds 
with black colour in drying oil ; and when die 
Iketch is finiihed, laying the paper intended to 
receive the copy gently and without any rub- 
bing or fhifting on the glafs ; having firft 
moiftned it with water : by which means the 
black paint will be tranfmitted to the paper, 
as the moifture exhales from it ; and an im- 
preflion made fufficiently cxadt for the pur- 

The manner of affifting the eye, in defign- 
ing from nature by means of a plane divided 
into fquares, is, by drawing crofs lines paral- 
lel to each other on a tiffany or lawn framed ; 
or on tranfparent paper, or glafs ; which may 
be done with common writing ink or any o- 
i:her way that will render the lines vifible 5 and 
this, being placed before the fight board in die 
fame manner as was before directed for tradng 
the outlines, the ground, on which the iketch 
is intended to be taken, muft be formed into 
an equal number of fquares ; and the objedte, 
being feen through the fquares of the tranfpa- 
rent plane, are much more eafily dilpofedin 
their proper fituation ; and formed of a juft 
magnitude by placing them in the correlpon- 
dent fquare of the ground, than where the eye 
had no fuch medium to compare and judge ly. 
But though the above fubftances are moft com- 
monly ufed, there is a more fimple and effec- 
tual way of doing this, which is, by making 
a frame of a proper fize ; and dividing the area 
it forms into fquares by threads of a moderate 



thicknefs; in which way the objedts to be 
drawn are confequently more within the power 
of the eye than when the moft tranfparent body 
is ufed. The drawing by the affiftance of 
fquares, to thofe who have the leaft command 
of hand, is by much the moft expedient way i 
but in order to render this^ or the other me- 
thods more commodioufly prafticable, where 
it is to be done in the open air, a portable 
machine Ihould be made for fupporting the 
frame of the tranfparent plane, and the fight 
board. It may be conftrufted by joining three 
long legs together, in the manner of the fur-* 
veyors inftruments, in a block 5 and fixing 
the frame, by means of a foot which will Hide, 
into the fame box, that it may be raifed higher 
pr lower : the fight board muft have a foot 
likewife by which it may be raifed higher or 
lower ', but this muft not be fixed into the 
blocl^but into a fliding piece which muftpafs 
thro' the block hori:^ontally j fo that the foot 
of the fight board, being fixt into it at right 
angles, the board may be brought nearer to, 
or drawn farther from the tranfparent plane at 

The other method ufed to facilitate the draw- 
ing after nature, to wit, by tlie reflefted imag^ of 
the object, is performed by the camera obfcura, 
of which a portable kind adapted to this purpofe 
is commonly made by the opticians. It is 
needlefs, therefore, to give any defcription of 
thefe inftruments ; and the ftrufture of them 
immediately explains the manner of their ufe 
... Z 2 on 

340 Of Sketches from Nature 
on a very flight ex^mmation. Where they 
arc not at hand, and a profpedb through any 
particular window is defired to be taken, an 
occafional camera may be formed, by boring a 
hole through the window-fliutfer at a conve- 
nient height ; and putting one of the glafles 
called the ox-eye, into the hole ; when all other 
Eght being (hut out, except what pafles t!hro* 
this hole, and a proper grotfrid of paper or 
vellum, &c. being held at ta due diftail<Sfe ftoift 
the hole, the refleifled irtiigc of fliie pr^S^Wft 
will be formed upon the grdtmd : and if it b6 
of paper, and fixSd fteady ty a proper fratfit, 
the image appearing very pcJrfeftly iiti thfe fC- 
verfe or backfide, of it, theartJft may itehd at thie 
back ; and trace fhe outlines of die hecdfikry 
parts with great convenience ; and may cvefi 
ftretch the colouring, if he think it expedifirit. 
Though the taking views of 'nature by 'the 
camera has feverial corivenicfftces, arid kp^pieafs 
very advantageous ; yet there is One very ma- 
terial objeftion, which is, that the fhUdbws 
lofe their force in the rdflfeiStedlihiage ; ahdob^ 
jedls, by the refraftion, are made to apf^ete 
rounder, or different fometimes both in their f ^ 
magnitude, and fite, from what they retilly I ^^ 
are : which being oppughaht to the triith of I ^ 
any drawing, almoft wholly deftroys 'the 'ftc- ^^ 
pedience there would be otherwife found in ^'* 

this manner. ^^ 

The method of making fketehes of oiltlihes S' 

from picftures, prints, or drawing, by ofF-trac- 
ing, is performed by a variety of itifethods. ^^ 



Thp nioft ix>mmpjR, where the fize of the 
paining dpes not forhici it, is to take a (heet 
{$ paper prepay e4 by pil of tyrpeo^ijie, or the 
oth^r means, a^ aJDCiye 4ire(f^ed for the taking 
vi^ws from nature ; and, hayjog faftenpd it even 
fin the pidure iW print to l^ pc)j:^e(i, to trace 
over the principal parts ^lifith 4 bl^pk lead pen- 
cil : by which qieans ^n putlipe being obtain- 
ed, it may be irjip^tpd ^p any other ground, 
in the mannpr bpfore 4pfcrit^d when the fame 
kind of pufUne is formed by drawing after na^ 
taris. Where krger pigcps gre to be copied, 
lawn, and tiffany, m$Ly. be ^fed, inftead of 
the tranfpfirpnt paper, pr feyeraj (hpcts of the 
paper "^^y ^ joiped tpgefbgr by means of 
ifinglafs glue; ?nd when fbepjitline is traced by 
chalk or other prpper cr^pn, the fubfequent 
proceeding may be thie like gifo, ii> thi§ cafe, 
^ gboye, where the famie kind pf putline is 
f^n frpm nature. .Gp)dbeaters-f]kin, and 
kom .as prepared in plates for lanjhorns, as 
alfo the taljC or foffije ifinglaf§, gg^d dried hogs 
bladder, have been likewi^ applied to this 
. purppfe ; but where horn, , or -jfinglafs, are 
ufed, being rigid bodies that \yill not yield to 
impart an impreflion by reTtracing, they may 
J)e beft treated i^ the manner abpve advifed, in 
ifee /oafe of glafsi when employed for taking 
views from nature ; which is Jby tracing jthe 
outlines with black in pij, awd printing a new 
ground of paper wijth it. 

Another ^common methQd,of pff-tyacing,.an 
the cafe of prints, or drawings, is to fix them 

Z 3 againft 

342 Of Sketches from Nature 
againft a window, or other hard tranfparent 
body placed in a ftrong light, in a perpendi-r 
cular pofition ; and, putting a piece of paper, 
vellum, or any other body fufficiently tran- 
fparent before them, to per^rm the ofF-trac- 
ing, by the view which is tlris way given of 
. the objedls in the print or drawing. 

The other method of ojfF-tracing called calk- 
ingy which is fometimes pradtifed in the cafe 
of prints and drawings, is performed by trac- 
ing on the print or drawing itfelf, inftead of 
the tranfparent body laid over it, as in the o- 
ther manner; the back of it being previoufly 
prepared by rubbing it over with black lead 
powdered, or other fuch matter; or a paper 
blacked on the under fide may be ufed, in* 
ftead of blacking the print or drawing ! by ei* 
ther of which methods an outline will be 
made on any ground of vellum or paper laid 
under the print; and if feveral grounds of very 
thin paper be laid together under the print, 
with each a blackened paper over them, fo ma- 
ny impreffions may be made at one time. 
The fame cffeft may be produced by punctur- 
ing or pricking out the proper outlines in the 
print or drawing ; and then ufing it for im- 
parting the fketch to another ground, with the 
black lead powder, &c. in tne manner above 
defcribed in fpeaking of the ufe of the oiled 
paper : and when the print or drawing is thus 
prepared by pundluring, it may be employed 
for tranfmitting the fketch to any number of 



The manner of ufing fope, for taking off 
the impreffion of a print on a new ground, is, 
by finearing the original over with the com- 
mon fbft fope, commixt with water till it be 
of the confiftence of a thin jelly ; and then 
laying it even on the ground intended to re- 
ceive the impreffion, which muft be alfo pre- 
vioufly moiftened with water: after which, 
being covered with feveral other papers, the 
whole muft be comprefled by paffing a wood- 
en roller over them ; or by rubbing ftrongly on 
them with the callender glafs ufed for glazing 
linnen ; or by any parallel means. The im- 
preffion of the original will by this means be 
imparted to the new ground 5 which muft be 
firft dried, and then carefully wafhed with a 
iponge and water to take off the fope. It has 
been faid by fome, that this treatment will 
do very little injury to the originaUprint ; but, 
befides the imprafticability of ever thoroughly 
cleanfing it from the fope, a part of the print- 
ing ink is taken from it, and a proportionable 
fhare of the effedt of the original impreffion 

A method parallel to this is fometimes ufed 
with prints and drawings ; which is by holding 
them up to the light, and tracing the proper 
outlines on the back with a black lead pencil^ 
or any kind of crayon ; and then laying the 
traced fide on a ground proper to receive the 
impreffion, going over them w^ith a roller or 
callender glafs, in the fame manner as when 
the impreffion is taken by means of fope. On 
Z 4 the 

344 O^ Sketches, from Nature 
ihe fame principle, in the cafe of copaFtm€rrts, 
cyphers, or any other regular figures, where' 
both fides ate alike, when one half is drawa 
or traced, the other half may, be procured by 
doubling the paper exa<ftly in the place where 
the two halves .fliould join ; and then j)refl[ing 
or rolling over the outfide of the fketched 
part, by which a correfpondent impreffion of 
the defign will be made on the other : and the 
whole fketch will be finiflied without the trou- 
ble of drawing or tracing out the iecond hal£ 
The method of copying defigns, by the ufe 
of the fquares, either in order to paint in equal 
magnitude, or with a view to reduftion j is, by 
dividing the original into a convenient num- 
ber of fquares, by ruling lines aerofs it with 
any kind of crayon 5 arid then doing the fame 
on the ground, in a correfpondent nldnner ; 
which fquares on the new ground, may b* 
cither incrcafed, diminiflied, or made eqbal 
as to tlieir fize, with refoed: to thofe of the 
original, according to the intended proportion 
of the new piece. The principal ufe of the 
fquares, in this cafe, is fo much the famCi ^ 
tvhen they are applied to the taking drawings 
from nature, that it is needl^fs to dwell long- 
er on them noW. I fball only iritimate> that, 
to thofe who can draw at all, the ufe of the 
fquares is much more adviiable hfere, as well 
as in drawing after nature^ than any of the o- 
ther methods : as it is much more improving, 
and on the whole lefs troublefome, to make a 
corred fketch this Way than by any other. 



The madiicr of redudion, or if that be not - 
nccefkry, ^of tracing out an outline where the 
magnitude of the original i$ to be prcferved> 
by the machine above mentioned, which was 
formerly called a parallehgram^ and by (bme 
at prefent a mathematical compafs^ cannot be 
ftiewn, without firft dcfcribing fully, or exhi- 
biting by a figure, the conftruftion of the in- 
ftrument. I (hall therefore endeavour to ex-* 
plain the Arudure and manner of fabrication 
of it, as well as thofe of a machine fomewhat 
complex admit : and what may efcape the con- 
ception in the verbal defcription, may be fup- 
plied by the infpeftion of the figure annexed* 
This inftrument is compofed of a board, or 
table, with ten pieces of wood fixed upon it, 
ia a moveable manner ; and by fuch a con-* 
ftrudion, that when one is moved, the whole 
of the, reft move alfo fimilarly, with refpeft 
to the • directions, but under greater or lefs 
angles. The board or table may be of fir 
deal ; and is ufually made in the form of a 
parallelt^ram ; the magnitude of it, as well as 
the other parts of the machine, muft be accord- 
ing to that of the pidures, (Sc it is intended to 
be ufcd for reducing :• but for the fake of giv- 
ing the c(»Eq)arative proportions, we will fbite 
it at three feet in length, and the breadth may 
be about a foot and a half: it muft be plained 
very even; but (hould not be of too thin fub- 
ftance, left it warp; and it muft be covered 
widi cloth ftretched even upon it, and faften- 
cd down to it. The ten pieces of wood muft 


346 Ot Sketches from Nature 
be formed like rulers ufed for writing; and in 
the proportion here taken, they may be a foot' 
long, and about half an inch in breadth ; and 
the fifth or fixth of an inch in thickneft.' 
They muft be faftencd to each other in fuch 
manner, that every one muft be croffed by 
another in the centre ; and by two others, at 
fuch diftance from the centre, as exadlly di- 
vides the two half lengths on each fide of it; 
except the two which form the extremities, 
and can be only croflTed in the centre and in 
the middle of one part; which, in each ex- 
tremity, will be the part oppofite to that fo 
croflfed in the other, as will immediately ap- 
pear on the pieces being laid together in the 
pofition here diredcd. The faftening muft 
be by pins, or rivets, on which each piece 
may be turned with perfecft freedom; and, 
near each end of every piece, muft be made a 
hole or a female fcrew, into which a crayon, 
portcrayon, or pencil, may be fixed, either 
by, or without, a fcrew ; and at the ends of 
thofe pieces which make the extremities, a 
finaller hole for a pin to be paflTed through 
to faften the conjoined pieces to the board. 
In order to the more commodioufly fixing the 
feveral parts of the inftrument to the board or 
table, it may be proper to have female fcrews 
at the places of the table where the rulers 
are to be pinned down according to the dif- 
ferent applications of the inftrument ; and the 
pins for taftening the refpedive parts, muft in 


AND DEPICTED Represent AT IONS. 347 
this cafe have male fcrews at their extremities^ 
correfpondent to the female fcrews in the 
table. By thefe diredions clofely followed^ 
the parts of the inftrument may be completely 
formed, and put together : but to explain the 
manner of ufing it, the figure is here given ; 
as it is more eafy to refer to the parts of that, 
than to fuch as have only a verbal ipecifica^ 

Let the leg or extremity of the piece -^be 
faftened to the board in the part of it as here 
delineated ; and let the pidture, &c. be placed 
under the end of the piece B ; a ftrong pin 
blunted, or other fuch rigid body, being 
put through the end of it, and placed in the 
centre of the picfture ; or any other part where 
-it mav be convenient to begin the tracing. 
J^et the ground intended to receive the draw- 

348 Or Sketches from Natuee 
ing, or fketch, be then placed at £, the next 
leg to that faftened to the board, if the defign 
of the original be intended to be diminiihed, 
in the utmoft degree the machine can effed; 
or to any of the other legs nearer to t^e origir 
nal, according to the proportion of the dimi- 
nution required. A crayon, or pencil, muft 
then be fixed in the hole of the piece £, made 
for that purpofe J and muft reft on the ground 
of the fketch; which ground muft be fo 
placed, that the crayon or pencil may be im- 
piediately over die part of it which corre- 
foonds with the part of the original touted 
by the' blunt^4 pin- Tti? pi<?!^i^ and- ground 
,or^ the fketch ixjuft then b^ faftepe^ firmly to 
th^ board J ja;id,tJv5 artiftb^rfng with his Ifft 
han^ gently Qn tj^e crayon or penpil, over tlje 
groilpd, muft trac? with the biunte^l pin or 
ftift ^xcd in the hple pf tlj? zjaoft diftant leg 
of the outlines of the original: which will fo 
move the crayon or pencil on "the ground for 
the fketch, that a correfpondent line will be 
marked there ; but with a diminution of the 
defign in the proportion defined. 

When the enlargement of the original is 
defired, the reverfe muft be praftifed with ftr 
gard to the fituation of the <>riginjil and copy: 
for if the original be placed under £, the picqe 
next to that faftened to the board, and tk^ 
new ground be put under J5, the end of rfie 
k^ where the original was before placed, 
^ £Lil:^quent management being the fi^Ltx 

^aefore in all other refpefts, the Iketch will 
2 be 


be aug^nted in i,a equal degree to what it 
vms ditoiinifhed before. 

If a ifketoh of equal magnitude be de£rei^ 
^e i&ftoiing of die conjoined .pieces «o the ta^ 
blib <5r boacd muft beatiD, in^e centre <^ Use 
whole : and die ori^nal, and Hetv ground^ 
pildced under the pieces at each eijctremity, or 
itiy other corrd^bndent pieces that tnay be 
tSioA connnodious. 

This machine may be ufeful for ofF-tracing 
ifti^s, or other flich fimpler defigns ^ or msy 
afbrd amuferiient by off-tracing -piftureci, &c. 
to thofe who hive no facility in drawing ; but 
tb the abler, and more expert in thefe aiFts, 
where defigns that demand ipimt and pencil 
affe in quefSon, it feems an eifpediont below 
their fegard 5 as performing by an imperfeft 
tttechsirtical aid, what they can execute better 
by their own natural powers. 


Of the means of taking cafts, atid 
impreflions, 'from figures, bufts, 
medals, leaves, 

THE method of taking cafts of figures 
and bufts, as at prefent pradlifed, is mofl 
generally by the ufe of plafler of Paris ; or^ 
in other words, alabafler calcined by a gentle 


^ j:d Of Casts anei Impressior^J 
Heat. The advantage of ufing this fubftanc^. 
preferably to others, confifts in this, that not-^ 
withftanding a flight calcination reduces it to 
a piilverine fbte, it becomes again a tenadoud 
and cohering body,; by being moiftcned with 
water ; and ^ef wards fuiFered to dry ; by which 
means either a concave or convex figure may 
be given by a proper mold or model to it when 
wet, and retained by the hardncfs it acquires 
when dry : and from thefe qualities, it is fit- 
ted to the double ufe of maJcing both caftsy 
and molds for forming thofe cafts. The pla- 
fter is to be had ready prepared of thofe, who 
make it their bufinefs to fell it, and the only 
care is to fee that it is genuine. 

The particular manner of making cafts de- 
pends on the form of the fubjeft to be taken# 
Where there are no projefting parts, it is veiy 
fimple and eafy ; as likewife where there are 
as fuch form only a right or any greater angle 
with the principal furface of the body : but where 
parts projeft in lefler angles, or form curves in- 
clined towards the principal furface of the body, 
the work is more difficult. I fhall therefore 
firft explain thofe particulars of the manner, 
which are general to all kinds ; and then pomt 
out the extraordinary methods to be ufed 
where difficulties occur. 

The firft ftep to be taken is, the forming the 
mold ; which is, indeed, done by much the 
fame means, as the caft is afterwards made 
in it. In order to this, if the original or mo- 
del be a bafs-relief, or any oth^r piece of a flat 


Of Casts and Impressions. 351 
form, having its furface firft well greafed, it 
muft be placed on a proper table, or other fuch 
iupport ; and furrounded by a frame, the 
fides of which muft be at fuch a diftance from 
it, as will allow a proper thicknefs for the fides 
of the mold. A due quantity of the plafter, 
that is, what will be fufficient to cover and 
rife to fiich a thicknefs as may give fufficient 
ftrength to the mold, as alfo to fill the hollow 
betwixt the frame and the model, muft be 
moiftened with water, till it be juft of fuch 
jconfiftence as will allow it. to be poured 
upon the model ; which (hbuld be done as 
&on as poflible : for it muft not be delayed 
:after the water is added to the plafter, which 
would otherwife concrete or fet, fo as to 
become more troublefome in the working, 
or unfit to be ufed. The whole niuft then 
:be fuffered to remain in this condition, till the 
-plafter has attained its hardnefs ; and then the 
frame being taken away, the preparatory caft 
or mold thus formed may be taken off from 
the fubjedl intire. 

Where the model or original fubjedt* is of 
a round or ered: form, a different method 
muft be perfued ; and the mold muft be di* 
vided into feveral pieces: or if the fubjedt con- 
-fifts of detached and projecting parts, it is fre- 
quently moft expedient to caft fuch parts fe- 
'parately j and afterwards join them togetlier. 

Where the original fubjedt or model forms 

a round, or fpheroid, or any part of fuch 

,-r43und, or fpheroid, more than one half, the 


35^ Of Cast« and Imprfssioks. 
plaftcr muft be ufed without any frame to 
keep it round the niKxiel ; and inuft be tem<^ 
pered, with water, to fudi a coofiilence, ihat 
it may be wrougnt with the hand like very 
foft paJfis : but though it mnfi not he io fluid, 
as when prepared for flat flgured models, it 
muft yet be as moift as if coni^teble with 
its cohering fui&dently to hold togedier : and 
being thus prepared, it muft be put <upoii die 
model, and comprefTed with the iiaind, or 
any flat inftrument, that the paits of it xnxf 
adapt themfelves, in the moft pcrfeS manner, 
to diofe of the fubjcdt, as well as he compod: 
with jreipedl to themfelves. When ,the modd 
is fo covered to a convenient thicknefe, the 
vwhole :muft be left at reft till the plafter be 
iet and Arm, fb as to bear dividii^ ^without 
falling to pieces ^ or being liable to be put 
out of its form by flight violence: and it mxstt 
then be divided into pieces, in order to its be- 
ing taken off" from the model, by cutting it 
with a knife, or with a very thin blade ; and 
being divided, muft be cautioufly taken oflF, 
and kept till dry : but it muft be always care- 
fully obferved, before the feparatioh of the 
parts be made, to notch them crols the ]cint$y 
or lines of the divifion, at prefer. diflances, 
that they may with eafe and certainty be pro- 
perly conjoined again ; which would be much 
.more precarious and troublefome without fuch 
diredive marks. The art of properly divid- 
ing the molds, in order to make them fepa- 
rate from the model, conftitutes tfeegreateftob- 


Of Casts and Impressioms. 353 
jefl: of dexterity and fkill in the art of carting; 
and does not admit of rules for the raoft ad- 
vantageous conduct of it in every cafe : but I 
ihall endeavour to explain the pinciples on 
whldi it depends in fuch manner, that by a 
due application of thena, all difficulties may 
at any time be furmounted, and an expertnefs 
even of manner acquired by a little pradice. 
With refpeft to die cafe in queftion, where 
the fubjecS: is of a round or fpheroidal form, it 
is beft to divide the mold into three 'parts, 
which will then eafily come off from the mo- 
del : and the fame hold good of a cylinder, 
or any regular cUrve figure. 

The mold being thus formed and dry, 
and the parts put together, it mufl be firfl 
greafcd and placed in fuch a pofition that the 
hollow may lie upwards, and then filled with 
plafter commixt with water, in the fame pro- 
portion and manner as was directed for the 
drafting the mold : and when the cafl is per- 
fcd:ly fet, and dry, it mufl be taken out of 
the mold and repaired, where it is neceffary : 
which finiflies the whole operation. 

This 'is all that is required with refpeft 
to fubjeds, where the furfaces have the regu- 
larity above mentioned : but where they form 
curves which interfed: each other, the con- 
duA of the operation mufl be varied with re- 
ipcd: to the manner of taking the cafl of the 
mold from oiF the fubjed: or model ; and 
where there are long projefting parts, fuch as 
legs or arms, they fhould, as was obferved be- , 
fore, be wrought in feparate cafls, 

A a The 

354- O^ Casts and Impressions, 

The method of dividing properly the molds 
cannot be reduced, as I intimated, to any par- 
ticular rules ; but muft depend in fome degree 
on the fkill of the operator, who may cafily 
judge from the original fubjefts, by the means 
here fuggefted, what parts will come oflF toge- 
ther ; and what require to be feparated : the 
principle of the whole confifts only in this, 
that where under-workingSy as they are called, 
occur, that is, where-ever a ftreight line drawn 
from' the bafis or infertion of any proje^Hon, 
would be cu^ or crofTed by any part of fuch 
projeftion, fuch part cannot be taken oiF with- 
out a divifion : which muft be made either in 
the place where the prbjedion would crofs the 
ftreight line ; or, ^s that is frequently difficult, 
the whole projedlion muft be feparated from 
the main body and divided alfo length ways 
into two parts : and where there are no pro- 
jcftions from the principal furfaces, but the 
body is fo formed as to render the furface a comr 
pofition of fuch curves, that a ftreight line be- 
ing drawn parallel to the furface of one part 
would be cut by the outline, in one or more 
places, of another part, a divifion of the whole 
fhould be made, fo as to reduce the parta of it 
Into regular curves, which muft then be treat- 
ed as fuch. 

Where detached parts of a long form, as 

^ legs, arms, fpears, fwords, &c. occur in any 

figure, they flioald be caft in feparate molds : 

and if fuch parts are of a compound ftrudurc, 

the fame rules, as was before intimated, muft 

2 be 

Of Casts and Impressions. 355 
be obferved in the management of them, as 
are already diredled for the principal part. 
. In' larger mafles, where there would other- 
wife be a great thicknefs of the plafter, a corps 
or body may be put within the mold, in or- 
der to produce a hollow in the caft ; which 
both faves the expence of the plafter, and ren- 
ders the caft lighter. 

This corps may be of wood, where the 
forming a hollow of a ftreight figure, or 
fuch as is conical with the bafis outward, will 
anfwer the end: but if the cavity require to be 
round, or of any curve figure, the corps cannot 
be then drawn while intire ; and confequent- 
ly jQiould be of fuch matter as will fufFcr itfelf 
to be taken out piece meal. In-this cafe, thcre# 
fore, the corps i^ beft formed of clay : which 
muft be worked upon wires to give it tena- 
city ; and fufpended in the hollow.of the mold, 
by crofs-wires lying over the mouth : and 
when the plafter is fufficiently fet to bear han- 
dling, the clay muft be picked put by a proper 

Where it is defired to render the plafter 
harder, the Water with which it is tempered 
fhould be mixed with parchment fize prepared 
as below direfted ; which will make it very 
firm and tenacious. 

In the fame manner figures, bufls, &c may 
be caft of lead, or any other metal, in the 
molds of plafter ; only the expence of plafter, 
and the tedioufnefs of its becpming fufiiciently 
dry, when in a very large mafs, to bear- the 
A a 2 heat 

356 Ot Casts and Impressions, 
heat of melted metal, render the ufe of clay, 
compounded with fome other proper materials, 
preferable where large fubjefts are in queftion* 
The clay, in this cafe, fhould be waflied over 
till it be perfeftly free from gravel or ftones ; 
and then mixed with a third or more of fine 
fand to prevent its cracking: or, inftead of fand, 
coal afhes fitted till they be perfectly fine is 
preferable. Whether plafter, or clay, be ufed 
for the calling in metal, it is extremely necef- 
fary to have the mold perfeftly dry ; othetwife, 
the moifture, being rarificd, will make an ex- 
plofion, that will blow the metal out of the 
mold, and endanger the operator, or at leaft 
crack the mold in fuch manner as to fruftrate 
the operation. Where the parts of a mold 
are larger or projeft much 3 and confequendy 
require a greater tenacity of cohefion of the 
matter they are formed of to keep them toge- 
ther, flocks of cloth, prepared like thofe defign- 
ed for the paper hangings, or fine cotton pluckt 
or cut till it is very fhort, fliould be mixt with 
the afhes or fand before they be added to the 
clay to make the compofition for the mold. 
The proportion (hould be according to the de- 
gree of cohefion required : but a fmall quan- 
tity will anfwer the end, if the other ingre- 
dients of the compofition be good ; and the 
parts of the mold properly linked together by 
means of the wires above direfted. 

There is a method of taking cafts in metals 
from fmall animals, and the parts of vegeta- 
bles, which though not much known or ufed 


Of Ca5T6 and Imprisstons. 357 
in this country, may be neverthelefs pra(5life4 
for fome purpofeg with advantage j particular- 
ly for the decorating grottoes or rock work, 
where nature is imitated. The proper kinds 
of animals are lizards, fnakes, frogs, birds, or 
infeds ; the cafts of which being properly 
coloured will be exact reprefentations of the 

This is to be performed by the following 
method. A coffin or proper cheft for form- 
ing the mold, being prepared of clay, or four 
pieces of boards fixed together, the animal or 
parts of vegetables, mufi: be fufpended in it by 
a ftring ; and the leaves, tendrils, or other 
detached parts of the vegetables, or the legs, 
wings, &c. of the animals, properly feparated 
and adjufted in their right pofition by a fmall 
pair of pincers -, and a due quantity of plafler 
of Paris, and calcined talc, in equal quantities, 
with fome alumen plumofum, muft then be 
tempered with water to the proper confiftence 
for cafting; and the fubje(9; from whence the 
caft is to bfe taken, as alfo the fides of the coffin 
moiftned with fpirit of wine. 

The coffin or cheft muft be then filled with 
die tempered compofition of the plafter, and 
talc, putting, at the fame time, a piece of 
ftreight ftick or wood to the principal part of 
the body of the fubjed, and pieces of thiqk 
wire to die extremities of the other parts, 
in order, that they may form, when drawn 
out after the matter of the mold is properly 
fct an4 firm, a channel for pouring .in thfe 
A a 3 melted 

35^ Or Casts and Impressions. 
melted metal, and vents for the air ; whidi 
otherwife by the rarefadion it would undergo 
from the heat of the metal, would blow it out 
or burft the mold. In a ihort time the plafter 
and talc will fet and become hard s when the 
ftick and wires may be drawn out ; and the 
frame or coffin in which the inold was caft 
taken away: and the mold muft then be put 
firft into a moderate heat, and afterwards, 
when it is as dry as it can be rendered 4)y that 
degree, removed into a greater; which m^ 
be gradually increafed, till the whole be red 
hot. The animal, or part of any vegetable, 
which was included in the mold, will then be 
burnt to a coal ; and may be totally calcined 
to afhes, by blowiug for ibme time gently in- 
to the channel and paffages made for pouring 
in the metal, and giving vent to the air 3 which 
will, at the fame time that it incinirates the re- 
mainder of the animal or vegetable matter, 
blow put the afhcs. The mold muft then be 
fuffered to cool gently 5 and will be perfeft ; 
the deftrudion of the fubftance of the animal 
or vegetable, having produced a hollow of a 
figure correfpondent to it : but it may be ne- 
verthelefs proper, to fliake the mold, and turn 
it upfide down, as alfb to blow with the bel- 
lows into each of the air vents, in order to free 
it wholly from any remainder of the afhes : 
or, where there may be an opportunity of fill- 
ing the hollow with quickfilver without ex- 
pence, it will be found a very eflTeftual me- 
thod of clearing the cavity, as all duft, aihes, 

, or 

Of Casts and Impressions. 359 
or fmall detached bodies, will neceflarily rife 
tO;the furface of the quickiilvcr ; and be poured 
out with it. The mold being thus prepared, 
it rauft be heated very hot when ufed, if the 
caft be made with copper or brafs : but a lefs 
degree will ferve for lead or tin : and the mat- 
ter being poured in, the mold muft be gently 
ftruck; and then fufFered to reft till it be cold 5 
at which time it muft be carefully taken from 
the caft J but without the leaft force, for fuch 
parts of the matter as appear to adhere more 
ftronglyj muft be foftned by foaking in water, 
till they be intirely loofned, that none of the 
more delicate parts of the caft may be broken 

Where the alumen plumofum, or talc, can- 
not be eafily procured, the plafter may be ufed 
alone ; but it is apt to be calcined by the heat 
ufed in burning the animal or vegetable from 
whence the caft is taken; and to become of too 
incphering and crumbly a texture: or for cheap- 
nefs Sturbridge clay, or any other potters or 
other good clay, waftied over till it be perfeftly 
fine, and mixed with an equal part of fand 
and fome flocks cut fmall, may be employed. 
Pounded pumice ftone and plafter of Paris, 
taken in equal quantities and mixed with 
waftied clay in the fame proportion, is faid to 
make excellent molds for this and parallel 

Cafts of medals, or fuch fmall pieces, ■ as 

are of a fimilar form, may be made iu plafter^ 

Aa 4 by 

360 Of Casts and Impressions. 
by the method direfted for.bafs relieves* In- 
deed there is nothing more required than to 
form a mold by laying them on a proper board j 
and, having furrounded them by a rim made 
of a piece of a card or any other pafteboard, 
to fill the rim with foft tempered plafter of 
Paris : which mold, when dry, will ferve for 
feveral cafts. It is neverthelefs a better me- 
thod to form the mold of melted fulphur ; 
which will produce a (harper impreflion in the 
caft, and be more durable, than thofe made 
of plafter. 

The cafts of medals are likewife frequently 
made of fulphur : which being melted, muft 
be treated exadly in the fame manner as the 

Cafts may be made, likewife, with iroji with 
very little additional trouble, provided it be 
prepared in the following manner. 

*^ Take any iron bar, or piece of a fimilar 
" form; and, having heated it red hot, hold it 
*' over a veiTel containing water ; and touch 
" it very flightly with a roll of fulphur : which 
*' will immediately difiblve it ; and make it 
*^ fall in drops into the water under it. As 
•* much iron as may be wanted being thus dif- 
" folved, pour the water then out of the vef- 
** fel ', and pick out the drops formed by the 
" melted iron from thofe of the fulphur, 
*^ which contain little or no iron, and will be 
**^diftingui(hable from the other by their co- 

lour and weight." 


Of Casts and Impressions^ 361 
' The iron will, by this means, be rendered {b 
fufible, or eafy to be melted, that it will run 
with lefs heat than will melt lead ; and may 
be employed for making caft of medals; and 
many other fuch purpofes, with great conve- 
nience and advantage. 

Impreffions of medals, having the fame 
efFed: as cafts, may be made alfo of ifinglafs 
glue by the following means. Melt the ifin- 
glafs, beaten as when commonly, ufed, in an 
eardien • pipkin, with the addition of as much 
water as will cover it, ftirring it gently till the 
whole be diflblved. Then, with a brufh of 
camels hair, cover the medal ; which (hould 
be previoufly well cleanfed and warmed, and 
then laid horizontal on a board or table greafed 
in the part around the medal. Let them reft 
afterwards till the glue be properly hardned ; 
and then, with a pin, raife the edge of it j and 
feparate it carefully from the medal j the caft 
will be thus formed by the glue as hard as 
horns and fo light, that a thoufand will fcarce- , 
ly weigh an ounce. In order to render the re- 
lief of the medal more apparent, a fmall quan- 
tity of carmine may be mixed with the melted 
ifinglafs -, or the medal may be previoufly coated 
with leaf gold by breathing on it, and then 
laying it on the leaf, which will by that means^ 
adhere to it ; but the ufe of the leaf gold is 
apt to impair a little the (harpnefs of the im- 

There is likewife a method of making im-* 
preffions of the fame kind in lead : which h 


362 Op Casts akd ImpressIom^ 
rfiis. Lay the medal on a poft, or other firm 
body of wood ; and cover it with a piece of very 
idiin plate of lead ; and lay over that another piece 
of thicker plate. Then place on them end- 
wajrs, a piece of wood turned of a round figure; 
which may be a foot or more in length ; and of 
fuch thicknefs, that its diameter may be Ibme- 
what greater than that of the medaL Strike 
then forcibly on the upper end of the wood 
with a mallet, or fottie fuch inftruftient ; and 
the undermoft plate of lead will receive the 
impreflion of the medal : to preferve which, 
the concave of the reverfe may be filled up 
with refin, mixed v^ath an equal part of brick- 
duft, and melted. The impreflion fhould be 
made with one ftroke ; which will produce ii 
fufficient efFed:, if given with due ftrength, 
and in a perpendicular direftion. Impreflions 
may be even taken from fealing wax or fulphur 
in this manner, if the pieces be no way con- 
cave or bending on their under fide. 

Impreflions of medals may be likewife takea 
in putty ; but it fliould be the true kind made 
of earth of tin and drying oil. Thefe may be 
formed in the molds previoufly taken in plafter 
or fulphur, or molds may be made in its own 
fubftance, in the manner diredtd for thofe of 
the plafl:er. Thefe impreflions will be very 
fharp and hard : but the greatefl: difadvan- 
tage, that attends them, is* their drying very 
flowly, and being liable in the mean tim« 
to be damaged. 


Of Casts and iMPkEssioNs.* 363 
Impreffions of prints, or other engravings^ 
may be taken fi-om copper plates by cleaning 
them thoroughly ; and pouring plafter upon 
them : but the efFeft, in this way, is not ftrong 
enough for the eye: and therefore the follow- 
ing method is preferable, where fuch impreffi- 
ons on plafler are defired. 

Take vermilion, or any other coloured pig- 
ment, finely powdered, and rub it over tne 
plate. Then pals a fended piece of paper, or 
the flat part of the hand, over the plate to take off 
the colour from the lights or parts where there is 
no engraving. The proceeding muft then be 
the fame, as where no colour is ufed. This laft 
method is alfo applicable to the making im^ 
prcflions of copper plates on paper wim dry 
colours : for the plate being prepared as here 
directed, and laid on the paper properly moift- 
ned, and either pafled under the rolling preis, 
or aay other way ftrongly forced down on the 
paper, an imprcffion of the engraving will be 

Impreffions may be likewife taken from 
copper plates, either on plafter or paper, by 
means of the fmoke of a candle or lamp 5 if, 
inftead of rubbing them with any colour, the 
plate be held over the candle or lamp, till 
the whole furface become black, and then 
wiped off by the flat of the hand, or paper. 

Thefe methods are not, however, of very 

greaf ufe in the cafe of copper plates ; except 

where imprefllons may be defired on occafions 

where printing ink cannot be procured : but as 

- they 

3^4 Of Casts and iMPftEssiON^. 
tibey may be applied likcwife to die taking 
imprcflions from fouff-boxcs, or other in-^ 
graved fubjcfts, by which means dcfigns may 
be inftantly borrowed by artifts or curbus per- 
ibnSt and preierved for any ufe, th^ may in 
fuch inftances be very ufeful. 

The expedient of taking impreflions by the 
imoke of a candle or lamp may be employed, 
aUb> for botanical purpoies in the cafe of 
leaves; as a peifed: and durable reprefentation 
of not only the general figure, but the contex-^ 
tureand difpofitionof the larger fibres, may be 
extemporaneoufly obtained at any time. The 
iame may be, neverthelefs, done, in a more 
perfect manner, by the ufe of Hnfeed oil, ei- 
ther alone, or mixed with a fmall proportion 
of colour, where the oil can be conveniently 
procured : but the other method is valuable on 
account of its being pra<5ticable at almoft all 
feafons, and in all places, within the time that 
the leaves will keep frefh and plump. In tak- 
ing thefe impreffions, it is proper to bruife the 
leaves, fo as to take off the prc^ed:ion6 of the 
Jiarge ribs, which might prevent the other parts 
from plying to the paper. 

Leaves, or alfo the petals, or flower leaves 
of plants, may themfelves be preferved on pa- 
per, with their original appearance, for a con- 
fiderable length of time^ by the following 
means. Take a piece of paper, and rub it 
over with the ifinglafs glue treated as above 
dircded for taking imprcflions from medals ; 
and then lay the leaves in a proper pofition 


Of Casts and Imprfssions; 365 
on the paper. The glue laid on the paper 
being fct, brufli over the leaves with more of 
the fame 5 and that being dry likewife, the 
operation will be finiftied : and the leaves fo 
fecured from the air and moifture, that they 
will retain their figure and colour much longer 
than by any other treatment. 

Butter flies, or other fmall animals of a 
flat figure, may alfo be preferved in the fame 



Of gilding, filvering, bronzing, ja- 
paning, laquering, and the flaining 
different kinds of fubftances, with 
all the variety of colours. 

Of gilding. 

H II I ■ I I ■ ■ I II I , I I ■ ■ ^l■ 

SECT. I. Of gilding in general. 

THE gilding different fubftances is per- 
formed by a variety of means accom- 
modated to the nature of each : but 
the principle is the fame in all; (except with 
refped: to one kind praftifed on metals, where 
quickfilver or heat is ufed, which I omit here 
as not properly a part of the fubjedt of this 
work \) being only the putting fome proper 
cement on the body to be gilt ; and then lay- 
ing the gold either in the form of leaves, or 
powder, on the cements which binds it to the 


36^ Ot Gilding. 

The principal kinds of gilding arc thofc 
called oil gilding ;-— varnifh gilding; — andja- 
panners gilding or gilding with gold fize. 
Thefe may be promilcuoufly ufed on grounds 
either of wood, metaJ, or any other firm and 
rigid body : but paper and leather require a 
treatment in fome cafes peculiar io them* 

The firft attention, in moft kinds of gild- 
ing, is the choice of leaf gold : which fhould 
be pure, and of the colour accommodated to 
the purpofe, or tafte, of the work. Purity is 
requilite in all cafes : for if the gold be allayed 
with lilver it will be of too pale and greenifh a 
hue for any application; and if it contain much 
copper, it will in time turn to a yet much ftron- 
ger green. The purity may be afcertained with 
accuracy enough for this purpofe, by the touch- 
flone, and aqua fortis ; and the fitnefs of tlie 
Colour, to any particular purpofe, may be 
diflinguilhed by the eye. The full yellow is 
certainly the moft beautiful and trueft colour 
of gold : but the deep reddifti caft has been of 
late moft^fteemed from the caprice of fafhion : 
which ever may be chden, die colour ought 
neverthelefs to be good of the kind ; for there 
is a great variation in the force and effed: of 
different parcels of the fame teint ; fome ap- 
pearing more foul and muddy; others bright 
and clear. 

The beft method however of judging of 
the colour of leaf gold with nicety, is by keep- 
ing a fpecimen of fuch as is pcrfeft ; with 


Of Gilding, 369 

which any frefh parcel may be occafionally 

There is, befides the true leaf gold, anot;her 
kind in ufe, called Dutch gold : which is cop- 
per gilt and beaten into leaves like the genuine. 
It is much cheaper; and has when good great- 
ly the effe<ft of the true at the time of its being 
laid on the ground ; but, with any accefs of 
moifture, it lofes its colour, and turns green in 
fpots ; and, indeed, in all cafes, its beauty is 
foon impaired, unlefs well fecured by laquer or 
varnifh. It is neverthelefs ferviceable for coarfer 
gilding, where lirge mafles are wanted ; efpe- 
ally where it is to be feen by artificial light as in 
the cafe of theatres : and if well varnifhed will 
there in a great meafure anfwer the end of the 
genuine kinds. 

The other preparations of gold, belonging 
to particular kinds of gilding, I fhall treat of 
them^ as likewife the cements or other ful> 
ftances employed, in their refpeftive places; 
and proceed now to fhcw, what the inftru- 
ments are, which are common to the three 
principal methods. 

B b SEC- 

370 Of Gilding* 


t)f the inftruments that are common to 
^the oily varnljhy andjapaners gilding. 

TH E* firft neceffaiy inftramcnt is, a 
cufhion for reocivmg the leaves of gdd 
from die paper, in order to its being cut into 
proper fize and figures, for covering me places 
to be gilt. This cufhion Ihould be made of 
leather, and faftned to a £]uare boards whidi 
ihould have a handle* It may be of any fiee 
from fourteen inches fijuare to ten ; and fliauid 
be fluffed betwixt the leather and board ivith 
fine tow or wool ; but in fuch manner that die 
furface may be perfeftly flat and even. 

A proper knife is the next, and an equaUy 
requifite inflruinent ; as it is necefiiry in all 
cafes to cut or divide the gold into parts caoe* 
fpondent to thofe, which are to be covered. 
This Jdii& may b^ the tbme in all refpedsis 
thole ufed in painting, cd!\^ ^4tti^ knixes ; tbe 
blade. of which may be four or fix inches longi 
and fome what more than half an inch in breadth, 
with a handle proportionable. 

Afquirrel's tail is like wife generally provided, 
for taking up the whole leaves, and for com- 
prefling the gold to the furface where it is laid, 
and giving it the pofition required; and is ufed 
alfo by fome for takilng up the parts of leaves; 
but this is better done by means of a ball of 


Of CiLb-iNe^ 371 

cotton wooi ; which will both anfwef this end 
and that of comprcffing the gold in a more tzh 
and effcftaai manner. This fquirrels tail is 
cut fhortj and fomctimes fpread in the fan 
faihion by nieans of a piece of wood farmed 
like a pencil ftick, but broad at one end, and 
^lit to receive the tail ; but it will equally 
ferve the purpofe in its own form when the 
hair is cut to a proper length. This inftru* ' 
ment is by fome called a pallet ; but impn> 
perly ; as the board for holding the colours in 
{>ainting9 and which is frequently in uie along 
with this, being called by the fame name, would 
neceflarily produce a confufion in ipeaking of 
either. * 

Abrufli of very foft hog's hair, or of the fitch 
kind, made large, is likewife commonly ufed 
for pafling over the work when it is become 
dry, in order to take off tbe loofe gold. 

Some fine cotton wool is alfo neceflary for 
taking up the fmaller parts of the leaves, and 
lairing them on the work : as alfo for com- 
pnefffing aiwi adjufting them when laid on* 
The cotton ftiould be formed into a ball by 
lying it up in a piece of fine linnen rag j , 
for if it be ufed without the rag, the fibres 
adhere to the gold fize, and embarrafe the 

A fmall flone and muller, with a propor- 
tionable pallet knife, are required for grjnding 
and tempering the mixtures made of the fat 
oil, or gold fize, with each other, and the co- 
lours that may be added to them : as alfo pro- 
B b 2 per 

373 Of Gilding. 

per briifhcs for laying on, and fprcading (he 
fat oil, or fize, on the work : and feme of 
thefe fhould be fitches of different fizes 5 in 
order to convey, and fettle the gold, where 
the relief of carved work forms deep hol- 

Thefe are all the inftruments that are com- 
mon to all the three principal kinds of gilding; 
fuch as are peculiar to each, I fhall take no^ 
tice of where they more properly occur. 


Of the manner of oil gildings and tht 
preparation of fat oil. 

THE gilding with oil is the moft eafy and 
cheap, as well as moft durable kind ; 
and, therefore, is moftly applied to conwnon 
purpofes. It is performed by cementing the 
gold to the ground, by means of fat oil. The 
preparation of which is, therefore, prcvioulh 
neceflary to be known; and may be much 
better managed in the following manner, than 
by any method hitherto taught, or commonly 

" Take any quantity of linfeed oil ; and 
" put it into an earthen, or any other veflel of 
" a broad form : fo that the oil may lie in it 
^' with a very large furface; but the propor- 

" tion 

Of Gilding. 373 

** tion fhould be fb limited that the oil may be 
" about an inch thick in the veflel. The earthen 
** pans ufed for milk in the forming cream for 
*' butter are very well accommodated to this 
** purpofe. Along with the oil as much wa- 
*• ter fhould be alfo put into the veflel, as will 
** rife fix inches or more above the bottom. 
" Place it then, with the oil fwimming on 
" the water, in any open place where the fun 
** and rain may have accefs to it -, but where 
" it may be as free from receiving duft and 
" filth as poflible. Let it ftand in this condi- 
'* tion, ftirring it on every opportunity, for 
" five or fix weeks, or till it appear of the 
" confiftence of treacle. Take it then from 
" off the water, into a phial, or bottle of a 
** long form, or what is better, into a feparac- 
" ing funnel, fuch as is ufed by the chemifts, 
** and there draw- off the remainder of the 
** water. Place it afterwards, being in the long 
" bottle or phial, in fuch heat as will ren- 
** der it perfedlly fluid j and the foulnefles it 
" may contain will foon fubfide to the bot- 
■* tom ; when the clear part muft be poured 
** oflf ; and the remainder fl:rained through a 
" flannel, while yet water, and will then be 
^' fitforufe." 

It is to be obferved that this method is only 
prafticable in fummer : as the fun has not 
fiifiicient ftowcr in winter to produce a due 
change in the oil. 

This method differs from that commonly 
praftifed, in the addition of the water ; which . 
Bb 3' fufl'ers 

374 Of Gild I NG. 

fufFers the foulnefs to feparate from the oil and 
fink to the bottom, where it remains without 
being again mixed with the oil every time it is 
ftirred, as is unavoidable where no water is 
ufed : and likewife greatly contributes to 
bleach the oil, and improve it in other re- 

The beft previous preparation of the piece 
to be gilded, if it have not already any coat of 
oil paint, is to prime it with drying oil mixed 
witli a little yellow oker ; to which, alfo, a very 
fmall proportion of vermilion may be added : 
but where greater nicety and perfe^on is re- 
quired in the work, the wood fbould be firft 
rubbed with fifli (kin ; and then with Dutch 

This priming being dry, the next part of 
thi o cration is the fizing the work; which 
may be done, either with the fat oil alone ; 
(but diluted with drying oil, if too thick to be 
worked without) or with fat oil and the japa- 
ner's gold fize, (of which the preparation is 
below taught) either in equal quantities, or in 
any lefs proportion with refpedt to the gold fize. 
The difference betwixt the ufe and omiffion of 
the gold fize, in this way of gilding, lies in two 
particiilars; the one is, that the fixing dries 
fafter according to the proportion of the quan- 
tity of the gold fize to the fat oil, and is con- 
fequently fo much the fooner fit to be gilded : 
the other is, that the gilding is alfo rendered, 
in the fame proportion, lefs fhining and glofly ; 
which is efteemed a perfedion ia this, kind of 
2 gilding : 

Op GiiiyiNa. 375 

gilding : though, taking away the prqudice of 
fefhion, I fhouW think the moft (hining the 
moft beautiful ; and of the ftrongeft effed. ' 

The fat oil, or the compound of that and the 
gold fize, muft be ground with fome yelldw 
cJcer; and then, by nieans of a brufh, laid 
thinly over the work to be gilt : but, in doing 
this, care muft be taken, to pafs the brufli in- 
to all the hollows and cavities, if the fubjedl be 
carved, or have any other way projecting parts. 
For where the fize fails to be laid dn, the gold 
will never take, till the work be again repaired 
by paffing over the defeftive places with frefh 
fize : which ihould be avoided as much as pof- 
fible. Where great perfection is required, tlie 
gold ihould not be laid on the firft nzing^ but 
Siat being fufFered to dry, the work Should be 
again fized a fecond time : and fome who are 
very nice even proceed to a third. 

The work being thus fized muft be kept till 
it appear in a proper conditfon to receive the 
gold : which muft be diftinguifhed by touch- 
ing with the finger ; when, if it appear a lit- 
tle adhefive or clammy ; but not fo as to be 
brought off^ by the finger, it is in a fit condi- 
tion to be gilt : but if it be fo clammy as to 
daub or come off on being touched, it is not 
fufiiciently dry, and muft be kept longer : or 
if there be no clamminefs or fticky quality re- 
maining, it is too dry, and muft be fized over 
again before it can be gilt. 

When the work is thus ready to receive the 
gold, the leaves of gold, where the furface is 

Bb4 fuf- 

376 Of Gilding. 

fufficicrttly large and plain to contain them, 
may be laid on, either by means of the fquir- 
rel's tail; or immediately from the paper in 
which they were originally put; a method, that, 
by thofe who have the proper dexterity of do- 
ing it, is found to be much the fimpleft and 
quickeft, as well as beft, for the perfeftbn of 
.the work. Being laid on the proper parts oi 
the work, the leaves muft then be fettled 
to the groynd, by compreffing thofe, which 
appear to ^ant it, gently with the fquirrePs 
tail or cotton ball ; and if any part of the gold 
has flown oiF, or been difplaced, fo as to leave 
a naked or uncovered part, a piece of another 
leaf, of fize and figure correfpondent to fuch 
part,- muft be laid upon it. Where the parts 
are too fmall to admit of the laying on whole 
leaves, or where vacancies are left after laying on 
whole leaves which are lefs than require others 
to cover them, the leaves which are to be ufed 
muft be turned from the paper upon the cuftiion 
^defcribed above amongft the inftruments;) and 
cut, by fcoring over them, with the knife, (a- 
bove defciibed likewife,) into fuch diviCons or 
flips as may be moft commodioufly laid on the 
parts of the work to be covered : and then, 
being feparated, and taken up as they are 
wanted by means of the cotton wool, to which 
being breathed upon they will adhere, they 
4nurt be laid in the places they are defigned to 
cover; and gently preflTed by the cotton, till they 
touch every where, and lie even on the ground. 


Of Gilding. 377 

Where the work is very hollow, and fmall 
pieces are wanted to cover parts that lie deep 
and out of the reach of the fquirrel's tail or the 
cotton, they may be taken up by the point of 
a fitch pencil (being firft breathed upon) and 
by that means conveyed to and fettled in their 
proper place : and thofe who are accuilomed 
to it ufe the pencil commodioufly for a great 
part of the work where large parts of the 
leaves cannot be ufed. 

The whole of the work being thus covered 
/hould be fufFered to remain till it be dry ; and 
may then be brufhed over by a camel's hair 
pencil or foft hog's hair brufh, to take off from 
it all loofe parts of the gold. 

If after the brufhing any defe^5live parts, or 
vacancies appear in the gilding, fuch parts muft 
beagainfizedj and treated in the fame manner 
as the whole wa,s before : but the japaner's gold 
fize alone is much better for this purpofe dian 
cither the fat oil alone, or any mixture. 


Of burnijh gilding ; with the prepara-- 
tion of the proper Jizes^ &c. 

TH E gilding with burni(ht gold is fel- 
dom pradifed, but uporf wood j and at 
prefent moftly in the cafe of carved work, or 
where carved work is mixed with plain. The 



378 Of Gilding. 

chief difference in the manner betwixt this and 
oil gilding lies in the preparing the work to re- 
ceive the gold ; and in the fubftituting a ffee 
made of parchriient, ot the cuttings of glover's 
leather in the place of the fat oil, as a cement : 
the preparation of which fize fhould, there- 
fore, be previoufly known 5 and may be as 

" Take a pound of cuttings of parchment, 
" or of the leather ufed by glovers ; and, 
•* having added to them fix quarts of water, 
*^ boil them till the quantity of fluid be re- 
** duced to two quarts : or till, on the tak- 
•^ ing out a little, it will appear like 'a jelly on 
" growing cold. Strain it through flannel 
" while hot ; and it will be then fit for ufc.*' 

This fize is employed in burnifh gilding, 
not only in forming the gold fize, or cement 
for binding the gold to the ground ; but alfo 
in primitig, or previoufly preparing the work: 
but before I proceed to fhew the manner of 
ufing it fo, it is neceflary to give the compofi- 
tions for the proper cement or gilding fize em- 
ployed in this kind of gilding. There are a 
multiplicity of recipes for this compofition, 
which are approved of by different perfons : 
but as in general they vary not eflentially from 
each other, 1 will only give two, which I be- 
lieve to be each the bell: in their kinds. 

'^ Take any quantity of bole armoniac, and 
". add fome water to it, that it may foak till it 

grow foft; levigate it then on the ftone, 

hut not with more water than will prevent 

" its 


Op Gilding. 379 

its being of a ftifF confidence ; and add to it 
a little purified fiiet or tallow fcraped ; and 
grind them together. When this is wanted for 
ufe, dilute it to the c<Hififtence of cream, by 
parchment or glovers fize, mixt with double 
its quantity of water, and made warm. Some 
melt the fuetor tallow, and mix it prcvioufly 
with five or fix times its weight of chalk be- 
** fore it is put to the bole, to facilitate their 
" commixture; to which in this wet ftate they 
** are otherwife fomewhat repugnant. It is 
** alfo fometimes pradtifed to put fopc-fuds to 
** the bole ; which will contribute to its unit- 
** ing.with the tallow." 

This is the fimpleft compofition, and equal- 
ly good with the following, or any odier; 
but for the indulgence of the variety of opi- 
nions, which reigns in all thefe kinds of mat^ 
ters, I will infert another. 

" Take of bole in fine powder one pound, 
" and of black lead two ounces. Mix them 
" well by grinding ; and then add of olive 
" oil two ounces, and of bees-wax one ounce, 
" melted together ; and repeat the grinding 
" till the whole be thoroughly incorporated. 
" When this mixture is to be ufed, dilute it 
" with the parchment or glovers fize, as was 
" directed in the former recipe : but, in the 
« mean time, both this and the foregoing 
*' fhuulJ be kept immerfcd in water, which 
<' will prefer ve them good,** 

To prepare the wwd for burniili gilding, 
fiffl be wd * 'bbed wixh die j&ftn 



r^So Of Gilding. 

ikin ; and then with the Dutch rufhcs : but 
this can only be pradifed in the larger and 
* plainer parts of the work, otherwife it may 
damage the carving, or render it lefs {harp by 
wearing off the points. It muft then be prim- 
ed with the glovers fize, mixed with as much 
whiting as will give it a tolerable body of co- 
lour : which mixture muft be made by melt- 
ing the fize, and ftrewing the whiting in a 
powdered ftate gradually into it; ftirring them 
well together, that diey may be thoroughly 
incorporated. Of this priming feven or eight 
coats fliould be given, time being allowed for 
the drying of each before the other be put on ; 
and care fhould be taken, in doing this, to 
work the priming well, with the bmfh, into 
all the cavities or hollows there may be in the 
carved work. After the laft coat is laid on, 
and before it be quite dry, a brufli pencil dipt in 
water fhould be pafled over the whole to finooth 
it and take away any lumps or inequalities that 
may have been formed : and when it is dry 
the parts which admit of it fhould be again 
rufhed over till they be perfeftly even. The 
work fliould then be repaired by freeing all 
the cavities and hollow parts from the priming,' 
which may choak them, or injure the relief 
of the carving : after which a water poliih 
fhould be given to the parts defigned to be 
burniihed, by rubbing them gently with a fine 
linnen rag moiftened with water. 
. The work being thus prepared, when it h 
to be gilt, dilute the compofition of bole, &c. 


Of Gilding. 381 

with waim fize mixt with two thirds of water; 
and with a brufh fpread it over the whole of 
the work, and then fuffer it to dry i and go 
over it agbin with the mixture, in the fame 
manner, at leaft once more. After the laft 
coat, rub it in the parts to be burnifhed, with 
a foft cloth, till it be perfectly even. Some 
add a little vermilion to the gilding fize, and, 
others colour the work, if carved, before it 
he laid on, with yellow and the glovers fize ; 
to which a little vermilion, or red lead, (hould 
be added. This laft method is to give the ap- 
p<»rance of gilding to the deeper and obfcurc 
parts of the carving, where the gold cannot, 
or is not thought neceflary, to be put : but 
this practice is at prefent much difufed ; and 
inftead of it fuch parts of the work are colour-^ 
ed after the gilding •, which taeatment is call-» 
cd matting. 

Having the work properly prepared, and 
fet in a pofition almoft perpendicular, but de- 
clining a little from you, and having the 
gilding fize, and all the neceflary inftru- 
ments above defcribed ready, as alfo a ba- 
forr of clean water, wet the uppermoft part 
of the work, by means of a large camel's 
hair pencil dipped in the water; and then 
lay on the gold upon the part fo wet, in 
the manner above directed for the gilding in 
oil,, till it be completely covered, or become 
too dry to take the gold : and then proceed 
to wet the next part of the work, or the 
fame over again if neceflary, and gild it as the 


3^2 Of Gilding. 

firft ; repeating the fame method till the whole 
be finifhed. Some wet die work with brandy, 
or fpirit of wine, inftead of water ; but I do 
not conceive any advantage can arife from 
it, that may not be equally obtained by a ju- 
dicious uie of water; and this manner is mudi 
more troublefonw and difficult, as well as ex- 
penfive, for only a fmail part muft be wet at 
one time, and the gold laid inftantiy upon it, 
[ or the brandy or fpirits will fly off, and leave 

\ ihe ground too dry to take the gold. 

The work being thus gone over with the 

gilding, muft be then exammed; and fuch 

parts as require it repaired, by wetting them 

with the camds hair pencil, and covering 

\ them with the gold ; but as little as poffibe rf 

I the perfed: part of the gilding fhould be wet, 

I as die gold is very apt to turn black ^in this 

I ftate. When the repaired part alfo is dry, da 

I work may be matted if it require it: that is, 

I the hollow parts muft be covered with a co- 

{ lour the neareft in appearance to goid. For 

I this purpofe fome recommend red lead, with 

; a little vermilion ground up with the white of 

1 ^^ ^gg • but I think yellow oker or Dutdi 

\ pink with red lead, would better anfwer die 

] end : or the terra de Siena very ilightly burnt 

or mixed with a little red lead would have a 

much better effect ; and be more durable than 

any other mixture fo near the colour of gold 

in fhade. Ifinglafs fee will likewife equally 

well fupply the place of the whites of eggs in 

the compofition for matting. 


Of Gilding. 383 

The work l)eing thusvgilt, it muft remain 
about twenty-four hours j and then the parts 
of it that are defigned to be burniflied, muft 
be polifhed with the dog's tooth, or with the 
burnifhers of agate or flint made for this pur- 
pofe : but it fhould be previoufly tried, whe- 
ther it be of the proper temper as to the dry- 
nefs; for though twenty-four hours be the 
moft general "fpace of time, in which it be* 
comes fk, yet the diiFerence of feafon, or the 
degree of wet given ta the work, makes the 
drying irregular, with regard to any &xt 
period. The way of diftinguifhing the fitncft 
of the WOTk to take th^ burnifli, is to try two 
or three particular parts at a diftance from 
each other \ which, if th^ take the polifli in 
a kindly manner, the whole may be conclud- 
ed fit : but if the gold peel off, or be difor- 
ilered by the rubbing, the work muft be 
deemed not yet dry enough : and if die gold 
abide well the rubbing, and yet receives the 
p61i(h flowly, it is a proof of its being too 
dry : which (hould be alwajrs prevented by 
watching the proper time; as the work, when 
too dry, both requires much mtorc labour to 
burmdi it^ and fails at laft of taking fo fine 
a polifh. 

S E C. 

384 OfGilding, 


Of Japaners gilding. 

THE Japaners gilding is performed bj 
mcans^ of gold powder, or imitations 
of it, cemented to the ground by a kind of 
gold fize much of the nature of drying oil: 
for the making which, there are various re- 
cipes followed by different perfons. I fliall, 
however, only give one of the more compound, 
that is much approved; and another very 
fimple, but which, neverthelefs, is equally 
good for the purpofe with the moft elaborate. 
The more compound gold fize may be thus 

" Take of gum animi and afphaltum each 
one ounce, of red lead, litharge of gold, and 
umbre, each one ounce and a half Re- 
duce the groffer ingredients to a fine pow- 
der ; and having mixed them, put them, 
together with a pound of linfeed oil, > into 
a proper veflel, and boil them gently; con- 
ftantly ftirring them, with a ftick or to- 
bacco-pipe, till the whole appear to be .in- 
corporated. Continue the boiling, fre- 
quently ftirring them, till on taking out a 
fmall quantity, it appear thick like tar, as 
it grows cold. Strain the mixture then 
through flannel; and keep it carefully ftopt 
up in a bottle, having a wide mouth, for 
I " ufe. 


Qf Giloino* 385 

ufc» But v^^ion k is wanted, if ihuft b4 
ground with » much vermilion, as will 
give it an opake body, and at the fame 
^' time 4iiuted with oil of turpentine, fo as tO' 
*^ renderit of acortfiftence piopefr fop work* 
*^ ing feeely with the p«K:il/' 

Tfacc afphaltuna dpes not, I conceive, ?dn-» 
tfibate to the intention of this kind of (ize: 
and the Utharge of gald> and red lead, are 
both the fame thingi with reipe<^ to this pur-* 
poie^ under dii&rent names: and neither they 
nqp the umbre nocerfTary, but clogging ingre^* 
dients. to the compofiticm. 

This gold |i3er may therefore be equally 
w*ll, or perhaps better prepared, in the fol- 
lowing nianner. 

*^ Take of linfced oil one pound, and of 
^* g^m animi four ounces^ Set the oil to^ 
^^ boil in a proper veilel; and then add the 
gam animi gradually in poy^der^ ftirring 
each quantity about in the oil, till it appear 
" to be diflblved; and then putting in ano- 
** ther, till the whole be commixt with the 
*V oiL Let ^o mixture continue to boH, till, 
" on t^ng a fmall quantity out, it appear of 
"a thicker confiftence than tar: and then 
" ftrain the whole through a coarfe cloth, and 
*^ keep it fcxr ufe: but it muft, when ufedj, be 
^^ mlsD^d with vermilion and oil of turpentiise^ 
" in the^ manner direifled for the fcM-egping." 
This gold iize n^y be ufed on metals^ 
wood, Many other ground whatever: but be^ 
fore I enter on the particular nwnraer gf gildr 
C c .ing 


386 Of Gi lining'.' 

ing with it, the preparation of the true, and 

counterfeit, gold powders are ncceffary to be 


The true gold powder may be well and 
eafily made by the following method. 

" Take any quantity of leaf gold; and grind 

" it with virgin hony, on a ftone, till the 

" texture of the leaves be perfeftly broken, 

•' and their parts divided to the minuteft dc- 

" grce. Then take the mixture of gold and 

•* hony from off the ftone 5 and put it into a 

*^ China or other fuch bafbn, with water; 

" and ftir it well about, that the hony may, 

" JDe melted; and the gold by that means 

" freed from it. Let Sie bafon afterwards 

" ftand at reft, till the gold be fubfided ; and 

I " when it is fo, pour off the water from it ; 

/ " and add frefh quantities till the hony be in- 

' " tirely wafhed away ; after which die gold 

*' may be put on paper, and dried for ufe.'* 

The German gold powder, which is the 
kind moft generally ufed, and, where it is 
well fecured with varnifti, will equally anfwer 
the end in this kind of gilding with the ge- 
nuine, may be prepared from the fort of leaf 
gold, called the Dutch goUy exadlly in the 
fame manner as the true. 

The aurum Mofeicum, which is tin colour- 
ed, and rendered of a flaky or pulverine tex- 
ture, by a chemical procefs, fo as greatly to 
refemble gold powder, may be likewifc ufed 
in this kind of gilding ; and prepared in the 
fqilowing manner. 

1 ^' Take 




Of Gilding^ 385^ 

" Take of tin one pound, bf flowers bf 
fulphur ftven ounces, of fal ammoniacum 
*^ and purified qiiickfilver each half a pound; 
*' Melt the tin ; Und add the quickfilver to it 
** in that ftate : and when the mixture is bei. 
*' come cold, powder it, arid grind it with 
** the fal animoniacum and fulphur^ till the 
** whole be thoroughly cotpmixt* Calcine 
*^ them then iri;a mattrafs ; and the other in- 
^^ gredients fubliming, the tin will be convert- ^ 
** ed into the aunim MofaicUm ; and will be'^ 
** found in the bottom of the glafs like a maft 
of bright flaky gold powder: but if any 
black or difcoloufed parts a|)peaf in it, they 
mUfl be carefully pickt or cut out/' 
The fal ammoniacum employed ought to 
be perfectly white and clean; and care fhould 
be taken, that the quickfilver be not fuch as | 
is undulterate with lead, which may be known \ 
by putting a fmall quantity in a cf ucible, into \ 
tne fire, and obferving wheh it is taken out^ 
i^ether it be wholly fiiblimed away, or hav* 
left 4ny lead behind it. The cjtlcination may j 

be befl: performed in a coated glafs body, \ 

hung in the naked fire 5 and the body fhould \ 

be of a long figure, that the other ingredi-* \ 

cnts may rife fo as to leave the coloured tin \ 

clear of them. The quickfilver, though it 
be formed into cinnabar along with the ful- i 

phur, need not be wafted ; but maty be re- 
vived by diftillirig it with the addition of 
quick-lime 5 for which a very cheap and com- 
C G 2 modiou$ 

38? Of GltDING* 

modlous method and a|)par9tus m^ he found 
in a late treatijfc on pradical dkemifhy, in- 
titled^ Tbe Elahratory Uud open^ &c. 

There are fome othisr cparfer powders m 
imitation of gold, which are f^n&ed of pred^ 
pitations of Go^>er: hut a& lii^y are fekiom 
ufed now for gilding, I ihaU de^ fhewing the 
manner cf preparing chem, tilt I come to 
fpeak of bronzing, whiere they m^rc properly 
occur. • ' 

Befides tbefe powdcra, th(? genuine leaf or 
Dutch gold may be uibd wim the japaner^ 
gold fize, where a n^c^e 0iinuig and gl(^ 
effed is defired in ti^ gilding : hat in ^ 
kind of gilding which i& vibeinkd tfo be var^ 
nifhed over, or to be njkixed w^y^bi other japan 
work or paintings in varai^ the powdcHfsate 
moft frequently employed. 

The gilding w^ japaners gedd fize maj 
be pradifed on aknoft any fubfiance whateirer, 
whether woodi metal^ ksdier, or paper: aad 
there is no farther prcparabon of me worli 
neceflary to its being gilt^ than the having die 
furface even and perfe^y clea9» 

The manner of ufii^ the japaners fize, 
is to put a proper quantity of it^ prepared as 
above direded> and mixt widi tis^ ^e pro^ 
portion of oil of turpentine apd vermilion, 
into a fmall gaily pot,, or one of ^ofe tin vef- 
iels above ddfcribed, for containing the colours 
when ufed for planting on varmfh ; and ei- 
ther to fpread it with a bru{h over the work, 


-wheretlie \9l10ie fiir£u;:e is to 
vrith it by means of a pencil the proper figure de«* 
fired^ avoiding carefully to let it touch any other 
parts; and then to fu£^ it to reft tiU it be fie to 
receive the gold : which muft be diftinguifhcsd 
by the iingt r, in -the fame manner as with the 
fat oil ; me having a proper clariiminefs or 
Aicky quality without being fo fluid as to take 
to thd nngef*, being alike the criterion ifi both 
cafes. Being found of a proper drynefs, when 
the gold powders are to be ufed, a piece of 
die foft icadaert called 'wmfk- kaltber, wrapt 
round the forc^&Qger, muft be dipt in the 
powder, and then robbed togr £^tly over 
the iized work; or^ what is mmk better^ 
die powder nuy be ipread bgr a feft camel's 
hair pencil ; and t&e wisote being oovered, it 
Bȣft be left to dry ; acid lite bofe powdeif 
may then be cleared away Bom the gilded 
part^ and colleded^ by means of a ibft ca^ 
mel's hair bni^ When leaf gdd is ufed, tk« 
mediod oi fizing muft be the fame as for thd 
powders : but the point of due dryneis is very 
nice and delicate in thefe cafes; for the leaves 
muft be laid oa while the matter is in a du9 
jftate, olherwiie the whole of what is done 
mu|l be fized and gilt over again. 

When more goH fize is mst up widi the 
cnl of tarrpentind^ anx} vermilion, than can be 
u&d $t one time, it may be k^jpt by immerfing 
it under water tiU it be a^aii^ wanted : which is 
indeed a general method of preferyisig all kind 
C c 3 of 

igo Of Gilding. 

of paint, or other fuch compoiitions as contaiii 

oily fubft^ce§. 

: S E C Tl O N VI. 

Of gilding paper J and vellum or 

THERE arc a variety of methods ufed 
for gilding paper, according to the fe-r 
veral ends it is defigned to .^anfwer ; but for 
the moft part.fize, properly fo called, and gum 
water, are ufed as the cements ; and the 
powders are more generally employed than 
the leaf gold. As 1 have given the prepara- 
tion of 3iele fevcral fubftances before, it is 
needlefs to repeat them here; and I fliall 
therefore only point out thofe circumftances in 
the manner of their ufe, which are peculiar 
to the application of them to this purpofe.. 

Of the gildings on paper proper to be ufed along 
ivith painting in water colour Sy orfrefco. 

The gilding proper to be ufed with water 
colours may be either with the leaf gold, or 
powder ; which laft, when mixt with the 
proper vehicle, is c^Wcdi Jhell gold. 

The leaf gold is ncceflary. in all cafes, where 
-4 metalline and fhining appearance is wanted: 


Of Gilding^ 391 

and it may be laid on the defigncd ground by 
means either of gum water, or ifinglafs fizc. 
The gum water or fize fhould be of &c weak- 
er kind, and not laid too freely on the 
ground ; and proper time fhould likewife be 
given for it to dry : the judgment on which 
mufl: be formed, in this cafe, as in the other 
kinds of gilding, by touching with the finger. 
The management of the gold alfo is much 
the fame in this as in the former : and where 
a polifht appearance is wanting, the dog's 
tooth or other kind of burnifher may be ufed. 
In the gilding larger furfaces, it will be found 
advantageous to colour the ground with the 
gall-ftone : and where colours are to be laid 
on the gilding, the brufhing the gold over 
with the gall of any beaft, will make it take 
them in a much more kindly manner. 

When the gold powders are ufed along with 
paintings in water colours, it is previoufly 
formed mxo Jhell goldy (as it is called, from its 
being ufually put into mufcle {hells, in the 
fame manner as the colours). This fheil 
gold is prepared by tempering the gold powder 
with very weak gum water j to which a 
little fope-fuds may be put, to make the gold 
work more eafily and freely. The preparation 
pi the gold powders is before given, p. 386^ 
and that of the gum water p. 168. 

C c 4 Of 

392 Of GitpiN6. 

Of the gilding proper for the coloured paper for 
binding books ^ and other fuS furpofes. 

This kind of gilding is performed In m^ck 
tiie fame manner as that for mbrifig with paint-» 
ings in water colours ; except (iiat in this^^, 
the gilding feeing intended geaaerrffy to form 
fome figure or defign, <he gum wrter or 
ifize, inftead of being laid on with a hmSh <x 
pencil, is moft gcneraHy conveyed to the 
ground by means of a wooden plate, or prints 
tind moft expediently by an engraved roller, 
which make an impreffion of the figu« tft de- 
^gn intended ; and tibat, as Ae rifing of the 
gold from the fiirface of the gwmnd is iffy M^ 
advantage in this kind of gilding, as it is in 
that mixt with paintings, 'Sie gum watw « 
€vLt may fee much ftronger ; TAi<^ wffl con- 
tribute both to bind l3^ gold finiier, and to 
give it a fort of embofled appearance that im- 
proves the effeft. In this kind x^ gilding, 
the japaners gold fize may be aMb cottimodi- 
oufly employed 5 for, as the paper muft be 
moiftened before it be printed, diere is no in- 
convenience liable to h?^en fi^pm the running 
of the gold fi^e thus ufcd. Where tiie em- 
toffled appearance is wanted in the greateft de- 
gree, the gold fizc IhouM indeed alvrays fee 
ufed : and in this cafe (hould be thickened 
with yellow oker mixt vrith as much red 
l€;ad, as the proper working of the print will 


Of GildimgJ 393 

The wooden plates or prints ufed for gild- 
ing in this manner, arc woriced by the hand, 
and are to be charged with the gum water or 
fize, of whatever kind it be, by letting it gent^ 
ly and evenly ^down on a cufhion on which 
me giun water or fize has been copioufly 
i|>read by ineans of a proper brufh ; and tfien 
preffittgit on the paper prepared by rndften- 
ing with water, and laid horizontally with fome 
flieets of t)ther paper under it. Where Ae roH* 
ing print is employed, the gum water or fize 
mtinb* feid onitby aproper brufli, inmiediately 
(ittt of the pot or vefltel which contams it : but 
tbb copioii* an tife jnuft be avoided for fear of 
^reafinghtieyohd the fines <)f the defign or 
pattern. The ftrbftcjijent management « the 
gold, whcAer ISaf lor powder, xmift be the 
fame in the foiegoTng kinds of gilding. 

It rarely anfwcrs to ule the leaf goH ifl this 
kind of painting, nor e^;^ the true gold pow- 
der: bujr tfte. G&man powder, of diat formed 
of Ac leaves called Ihitch ^oldy is moftly cm- 
ployed, arid anfwers well enotlgh the purpofe. 
The nxanuft<Jhires of the gilt and mamed 
papers have not beeh fo ipucS cultivated in^our 
own coiintryi as it were to be wiftied, fince 
very great fums have been always annually 
paid, both to Germany and Genoa, on this 
account : and the improvement of diis manu- 
facfhire is, therefore, a veiy fit objeft of at- 
tention to that moft laudable fociety for the 
eftablifhment and encouragement of ufiful 
arts, who have offered premiums to diafe who 


394 O^ ^ ILDINO. 

would. give proofs of their endeavours or fuc- 
cefs in parallel inAances. 

Of gilding prop& for letters of gold tm paper j 
. . :• and the emhellijhment ^f mantifcripts:.: ' 

The moft eafy and neat method of forming 
letters of gold on paper, and for ornaments of 
writings is, by the gold armoniaCy as it was 
formerly called : the method of managing 
which is as follows* 

" Take gum Ammoniacum, and powder 
" it; and then diiTolye^ it in water previoufly 
*^ impregnated with a little gum Arabic, and 
." fome juice of garlic. The gum Amnaonia- 
" cufn will not diflblve in water, fo as to form 
" a tranfpaxent fluid, but produces 2l milky 
*' appearance; from whence the mixture is 
** called in medicine the lac Ammoniacum. 
" With the lac Ammoniacum thus prepared, 
*^ draw with a pencil, or write with a pen on 
" paper, or vellum, the intended figure or 
" letters of the gilding. Suffer the paper 
" to dry; and then,; or any time afterwards, 
" breatn on it till it be moifiened ; and 
*' immediately lay leaves of gold, or parts 
*' of leaves cut in the moft advantageous man- 
" ner to fave the gold* over the oarts drawn 

Of Gilding. 395 

*^ with a foft pencil, or rub off by a fine lin- 
*^ nen rag, the redundant gold which covered 
^ the parts between the lines of the drawing 
** or writing.; and thfe fineft hair ffarokes m 
** the pencil or pen, as well as the broader^ will 
*^ appear pcrfeftly gilt." 

It is ufual to fee in old manuibripts, that are 
highly ornamented, letters of gold which rife 
confiderably from the furface of the paper or 
parchment containing them in the manner o£ 
dnboiTed work ; and of thefe ibme are lefa 
Ihiningji and others have a very high polifh. 
The method", of producing thefe letters is of 
two kinds; the one by fridlion on a proper 
body with a folid piece of gold : the othw bjfr 
leaf gold. The method of making thefe let- 
ters by means of folid gold is as follows. 
- *y Take chryftal ; and reduce it to powder- 
" Temper it then with ftrong gum water, till: 
^' it be of the confiftence of paifc ; and with. 
*^ this, form the letters ; and, when they arc 
*^ dry, rub them with a piece of gold of good 
^^ colour, as in the manner of polifliing ; and 
*^ the letters will appear as if gilt with bur-' 
<^ nifht gold." 

Kunckel has, in his fifty curious experiments; 
givenrthis receipt : but omitted to take theleaft 
notice of the manner, how thefe letters are to 
be formed ; though the moft difficult circum- 
ftance in the produdion of them. It may, how- 
ever, be done, by means of a flamp in this man-^ 
Her. Let the embofled figure, either of the 
ftparate letters or. of whole wprds, be cqt in 

fleel : 

3^ Ot Gild I NO. 

ficd i and, ^hbn the ftajhps are to be uifed^ 
aktotnt "oach iettir oirefcdly ivxth the end xj£ ± 
1)U^ feather dbt in osi ^ btit not fo wet as tdr 
leave drops mmt hollows of die;ftamp5« Fill 
tfiefe cancavb latere, in thcftamps, widnitfae 
above mixture of povrdered chryftal and 
gosxl water ; ;^iid, wipmg the c^er parts of 
them perfedUy cldin, place them then on the 
pttsper 0C vdUum, laid over fame iheets of pa- 
^r : taking <are^ that the letters mzy be id the. 
daitft poiil^n v^hcre thejF ought to lie, &Skc 
then the fkmp in a perpcncficular diredkiD, 
itojt not too fotdtdy ; and itaice it off in the faint 
d£re<^n. The ietisTs ivili be left* in their p^ 
fier ^ace8 by this means, and wiU have die fiune 
proportions as their ardaetjrp^^in die HampGL 

Whc« leaf ]gd[d is ufed fw making emr 
hc&sd letters in imnufcriptB,. the above com- 
j^tion cannot be ufed ; but there are feverd 
odiers, whidi'wiil very well ibpply its place : 
cf t^ucfa the following has been given as very 

** Take die whites of eggs ; and beat them 
** to an oily confiftence. Then take as much 
** vermilion as will be required to thicken the 
**^ whites of the eggs to the confiftence of pafte. 
* Fomi the letters of this paftc, by means of 
•• the ftamps, in the manner before directed; 
« and when they are become dry, moiften 
^ !i^cm by a fmall pencil with ftrong gum 
•* water ; obferving not to let it ran beyond the 
^ bounds of the letters. When the gum wa- 
•* ttr is of a proper diynefs^ v?hich muft be 

.*• judged 

Of Gilding. 397 

*^ jiM4ged of by the rule bef&ce givep* cftviqr 
" the letters with leaf gold ; ^ pre^s i$ c}oi^ 
<« to every part of them> hf cottoa 01. ^ 
«« leather. After the gilding i$ dry, it voesf be 
" poiilhed hj the dog's tooth, or the other pnor 
•* per burni&e3.'' 

Of gilding proper fir the edges- (ftmh anipapm. 

There are ieveral various a^thod^ v^ieb Wr 
^d: 10 die cement ufed^ l^ wtugh. tja^e ^g«P 
1^ books or paper may be gilt : as ft^ofig gum 
water, or ifinglafs fize, gr gjover s fi^^ nwy 
be employed : but as the gum water, and 
weaker fizes, are apt to run beyond- the edge-^ 
and flick the leaves together, ifinglafs melted 
with the addition of fbme comnion proof fpirit 
of wine, and a fixth part of hony or fugar 
candy is^reatly preferable : hut a. third of bole 
armoniac well powdered muft be added. 

The following compofitioa has been lik^ 
wifp approved of for this purpofp, 

^^ Take bole armoniac, and fugar candy we8 
^^ powdered, each equal part&: laix them witl^ 
** the whites of eggs beaten to acu oiiy confif^ 
** ence \ and the cement will be fit for ufeu ' 

la order to the ufing any of thefe cement^f 
the paper, whether it be in quires, or bpoks> 
Should be well cut, and polifhed on the edge^ 
to be gilt; and then flrongly fcrewed down by 
the prefs ;, in which flate, it is to he bc^fh^ 
over, firfl with a little of the cement wi^ut 
the fugar candy, or the bole \ and when thaf: 


39? Of Gilding. 

18 diy, either with the cement above given, 6r 
any odier folution of gum or fize with the propet 
proportion of the bole : after which it may bfc 
fufFered to dry ; and then water polifhed hy 
tubbing it with a fine linnen rag flightly moill:- 
ned. It is then in a ftate fit for receiving the 
gold ; only it muft be again gently moiftned at 
that time : and the leaves may then be laid on^ 
being cut according to the breadth they are to 
cover; and prefled clofely dov^n by a cotton 
ball : and after the gilding is thoroughly dry 
and firm, it may be polifht in the manner of 
<he foregoing kinds. 


Of gilding leather. 

LEATHER may be gilded by all 
the fame methods which have beeft 
given for gilding paper, or Vellum; except, 
that where the gold fize is ufed, there is no 
iDCcafion to wet die leather to prevent the run- 
ning of the oil out of the bounds. Either 
leaf gold or the powders may therefore be 
employed as well for leather, as paper: butj 
unlels in the finer work of the japaning leather 
gilders, or other particular ufes, the German 
powder alone is ufed. It is needlefs confc- 
quently to repeat here the methods above 
ftiewn with refpeft to the gilding paper for 


Of G iLDiNG. 399 

covers to books, CSc. which- equally wcHruit 
for this purpofe in general : but as there is a 
manner of gilding leather peculiar to the book- 
binders, it is requifite to explain it. 

The method of gilding ufed by the book- 
binder is to have the letters, or copartments, 
fcrolls, or other ornaments, cut in fteel ftamjjs; 
not by finking, as in moft other cafes, /but by 
the projeflion of the figure fi-om the ground! 
Thefe flamps arc made hot ; and leaves of 
gold being laid on the parts accpmrhbdatiSd 
to the pattern or defign of the gilding,' the 
hot fl:amps are preft ftrongly on the* gold 
and leather ; and bind the gold to it fii the 
hollows formed by the ftamp : the other re- 
dundant part of the gold being afterwards 
bfuflicd or rubbed off. 

SECTION viii: 

Of gilding of glafs without annealing 
or burning. 

GL AS S may be gilt, by applying as a 
cement any gold fize, or other lize, gum 
water, or varnifh \ and, when it is of a pro- 
per degree of drynefs, laying on the gold asm 
the omer methods of gilding : and polifhing 
it alfo in the fame manner, if the burnifht ap- 
pearance be defired : but where that is in- 
tended, it is proper ,to add. bole armoniac, 


400 Of Gilbingk. 

chalky or other fuch iiibfknce to the ce- 

When drinking glafle&^are tabe gilt, with- 
out burning) the cement fhould be either fbme 
gold iize formed of oil, or iome kind of var-« 
nifh compounded of the giim rofiB^, that will 
not diflblve in water ; but require either ipint 
of wine or oil of turpentine for their foludon : 
at preicnt, neverthelefs^ this i$ not: only neg* 
Icdbed by thofe who gild drinking ghiiles for 
iale ; but glaiTea gilded with gurn a^rabic^ or 
the fizes which wiU diflblve in water, are im* 
poied upon the public for the (oemMn glaflbs 
gilt with the annealed gold ; and fol<i at a dear 
rate under that pretence ; though ai^ thef 
hav^ been ufed for a very ihort time, die gold 
peals and rubs off in fpots'when the glui&s arc 
cleaned; and renders them very unfighdy. 
As iht glailes with gilt edges are at pre&nt 
much in fafhion, and the true kind are brought 
from Germany or elfewhere, the incitement 
of the cultivating this branch of gilding here 
would not be an unfit objedt of tm premiums 
of the worthy fbciety for the encouragement of 
arts : fince for the doing this work in perfec- 
tion, there is nothing more wantit^ than diat 
dexterity of the manoevre, which arif^s from 
a little pracflice in matters of this kind ; as I 
have before fhewn in treating particularfy of 
this article p. 3 20, the general method, and ex- 
plained fully there and elfewhere, the nature 
of the fubftances proper to he employed as far 
aa refpe(3:s this operation, 


, tjp SlLVE RIN G. 401 

C H A P. IL 

Of filvering. 

QtLVERING may be pradtifed on the 
1^ fame fubftanges ; and by all the fame me- 
thods, either with leaf or powder we have be- 
fore pointed out with regard to gilding ; varia- 
tion beiiig made in a few circumftanees below 
mentioned. It is neverthelefs but feldom ufed, 
fiotwithftandirig the effe<ft wduld be very beau-*' 
tifiil and proper in many cafes; and there is an 
Extreme gdod reafon ror fuch a negle(6l of it. 
This reafon is, its tarnifhing in i Very fhort 
time ; and acquiring frequently, befides the 
generdl deprdvity of the whitenefs, fuch fpots 
of various colours, as rellder it very unfightly : 
and this tarnifh and ipecking is not otily thd 
^onftarit refult of time 5 but will be often pro- 
duced inftantly by any e^itriordirtary moifture 
In the air, or dampiiefs, as well as by the fumes 
dnd efHuvia of many bodies which may happen 
to approach it. 

Wherever, therefore, iilverihg is admitted^j 
a ftroiig Varnifh ought to be piit ovfer it : ana. 
this even is not fufficient wholly to fecure It 
from this deftrudtive confequence. The var- 
liifh muft be fome of thfc compdfitions of maf- 
tic, fandetac, th6 gunls animi or copal, and 
v^rhite refin; (the particular treatment of which 
in the" forming VarniflieS will be found in other 
D^d parts 

402 Of Silvering* 

parts of this work ;) for the other fubflances 
ufed for compounding varnifhes are too yel- 
low. Some put a coat of ifinglafs fize over 
the filver : but, befides that the fize itfelf in- 
jures the whitenefs in time by turning yellow^ 
it preferves the filver but in a fmall degree. 

The methods of making the filver povwiers 
is alfo the fame as thofe of gold, except with 
regacrd to one of the German powders, which 
is correfpondent both in its appearance and ufe» 
abating the difference of colour, to the aurum 
mofaicum or mufivum : whence it has been 
indeed, though improperly, called the airgen- 
tum mufivum. The procefe for this bei^g, 
therefore, different from any before given, it 
is proper to infert it fully, as follows. 

" Take of verypure tin one pound. Put itinto 
^ a crucible ; and fet ijt on a fire to melt : wheo it 
•* begins to run intofufion, add to it an equal 
** proportion of bifmuth or tin gJafs : and ffir 
*^ the mixture with an iron rod, or the finall tni 
" of a tobacco-pipe, till the whde be indrcly 
" melted, and incorporated. Take the cruci- 
" ble then from the fire -, and, after the melted 
" compofition is become a little cooler, but 
" while it is yet in a fluid flate, pour into it 
" a pound of quickfilver gradually ; ftirring 
•' it in in the niean time, that the' mercury 
" maybe thoroughly conjoined with the o- 
" thcr ingredients. When the whok is thus 
" commixt, pour the mafs out of the cruci- 
" ble on a flone ; where, as it cools, it will 
*' take the form of an amalgama or motalfine 

*^ pafte; 

Of Silvering. 403 

" pafte ; which will be eafily bruifed into a flaky 
" powder ; tnd is then fit for ufe." 

This powder maybe either tempered, in the 
manner of the (heU gold, with gum water; or 
rubbed over a ground properly fized, according 
to any of the methods above direfted for gold 
powilers i and it will take a very good poliih 
fipom the dog's tooth or burnifhcrs ; and hold 
Its colour much better with a flight coat of 
varniih over it, than any true filver powder. 

The fizes for filvcring ought not to be mixed, 
as in the cafe of gold, with yellow, or bole ar- 
moniae; but with fome white fubftance, whofe 
cflFeft may prevent any fmall failures in the 
covering the ground witih the filver from being 
feen, in the fame manner as the yellow fub- 
ftances do the gold. This may be done with 
ikke white, or white lead, when the fizcs 
fonned of cAl are ufed : but Avhiting is the 
proper matter in the burnifh for filvcring ; or 
where the glover's or parchment fize is ufed. 
Some recommend tobacco-pipe clay in the 
place of whiting; and add a little lamp black 
to give a filver-like greyiflincfe to the ccmpofi- 

Dd* 9 HAP. 

404 Of Bronzingt. 

Of bronzing. 

BRONZING is colouring, by metalline 
powders, plafter, or other bufts and fi- 
gures, in order to make them appear as if a^ 
of copper or other metals. 

This is fometimes done by means of cement; 
and fometimes without, in the inftance of pla- 
fler figures : but the bronzing is more durable 
and fecure when a cemejit is ufed. 

The gold powders, and the aurum mo&i-r 
cum, we have before given the preparation of, 
are frequently employed for this purpofe; but 
the proper bronzing ought to be of a deeper 
and redder colour, more refembling copper i 
which effeft may be produced by grinding a 
very fmall quantity of red lead with theft 
powders -, or the proper powder of copper may 
be ufed : and may be prepared as follows. 

" Take filings of copper or flips of cop- 
" per plates 5 and dif!blve them in any kind 
" of aqua fortis put into a glafs receiver, or 
" other proper formed vefiel. ' When the 
, " aqua fortis is faturated with the copper, take 
" out the flips of the plates; or, if filings were 
" ufed, pour off the folution from what re- 
" mains undifTolved : and put into it finall 
** bars of iron : which will precipitate the 
«f copper fi-om the aqua fortis in a powder of 

« the 

Of Br ON 2 INC. 405 

** the proper appearance and colour of cop- 
^* per. Pour off the water then from tne 
'* powder ; and wafh it clean from the 
" falts, by feveral fucceffivc quantities of frefli 
« water." 

Where the appearance of brafs is defigned, 
the gold powders, or the aurum mofeicum, 
may be mixt with a little of the powder called 
argentum mufivum ; of which the prepara- 
tion is above given. 

Where no cement is ufed in bronzing, the 
powder muft be mbbed on the fubjedl intend- 
ed to be bronzed, by means of a piece of foft 
leather, or fine iinnen rag, till the whole fur- 
fece be coloured. 

The former method of ufing a cement in 
bronzing was, to mix the powders with ftrong 
gum water, or ifinglafs fize ; and then with a 
brufli, or pencil, to lay them on the fubjedt : 
but at prefent fome ufe the japanner's gold fize: 
and proceed in all reipedts in the fame manner 
9S in gilding with the powders in other cafes : 
for which ample direftions have been before 

This is the heft method hitherto pradifed ; 
for the japanner'e gold fize binds the powders 
tQ the ground, without the leaft hazard of 
peeling or falling off; which is liable to hap- 
pen when the gum water or glover's or ifinglafs 
fizes are ufed : though, notwithftanding the au- 
rfiority of -the old pnwftice for the contrary, even 
thefc cements will much tetter fecure them 
when they are laid on the ground, and the 
D d 3 powders 

4o6 Of Brqn£in9# 

powders rubbed over them, than wlien both 
are mixed together, and die cfieift particularly 
of the aurum mofaicum will be much better in 
this way than the otbcr. 

The fidtitious filver powder, called tbeargeiw ' 
turn mu£vum« may be ^lied in the mamier 
of bronze, by thofe wqofe caprice dii|)ofes 
them to filver figures or bufts ; but it its the 
only ibrt of iilver powder, that ihould be u&d 
in this Way, for the reafon above given : and 
all fuch kix>d of iilvering is much better omit^ 
ted : as the whiteneis itielf of plailer m fi- 
gures or bufts, and much more a glofiy or 
mlninr whitened, is injurious to their right cf* 
feft ; by its eluding the judgment of the eye, 
with Te4>e^ to the proper form and proportion 
of the parts, from die falfe and poiitfed reflec* 
tbns of the lights, and the too faint &rce of 
the ihades : to remove which inconvenience 
it is probable was the &r&, inducement to 

Of japanning. 

SECT. I. Of japanning in general 

BY japanning is to be here undcrftood the 
art of covering bodies by grounds of 
opake colours in varnifli \ v^hich niay be either 


Of Japanninx^. 407 

Afterwards decorated by paintings or gilding, 
or left in a plain ftate. This is not at prefent 
praftifed fb frequently on chairs, tables, and 
other furniture of houfes, except tea waiters, 
as formerly : but the introduftion of it for or- 
namenting coaches, foufF-boxes, and fkreens. 
In which there is a rivaWhip betwixt ourfelve$ 
and Ac French, renders me cultivation and 
propagation of this art of great importance to 
commerce. I /hall therefore be more explicit 
in fhewing the methods both now and former- 
\j in ufe ; with the application of each to the 
(cveral purpdes to which they are beft adapted ; 
and point out at the fame time feveral very ma- 
terial improvements, that are at prefent en- 
jojrcd only by particular perfons ; or not at all 
hitherto brought into pra<5tice. 

The fubftances which admit of being ja- 
panned are almoft every kind that are dry and 
rigid, or not too flexible : as wood, metals, lea- 
ther, and paper prepared. 

Wood and metals do not require any other 
preparation, but to have their furfaces perfedlly 
even and clean : but leather fhould be fecurely 
drained either on frames, or on boards ; as its 
bending or forming folds would otherwifc 
crack and force off die coats of varnifh ; and 
paper fhould be treated in the fame manner ; 
and have a previous ftrong coat of fome kind 
of lize ; but it is rarely made the fubjedt 
of japanning till it is converted into papier 
macbe^ or wrought bv other means, into 
D <i 4 ' fuch 

4p8 Of Japanning. 

fuch form that its original ftatp^ particularly 

with rcfpcdt to fladbDity, is loft. 

One principal variation in the manner of 
japanning is, the ufing or onutting any priming 
br undercoat on the work to be japanned. In the 
plder praftice, fuch priming was always ufed : 
^nd is at preient retained in the French manr 
per of japanning coaches jind fnufF-boxes of 
the papier macbe : but in the Birmingham 
manurafture here, it has been always re-r 
jedecj. The advantage of ufing fuch priming 
pr undercoat is, that it makes a faving in the 
quantity of varnifli ufed ; becaufe the matter 
of which the priming is compofed fills up the 
inequalities of the body to be vamifhcd : and 
makes it eafy, by means of rubbing and water- 
polifhing, to gain an even furfece for the var-r 
nifh: and this was therefore fuch a convenience 
in the cafe of wood, as the giving a hardnefs and 
firmncfs to the ground was alfo in the cafe of 
leather, that it became an eftablifhed method} 
and is therefore retained even in the inflance of 
fhe papier mach^^ by the French who applied 
the received method of japanning to that kind of 
work on its introduftion. There is neverthe- 
lefs this inconvenience always attending the ufc 
of an undercoat of fize, that the japan coats 
of varnifh and colour will be conflantly lia- 
ble to be craked and peeled off, by any vio- 
lence, and will not endure near fo long as the 
|)odies japanned in the fame manner, but withr 
put any fuch priming : as may be eafily ob- 
served in comparing the wear of the Paris and 

Of Japannino. 409 

Birmingham fnuff-boxes; which latter, when 
gocxl of their kind, never peel or cracky or fufTer 
any damage, unlefs by great violence, and fucb 
a continued rubbing, as waftes away the futv 
fiance of the vami(h : while the japan coats of 
the Pariiian crack and fly off in flakes when^- 
jcver any knock or fall, particularly near the 
edges, expofes them to be injured. But thp 
Birniingham manufacturers, who originally 
pradtifed the japanning only on metals, to which 
the reafbn above given for the ufe of priming 
did not extend, and who took up this art of 
themfelyes as an invention, of pourfe. omitted 
at firfl: the ufe of any iuch undercoat ; and 
liot fincjiiig it more neceflary in the inftance of 
papier mache^ then on metals, continue ftill 
to rejedt it. On which account the boxes of 
their manufacture are, with regard to the wear, 
greatly better than the French. 

The laying on the colours in gum water^^ in- 
ftead of yarnifh^ is alfo another variation from 
the method of japanning formerly pradlifed: but 
the much greater ftrength of the work, where 
tiiey are laid on in varnifh or oil, has occafioned 
this way to be exploded with the greatefl rea- 
fon in all regular manufactures : however, thi^ 
who may praCUfe japanning on cabinets, or other 
fuch pieces, gs arp not expofed to ipueh wear 
and violence, for their amufement only, an4 
confequently may not find it worth their while 
to encumber themfelves with the preparation? 
tieccflary for the other n^ethods^ may paint 
^ith vyater colours pn an ^ndercpat laid oq 


4IO Gf Japanning. 

the wcx>d, or other fubftance of which the 
piece to be japanned is formed; and then finiih 
with the proper coats of varni(h according to the 
methods below taught : and if the colours are 
tempered with the ftronjgcft ifing^afe fizc and 
hony inftead bf gum water, and laid on very 
fiat and even, the work will not be mucn 
inferior in appearance to that done by the o- 
ther mediod ; and will lafl as long as the old 

It ispraSifed likcwife, in imitation of what 
Js fbmetimes done in the Indian work, to paint 
tdth water colours on grounds of gold ^ in 
which cafe the i^glafs'nze, with fugar candy 
or hohy, as above direfted, is the bcft ve- 

Of japan grounds. 

The proper japan grounds are either fuch as 
are formed by the varnifh and oolour, where the 
whole is to remain of one fimplc colour; or by 
the varnifh either coloured, or without colour, 
on which fome painting or other decoration is 
afterwards to be laid. It is neccflary, how- 
ever, before I proceed to fpeak of the particu- 
lar grounds, to fhew die manner of laying on 
the priming or undercoat, where any fuch is 

This priming is of the fame nature with 
that called clear coating (or vulgarly clear 
coaling) pradifed erroneoufly by the houfe 
painters; and confifts only in laying on and 


Of Japanning. 411 

dfying in the moft even manner^ a coixqjoii^ 
tion of ike and whiting. The conunon iize 
has been generally oied ibr this purpofe : but 
where the work is of a nicer kind, it is better 
to employ the glover's or the ^chment fize ; 
and if a third of ifinglafs be added, it will be 
ftill better ; and if not laid on too thick, much 
lefs liable to peel and crack. The work ihould 
be prepared for this priming, by being well 
fmoothed with the fi{hH[kin, or gla& {haver ; 
and, being made thoroug^y clean, fhould be 
bnUhed over once or twice with hot iize, di-* 
luted with two thirds of water, if it be of the 
commoa ilnength. The priming ihould dien 
be laid on with a bru£b as even as poffible ; 
and (houki be formed of a iize, who& confifl- 
ence is betwixt the common kind and glue, 
mix^t with as much whiting as will give it a 
fafficient body of colour to hide the furfaoe of 
whatever it is laid upon, but not more. 

If the furfaoe be wry even, on which the 
priming is u&d, two coats of it, hid on in 
this manner, will be fuffident : but if, on trial 
with a fine rag wet, it will not receive a pro- 
per water polilh, on account of any inequali- 
ties not fufficiently filled up and covered, two 
or more coats muft be given it : and whether 
a greater or lefs number be ufed. the work 
fhould be fmoothed, after the laft coat butone is 
dry, by rubbing it with the Dutch rufhes. When 
the laft coat is dry, the water polish fhould be 
given, by paffing over every part of it with a 
fine rag gently moiilne43 tiU ^c whote appear 


412 Or JapamningJ 

pcrfi»Slly plain and even, 'the priming will 
then be completed, and the work ready to re- 
ceive the painting, or coloured vamifli : the 
reft of the proceedings being the lame in this 
cafe as where no priming is uicd. 

Of common grounds of varnijhy whtcb are to be 
painted upon. 

Where wood or leather is to be japanned, 
and no priming is ufed, the beil preparation is, 
to lay two or three coats of coarfe varnifh com- 
pofed in the following manner. 

" Take of redtified fpirit of wine one pint, 
** and of coarfe feed-lac and refin eadi t^fro 
'^ ounces. Diflblve the feed-lac and refin in 
** the fpirit : and then ftrain off the vamiih." 

This varnifli, as well as all others formed 6f 
ipirit of wine, muft be laid on in a warm 
place; and, if it can be conveniently managed, 
the piece of work to be varniflied fhould be 
made warm likewife : and for the fame reaibn 
all dampnefs fhould be avoided ; for either 
cold or moifture chill this kind of varnifli ; 
and prevent its taking proper hold of the fub- 
ilance on which it is laid. 

When the work is fo prepared, or by 
the priming with the comppfition of fize 
and whiting above defcribed, the proper 
japan ground muft be laid on: which is mudi 
the beft formed of fhell-lac varnifli, and the 
colour defired ; if white be not in queftion, 
vi^hich demands a peculiar treatment^ as I fliall 


Of Japanning. 413 

below explain ^ or great brightnefs be not re- 
quired, when alfo other means miiA be per- 
wed. The compolition of the fliell-lac var- 
mfh, with the r<^ons why it is preferable to 
all other kinds as a vehicle for colours, I have 
before given p. 177 ; and therefore need not 
repeat them here; though the advantage of 
this method over all others, where'great bright- 
nefs is not demanded, and the durablenefs is 
of confequence, can fcarcely be too much 

The colours ufed with the fhell-lac varnifli 
may be, any pigments whatever which give the 
teint of the ground defired ; and they may be 
mixt together to form browns or any compound 
colours : but with refpedt to fuch as require pe- 
culiar methods for the producing them of the 
firft degree of brightnefs, I fhall particularize 
them below. 

The colours for grounds may otherwife be 
mixed with the white varniflies formed in oil 
of turpentine ; of which the preparation is 
given p. 179 — 213 and 214 : but thefe var- 
niflies have no advantages over the fliell-lac 
but in their whitenefs, that preferves the 
brightnefs of the colours ; and they are at the 
fame time greatly inferior in hardnefs to it. 

As metals never require to be under coated 
with whiting, they may be treated in the fame 
manner as wood or leather when the under- < 
t:oat is omitted, except in the inftances parti- 
cularly fpoken of below. 


4X4 Or Japannimc. 

Of wbtte japan grounds. 

The forming a ground perfediy white, and 
of the firft degree of hardnefs^ remaind: hither- 
to a defideratum, or matter fought for, in the 
art of japanning. A& there are no fiibfiances 
which form a very hard ^arnifii, but what 
have too much colour not to deprave ih^ 
whitenefs^ when laid on of a due tfaxckne& 
over the work. 

The neareft approach, however to a perfeift 
white vamifh, already known, is made by the 
^^Uowing compofkion. 

** Take flake white, or white lead, wafted 
over and ground up with a fixth of its 
weight of ftarch, and then dried; and 
temper it, jM^operly for fpreading, with the 
maftic varnifh prepared as in p. 179, or 
compound them with the gum animi, ac« 
cording to the diredions given in the &me 
" page/' Lay thefe on the body to be ja^ 
panned, prepared either with or without die 
undercoat of whiting, in the manner as above 
ordered : and then vamiih over k with five or 
fix coats of the following varnifh. 

" Provide any quantity of the bcA feed 
" lac ; and pick out of it all the cteaneft and 
*^ whiteft grains -, rcferving the ujore coloured 
*^ and fouler parts for the coarfer vamiflies^ 
" fuch as that above mentioned for priming 
^' or preparing wood or leather. Take of this 
" pickt feed-lac two ounces ^ and of gum animi 

" three 




Of Japanning^ fi^ 

** three ounces; and diflblve them, being 
** previoufly reduced to a grofs powder, in a- 
** bout a quart of fpirit of wine; and'ftrain off 
^\ the clear vamilh." 

The ieed-lac will yet give a flight tinge to 
this compofition ; but cannot be omitted, 
where the vamifh is wanted to be hard: 
though, where a fbfter will aoTwer the end, 
the proportion may be dimini(hed; and a little 
crude birpentine added to the gum animi to 
take off the britdenefs. i 

A very good varnifh, free intirely from all 
brittlenefs, may be formed by diiTotving as 
much gum animi, as the oil will take, in old 
nut or poppy oil ; which muft be made to boil 
gently, when the gum is put into it. The 
ground of white colour itfelf may be laid on 
in this varnifh ; and then a coat or two of it 
may be put over the ground : but it muft be 
well diluted with oil of turpentine when it is 
uied. This, though free from bnttloniefs,. is, 
neverthelefs, liable to fuiFer by being indent^ 
cd or bruiled by any flight Arches s and it will 
not well bear any poliih, but may be brought 
to a very fmooth furface without, if it be judi« 
cioufly managed in the laying it on. It is 
likewise fbmewhat tedious in drying, and will 
require ibme time where feveral coats are laid 
pn ^ as the lafl: ought not to contain much oil 
of turpi^itine. 


'4l6 Op JAi^ANNllrfGi , 

Of blue japan grounds. 

Blue japan grounds n^ay be forfhed of 
bright Pruffidn blue; or of verditef glazecJ 
dver by Pruflian blue ; or of ftiialt. The co- 
lour may be beft niixed with (hell-lac vami/h; 
^d brought to a polifliing ftate by five or fii 
Coats of vamifli of feed-lac ; but the vamUhi 
neverthelefs, will fomewhat injure the colour, 
by giving to a true blue a caft of green j and 
fouling in fbme degree a warm blue, by the 
yellow it contains. Where, therefore, a bright 
blue is required, and a lefs degree of hardnefi 
can be difpenfed with, the method before di- 
i^ed, in the cafe of white grounds, muft b« 

Of red japan grounds* 

For a fcarlet japan ground, vermilion may 
be ufed : but the vermilion has a glaring ef-» 
fed:, that renders it much lefs beautiful than 
the crimibh produced by glazing it over with 
carmine or fine lake; or even with rofc 
pink, which has a very good effedt ufed for 
this putpofe. For a very bright crimfbn, 
neverthelefs, inftead of glazing with car* 
mine, the Indian lake fhould be ufed, dit- 
iblved in the fpirit of which the varniffi \i 
compounded (which it readily admits of 
when good): and, in this cafe^ inftead cdT 
glazing with the (hell-lac varni(h, the upper 


Of Japanninc. 417 

Of polirtiing coats need only be ufed ; as they 
will equally receive and convey the tinge of 
the Indian lake, which may be aftually dif- 
Iblved by fpirit of wine: and this will be found 
a much cheaper method than the ufing car- 
mine. If, neverthefefs, the higheft degree of 
brightnefs be required, the white varniflics 
muft be ufed. 

Of yellonx) japan grounds. 

For bright yellow grounds, the King*^ 
yellow, or the turpeth mineral, (hould be em- 
ployed, either alone or mixed with fine Dutch 
pink : and the eiFeft may be ftill more height- 
ened by diflolving powdered turmeric root in 
the fpirit of wine of which the upper or po- 
lifliing coat is made;, which fpirit of wine 
muft be ftrained fron^ off the dregs, before 
the feed-lac be added to it to form the varnifh* 

The feed-lac varnifh is not equally injurious 
here, and with greens, as in the cafe of o- 
ther colours ; becaufe, being only tinged with 
a reddifli yellow, it is little more than an ad- 
dition to the force of the colours. 

Yellow ground^ may be likewife formed of 
the Dutch pink ooly J which, when good, will 
not be wanting in brightnefs, though ex- 
tremely cheap. 

£ e Of 

4i8 Op Japakning* 

Of green japan grounds. 

Green grounds may be produced by mixing 
die King's yellow and bright Pruffian blue; 
or rather, the turpeth mineral and Pruffian blue: 
and a cheap, but fouler kind, by verdigrife 
with a little of the above mentioned yellows, 
or Dutch pink. But where a very bright 
green is wanted, the chryftals of verdigrife, 
(called dijiilled wrdigrife) fhould be employ- 
ed ; and to heighten the effeft, they fhoukl 
be laid on a ground of leaf gold, which ren- 
ders the colour extremely brillant and pleafing, 

They may any of tihem be ufed fuccefs- 
fully with good feed-lac varnifli, iot the rca- 
fon before given : but will be ftill brighter 
with the white varnifti. 

Of orange coloured japan grounds. 

* Orange coloured japan grounds may be 
formed, by mixing vermilion, or red lead, 
with King's yellow, or Dutch pink ; or the 
orange lake, prepared as diredled in p. iiii 
will make a brighter orange ground than can 
be produced by any mixture. 

Of purple japan grounds. 

Purple japan grounds may be produced by 

tht mixture of lake, and Pruffian blue : or a 

fouler kind, by vermilion and Pruffian blue. 

I They 

Of Japanning, 419 

They may be treated as the reft, with rcfpedt 
to the varnifh. • 

Of black j^n grounds^ to be produced without 

Black grounds may be foraied by either 
ivory-black) or lamp-black : but the former 
is preferable^ where it is perfcftly good. 

Thefe may be always laid on with the fhell- 
lac varnifti : and have their upper or polifhing 
coats of common feed-lac varnifli; as the 
tinge or foulnefs of the varnifh can be here no 

Of common black japan grounds on iron or 
coppery produced by means of heat. 

For forming the common black japan 
grounds by means o^ heat, the piece of work 
to be japanned muft be painted over with dry- 
ing oil : and when it is of a moderate drynefs, 
muft be put into a ftove of fuch degree of heat, 
as will change the oil black, without burning 
it fo as to deftroy or weaken its tenacity. 
The ftove Ihould hot. be too hot when the 
work is put into it, nor the heat increafed too 
faft J either of which errors would make it 
blifter : but the flower the heat is augmented, 
ind the longer it is continued, provided it be 
reftrained within the due degree, the harder 
will be the coat of japan. This kind of var- 
ni{h requires no polifti, having received, when 
E e 2 properly 

420 Of Japanning* 

properly managed, a fufEcient one from the 


Of the fine tortoife Jkell japan gfoundy produced 
by meaia of heat. 

The bcft kind of tortoife {hell ground pro- 
duced by heat is not lefs valuable for its great 
hardnefs, and enduring to be made hotter than 
boiling water without damage, than for its 
beautiful appearance. It is to be made by 
means of a varnifh prepared in the following 
manner. • 

. " Take of good linfeed oil one gallon, and 
" of umbre half a pound. Boil them toge- 
^* ther tiU the oil become very brown and 
" thick: ftrainit then through a coarfe cloth; 
" and fet it again to boil^ in which ftateit 
" muft be continued till it acquire a pitchy 
" confiftence, when it will be fit for ufe." 

Having prepared thus the varnifh, clean 
well the iron or copper- plate, or other piece 
which is to be japanned ; and then lay vermi- 
lion tempered with fhelUac varnifh, or with 
drying oil diluted with oil of turpentine very 
thinly, on the places intended to imitate the 
more tranfparent parts of the tortoife fhdl. 
When the vermilion is dry, brufh over the 
whole with the black varnilh tempered to a 
due confiftence with oil of turpentine ; and 
when it is fet and firm, put the work into a 
ftovc, v/hece it may undergo a very ftrong 
heat, and mufl be continued a confiderable 
. . ^. time> 

Of Japanning; 421 

time, if even three weeks or a month, it will 
be the better. 

This was given amongft other receipts by 
Kunkel j but appears to have been negleded 
till it was revived with great fuccefs in the Bir- 
mingham manufadlurcs, where it was not only 
the ground of Ihuff boxes, drefling boxes, and 
other fuch lefTer pieces, but of thofe beauti- . 
ful tea waiters, which have been fo juftly e- 
fteemed and admired in feveral parts of Europe 
where they have been fent. This ground 
may be decorated with painting and gilding, 
in the fame manner as any other varniflied 
furfacc, which had beft be done after the 
ground has been duly hardened by the hot 
flove 2 but it is well to give a fecond anneal- 
ing with a more gentle heat after it is finifhed. 


Of painting japan work. 

JAPAN work oUght properly to be paint- 
ed with colours in vai'nifh ; the methods 
of which, . I have before given, under the 
article of painting in varniih, in p. 176, and the 
following ; though, in order for the greater 
difpatch, and, in fome very nice works in fmall, 
for the freer ufe of the pencil, the colours are 
fometimes tempered in oil : which ihould 
previoufly have a fourth part of its weight of 
E e 3 gum 

42t Of JaF ANNlNG. 

gum animi diiiblved in it; or, in default of 
that, of the gums fanderac or maitic, as I 
have likewife before intimated. When the 
oil is thus ufed, it fhould be well diluted with 
ipirit of turpentine, that the colours may be 
laid more evenly and thin : by whidi means, 
fewer of the poliihing or upper coats of vam^b 
become necdTary. 

In fome inftances, water colours, as I be- 
fore mentioned, are laid On grounds of gold, 
in the manher of other paintings; and arc beft, 
when fo ufed, in their proper appearance widi- 
out any vamifh over them 5 and they ai^e alfo 
fometimes fo managed as to have the effe£t of 
embofled work. The colours employed in 
this way, for painting, are (as I befoit inti-^ 
mated) bed prepared by means of iimglafs fize 
correfted with hony, or fugar candy. The 
body of which th? emboffed work is raife<? 
need not, however, be tinged with the exte- 
rior colour 5 but may^be bcft formed of very 
ftrong gum water, thickened to a proper con- 
liftence by bole armoniac and whiting in equal 
parts : which being laid on in the proper figure, 
atid repaan&d when dry, may be then paiMcd 
with the proper colours tempered in the ifin* 
j^lafs fize, or in the genwtl manner with 
mell-ljic varni(h. 


Op Japanning; 423 


Of varnijhing japan worL 

THE laft, and finifhing part of japanning, 
lies in die laying on and polifhing tbe 
outer coats of varnifh j which are neccflaryj 
as well ia the pieces that have only one iimplo 
ground of colour; as with thofe that are paint- 
ed. This is in general beft done with conv- 
mon feed-lac varnifh; except in the inftances^ 
and on thofe occalions, \yhere I have already 
fhewn other methods to be more expedient : 
and the fame reaibns, which decide as to jdie 
fitnefs or impropriety of the varniihes, with 
refpeft to the colours of the ground, hold c- 
qually well with regard to thofe of the paint* 
ing. For where brightnefs is the moft mate* 
rial point, and a tinge of yellow will injure it, 
feed-lac muft give way to the whiter gums : 
but where hardnefs, and a greater tenacity, 
are moft eflential, it muft be adhered to : and 
where both are ib neceffary, that it is proper 
one ihould give way to the other, in a certain 
degree reciprocally, a mixt varnifta muft be 

This mixt varnifh, as I before obferved, 
ihould be made of the pickt feed-lac, as di* 
reded in p. 414. The common feed-lac var- 
nifh, which is the moft ufeful preparation of 
the kind hitherto invented, may be thus made. 
E c 4 '' Take 

424 Of Japanning.' 

*' Take of fced-lac three ounces, and put 
" into water to free it from the flicks and 
** filth that frequently are intermixed with it j 
" and which muft be done by ftirring it about 
" and then pouring off the water, and adding 
** fre(h quanties in order to repeat the opera- 
tion, till it be freed from all impurities ; as 
it very efFedtually may be by this means. 
Dry it then, and powder it grofsly; and 
put it, with a pint of redlified fpirit of wine, 
•* into a bottle, of which it will not fill above 
** two thirds. Shake the mixture well to 
** gether ; and place the bottle in a gentle 
heat, till the feed appear to be difToIved j 
the fhaking being in the mean time repeat- 
ed as often as may be convenient : and then 
pour ofF all which can be obtained cl^r 
by that method : and ftrain the remainder 
through a coarfe cloth. The varnifh thus 
prepared muft be kept for ufe in a bottle 
well ftopt;* 
When the fpirit of wine is very ftrong, it 
will diflblve a greater proportion of the feed- 
lac : but this will faturate the common, which 
is feldom of a Jftrength fufficient for making 
varnifhes in perfisftion. As the chilling, which 
is the moft inconvenient accident attending 
thofe of this kind, is prevented, or produced 
more frequently, according to the ftrength of 
the fpirit, I will take this opportunity of View- 
ing a methfed by which, weaker rectified fpirits 
pay with great eafe, at any time, be freed 









Of J apann iNO. 425 

ftom the phlegm, and rendered of the firft 
degree of ftrength. . 

" Take a pint of the common reftified 
" fpirit of wine ; and put it into a bottle, of 
" which it will not fill above three parts. 
" Add to it half an ounce of pearl-afhes, fait 
*• of tartar, or any other alkaline fait, heated 
" red hot, and powdered, as well as it can be 
*^ without much lofs of its heat, Shake the 
" mixture frequently for the fpace of half an 
' '* hour ; before which time, a great part of 
" the phlegm will be feparated from the 
fpirit ; arid will appear, together with the 
undiflblved part of the falts, in the bottom 
of the bottle. Let the fpirit then be pour-- 
ed off, or freed from the phlegm and falts 
*.* by means of a tritorium or feparating fun^ 
'* nel ; and let half an ounce of thepearl-afhes, 
" heated and powdered as before, be added 
** to it, and the fame treatment repeated. 
** This may be done a third time, if the 
*^ quantity of phlegm feparated by the addi- 
*^ tion of the pcarl-aflies appear confiderable. 
" An ounce of alum reduced to powder and 
" made hot, but not burnt, muft then be put 
^* into the fpirit; and fuffered to remain fomc 
*' hours ; the bottle being frequently fliaken. 
** After which, the fpirit, being poured off 
^' from it, will be fit for ufe." 

The addition of the alum is neceflary, to 
neutralize the remains of the alkaline fait of 
pearl-afhes ; which would otherwife greatly 
deprave the fpirit with refped^: to varnifhes and 


426 Of J AP ANN I NOJ 

laquers, where vegetable colours are concern-^ 
ed } and muil coniequently render another di-* 
filiation- neceOlary. 

The mani>€r of uiing the feed-lac, or white 
vamifhes, i$ the fame ; except with regard to 
thefubftance-ufed in poliihing; which, where 
a^pure white, or great cleameis of other co- 
lours, is in queiHon, fhould be itfelf white : 
whereas the browner forts of polifhing duft, 
as bebg^ cheaper, and doing their buiinefs 
with greater diipatch, may be ufed in other 
cafes. The pieces of work to be vamifhed 
llymld .be.fdaced near a fire, or in a room 
where there is a ftove ^ and made pertly 
dry : and then the varnifh may be rubbed 
over them l^ the proper brufhes made for that 
purpoie, be^nning in the middle, and pailing 
the brufli to one end; and then, with another 
Oxoke from the middle, pafling it to the o- 
ther. But no part ftiould be crofled or twice 
paiied over, in forming one coat, where it 
can poflibly be avoided. When one coat is 
dry, another muft be laid over it ; and this 
muft be continued at leaft five or fix times, 
or more ; if, on trial, there be not a fuffici- 
ent. thicknefs of varnifh to bear the polifh, 
without lajring bare the painting, or the ground 
colour underneath. 

When a fufficient number of coats is thus 
laid on, the work is fit to be polifhed: which 
muft be done, in common cafes, by rubbing 
it with a rag dipped in tripoli or pumice ftonc 
jaly called rotienjim') fkixoly powder- 


cd : but towards the end of the rubbing, a 
little oil of any kind fhould be ufed along with 
the powder J and when the work appears fuf- 
liciently bn^t and gloify, it. fliould be well 
rubbed with the oil alone, to clean it from 
the powikr ; and give it a flill bcig^ter luftre. 

. In the caie of white grounckj inftead of the 
tripoli or pumice ftone, fine putty or whiting 
oiuft be u&d^ both which fhould be waihed 
over to prevent the danger of damaging the 
work from any fand or other gritty matter^ 
that may h^pea to be commixt widi them* 

. It is a ^eat improvement c^ all kitxls of 
japan work, to hancfcea tfiQ v^nifli l^ means 
of heat ; tvhich^ in every degree that it 
cao be applied fliort of wkiit would burn ot^ 
calcine the matter, tends to give it a more 
firm and ftrong texture. Who'e met^s fomi 
the body^ therefore, a very hot ftove may be 
ufed, and tfee piecies of work may be conti- 
nued in it a confiderabletikne; eSlpecially if the 
heat be gradually increafed : but where wood 
is in quertion, heat muft be fparingly ufed j 
as it would otherwife warp or fhrink the body, 
fp 3S to iiijure the general fi^re. 


4^^ O F J A ? A N N I N CT. 


^f g^^i^S j^P^^ work. 

AL L the meili6ds of gilding, which arc 
applicable to the ornamenting japan 
work, having been before taught under the 
?urticle of gilding, it is needlefs to repeat them 
here ; I (hall only again obferve, that in gilding 
with gold lize (which is almoft the only me- 
thod nowpraiflifed in japan work,) where it is 
defired to have the gold not fliine, or approach 
in (he leaft towards the bumifhing flate, the 
fizc (hould be ufed either with oil or turpen- 
tine only, or with a very little fat oil ; but 
where a greater luftre, and appearance of po- 
lifli, are wanting, without the trouble of bur- 
nifliing, and the preparation neceffary for it, 
fat oil alone, or mixed with a little gold fize, 
fliould be ufed ; and the fame proportionable 
effect will be produced from a mean propor- 
tion of them. 

Of laquering. 

AQUERrNG is the laying either co- 
loured or tranfparent vamimes on me- 
in order to produce the appearance of a 


op* Laqjjkring. 429 

different colour in the metal ; or to prefervc it 
from nift and the injuries of the Weather. 

Laquering is therefore much of the fame 
nature with japanning, both with regard to the 
principles and pradice j except that no opake 
colours, but tranfparent tinges alone, are to be 

The occafions on which laquering is now 
in general tifed are three : where brafs is to 
be made to have the appearance of being gilt: 
where tin is wanted to have the refemblance of 
yellow metals : and where brafs or copper 
locks, nails, or other fuch matters, are to be 
defended from the corrofion of the air or 
moifture. There was indeed formerly ario-^ 
ther very frequent applicaticm of laquering ;, 
which was colouring frames of pidures, ^^:. 
previoufly filvered, in order to give them the 
effe(ft of gilding ; but this is now greatly dif- 
ufed. Thefe various intentions of laquering 
require different compofitions for the effed:u- 
ating each kind ; and as' there is a multiplicity 
of ingredients which may be conducive to each 
purpofe, a proportionable number of recipes 
have been devifed, and introduced into prac- 
tice ; efpecially for the laquering brafs work 
to imitate gilding ; which is a confiderable ob- 
je6t in this kind of art j and has been im- 
proved to the greateft degree of perfedion. I 
fhall, however, only give one or two recipes 
for each y as they are all which are neceffary ; 
the others being either made too complex by 
ingredients^ not effcntial tp the intentign, or too 


430 Of LAQjjEitiNG. 

cofkly by the uie of fuch as are expenfive ; or 
inferior in goodnefi, from the improper choice 
or proportion of the component fubftances. 

The principal body or matter of all good 
laquers ufed at prefent is feed-lac ; but, for 
coarier ufes> refin, or turpentine, is added ; in 
order to make the laquer cheaper, than if the 
ieed-iac^ which is a much dearer article, be ufed 
alone. Spirit of wine is alfb confcquently the 
fluid or menftruum of which laquers is formed; 
as the ethereal oils will not diffolve the feed-lac : 
and it is proper that the fpirit (hould be highly 
rcftified for this purpofe. As it b feldom prac- 
ticable, neverthelefs; to procure fiich ipirits 
from the ftiops, it will be found very advan- 
tageous to ufe the method above given for dc* 
}>hlegmating it by alkaline falts ; but the ufe of 
the alum, direded in that procefs, muft not 
be forgotten on this occafion ; as the effedt of 
the alkaline fait would otherwife be the turn- 
ing the metal of a purplifh inftead of a golden 
colour, by laying on the laquer. 

The following are excellent com j)oiitions for 
brafs work which is to refemble gilding. 

" Take of turmeric ground, as it may be had 
** at the dry falters, one ounce, and of faffron 
" and Spanifh annatto each two drams. Put 
" them into a proper bottle, with a pint of 
" highly rectified fpirit of wine j and place 
** them in a moderate heat, if convenient, 
*^ often fhaking them, for feveral days. A 
" very ftrong yellow tinfture will then be ob- 
^* tained^ which muft be ftrained-off from the 

!* dregs 

Oj^' Laqjjeriko. 431 

" dregs through a coarfc linnen cloth : and 
<*^ then, being put back into the botde, thretf 
" ounces of good fiscd-lac powd«ed grofsly 
^' mufl be added, and the mixture placed ^ 
^^ gain in a moderate heat, and fhaken, till die 
" lecd-lac be diflblved ; or at leaft luch part of 
** it as may. The laquer muft then be ftraincd 
** as before j and will be fit for ufe ; but muft 
" be kept in a bottle carefully ftopt. 

" Where it is defired to have the laquer 
" warmer or redder than this compofition may 
** prov6, the proportion of the annatto muft 
" be increafed ; and where it is wanted cooler, 
** or nearer a true yellow, it muft be dimi- 
" niftied." 

The above, properly managed, is an extreme 
good laquer ; and of moderate price : but the 
following, which is cheaper, and may be made 
where the Spanifh annatto cannot be procured 
good, is not greatly inferior to it. 

" Take of turmeJric root ground one ounce, 
" of the beft dragon's blood half a dram, 
" Put them to a pint of fpirit of wine, and 
** proceed as with the above/' 

By diminifliing the proportion of the dra** 
gon's blood, the varnifli may be rendered of a 
redder, or truer yellow caft. 

Saffron is fometimes ufed to form the body 
of colour in this kind of laquer, inftead of tht 
tiirnfteric ; but though it mdces a warmer yel- 
low, yet the dearnefs of it, and the advantage 
which turmeric has in forming a much ftroirger 
tinge in fpirit of wine, not only than the titf^ 
'-'- ^ fron. 

4^2 Op Laqjjerincj. 

fron, bat than any other vegetable matter hi- 
therto known, gives it the preference. Though 
being a true yellow^ and confequently not Ef- 
ficiently warm to overcome the greenifh caft of 
brafs, it requires the addition of fome orange 
coloured tinge to make a perfed: laquer for this 

Aloes and gamboge are alfo fometimes ufed 
in laquers; but the aloes is not neceflary where 
turmeric or faffron are ufed; and the gamboge, 
though a very ftrong milky yellow in water, 
affords only a very weak tinge in ipirit of 

. The varnifh for tin m^y be made as fol- 

" Take of turmeric root one ounce, of dra- 
*^ gon's blood two drams, and of fpirit of wine 
^* one pint. Proceed as in the former.'* 

This may, like the former, have the red or 
yellow rendered more prevalent by the in- 
creafing or diminishing the proportion of the 
dragon's blood. Where a coarfer or cheaper 
kind is wanted, the quantity of feed-lac may 
be abated -, and the deficiency thence arifing 
fupplied by the fame proportion of refin. 

The laquer for locks, nails, G?r. where lit- 
tle or no colours is defired, may either be feed- 
lac varniih alone as prepared above, or with a 
little dragon's blood : or a compound varnifh 
of equal parts of feed-lac and refin, with or 
without the dragon's blood- 

The manner of laying on tlie laquer is as 

I Firft 

Qp Laqjjering. 433 

Firft let the pieces of work to be laqucred be 
made thoroughly clean; which, if they be ncvr 
funded, this muH: be done by means, of aqua 
fbrtis. Being ready, they muft be heated by 
a fmall charcoal fire in a proper veflcl, or any 
way that may be moft convenient : the degree 
mufl not be greater than will admit of their 
being taken hold of without burning the hand. 
The laquer muft then be laid on by a proper 
brufli in the manner of other vamiflies ; and 
the pieces immediately fet again in the fame 
warm fituation. After the laquer is thorough- 
ly dry and firm, the fame operation muft be 
renewed again for four or five times, or till the 
work appear of the colour and brightncfs in- 
tended. For very fine work, fgme ufe a lefs 
proportion of feed-lac ; which occafions the 
laquer to lie evener on the metal : but in this 
cafe a greater number of coats are required ; 
which multiplies the proportion of labour ; 
though, where the price of the work will al- 
low for fuch additional trouble, it will be the 
more perfed: foe it. 

The laquering tin may be performed in the 
feme manner, as is here diredled for brafs: 
but being for coarfer purpofes lefs nicety is ob- 
ferved; and fewer coats (or perhaps one only) 
are made to fuffice ; as the laquer is made very 
red, that the tinge may have the ftrongcr ciFed. 
Locks, nails, &c. where laquer is only ufed 
in a defenlative view, to keep them from cor- 
roding, and not for the improvement of the 
colour, may be treated in the fame manner : 
F f but 

434 ^^ Staining. 

but one or two coats |re generally thought fiif- 
ficient. Though where any regard is had to 
the wear, the coats of laquer or varnifli (hould 
always be of a due thicknefs, when they are 
to be expofed to the air j otherwife, the firft 
moift weather makes them chill, and look 
grey and mifly, in fuch manner, that they are 
rather injurious than beneficial to the work 
they are laid upon. 

C H A P. VI. 

Of ftaining wood, ivory, bone, horn, 
alabafter, marble, and other ftones, 
of various colours. 

SECT* I. Of Jiaining wood. 

Of Jiaining wood yellow. 

TAKE any white wood ; and brufh it 
over feveral times with the tindture of 
turmeric root, made by putting an ounce of 
the turmeric ground to powder to a pint of 
fpirit; and, after they have flood fome days, 
ftraining off the tindure. If the yellow co- 
lour be defired to have a redder caft, a little 
dragon's blood muft be added, in the propor- 
tion that will produce the teint required. 

Of Staining. 435 

A cheaper, but leaft ftrong and bright yel- 
low, may be given to wood by rubbing it over 
feveral times with the tindture of the French 
berries, prepared as in p. 102, and made boiling 
hot. After the wood is again dry, it (hould be 
bruflied over with a weak alum water ufed cold. 

Leffer pieces of wood, inftead of bruflied over 
with them, may be Ibaked in the decodions or 

Wood may be alfo ftained yellow by means 
of aquafortis ; which will fometimes produce a 
very beautiful yellow colour, but at other times 
a browner. The wood fliould be warm, when 
the aqua fortis is laid on ; and be held to the 
fire immediately afterwards ; and care muft be 
taken, that either the aqua fortis be not too ftrong ; 
or that it be fparingly ufed 5 otherwife a brown, 
fometimes even blackifli, may be the refult. 

In order to render any of thefe ftains more 
beautiful and durable, the wood fliould be 
ruflied after it is coloured J and then varniflied 
by the feedrlacvarnifli; or, when defired to be 
very ftrong, and to take a high polifti, with 
three or fbur coats of fliell-lac varnifli, and as 
many of that of feed-lac. 

Ofjiaintng "wood red. 

For a bright red ftain for wood, make a 
ftrong infufion of Brazil in^ ftale urine, or wa- 
ter impregnated with pearl aflies in the pro- 
portion of an ounce to a gallon ; to a gallon of 
either of which, the proportion of Brafil wood 
Ff 2 muft 

436 Of Staining* 

muft be a pound : whidi being put to them, 
they muft ftand together two or three days, 
often ftirring the mixture. With this infiifiott ■ 
drained, and mad^ boiling hotj brufh over 
the wood to be ftained, till it appear ftrongly 
coloured : then, white yet wet, bruih it over 
with alum water made ih d\e proportion of two 
ounces of alum to a quart of water. 

For a lefs bright red, diflblve an oolite of 
dragon's blood in a pint of fpirit of wine ; and 
brulh over the wood with the tindure, till the 
flain appear to be as ftrong as is deiired. 

For a pink or rofe red, add to a gallon of 
the above infufion of Brazil wood two additi- 
onal ounces of the pearl afhes, and ufe it as 
was before diredled : but it is neceflary, in this 
cafe, to brufh the wood over often with the 
alum water. By increafing the proportion of 
pearl afhes, the red may be rendered yet paler : 
but it is proper, when more than this quantity 
is added, to make the alum water ftronger. 

Thefe reds, when it is neceflary, may be 
varniflied as the yellows. 

Of Jlaining wood blue. 

Wood may be ftained blue by means either 
of copper, or indico : but the firft will afford 
a brighter colour ; and is more generally prac- 
ticable than the latter ; becaufe the indico can 
be uied only in that ftate to which it is brought 
by the manner of preparation ufed by tiic 
dyers : of whom indeed it muft be had, as it 


Of Staining. 437 

cannol be properly fo prepared but in large 
quantities, and with a particular apparatus. 
The method of ftaining blue with the copper 
is therefore as follows, 

" Take a folution of copper, made accord- 
*' ing to the directions given in p. 86; and 
" bralh it while hot feveral times over the 
*^ wood. Tlicn make a folution of pearl 
•^ afties, in the proportion of two ounces to a 
" pint of water 5 and brufli it hot over the 
*' wood, ftained with the folution of copper, 
^' till it be of a perfeftly blue colour." 

Wood ftained green as above by verdigrife, 
may likewife be made b\jie, by ufing the fo- 
1utk)n of the pearl aflies in the fame manner. 

When indico is ufed for ftaining wood blue, 
it muft be managed thus. 

"'Take indico prepared with fope-lees as 
*' when ufed by the dyers ; and brufh the wood 
" with it boiling hot. Prepare then a fplution 
" of wtiite tartar 0|r cream of tartar, which is 

to be made by boiling three ounces of the 

tartar, or cream, in a quart of water : and 
" with this folution, ufed copioufly, brufh 
" over the wood before the moifture of the 
" tinifture of indiCo be quite dried out of it." 

Thefe blues may be rufticd and varnifhed as 
the reds where there is occafion. 

Ofjlaining wood of mahogony colour. 

Mahogony colour is the moft ufeful of any 

fkin for. wood (efpecially fince the fineering 

F f 3 with 


43^ Of Staining. 

with different colours is out of fafliion) as it is 
much pradtifed at prefent for chairs and other 
furniture made in imitation of mahogony ; 
which, when well managed, may be brought 
to have a very near rcfemblance. 

This (lain may be of different hues, as the 
natural wood varies greatly, being of all the 
intermediate teints betwixt the red brown, and 
purple brown, according to the age, or fome- 
times the original nature of different pieces. 

For the light red brown, ufe a deco<9ion of 
madder, or fuftic wood, ground in water j the 
proportion may be half a pound of madder, and 
a quarter of a pound of fuftic, to a gallon : or 
in default of fuftic an ounce of the yellow ber- 
ries may be ufed. This muft be bruftied over 
the wood to be ftained, while boiling hot, till 
the due colour be obtained : and, if the wood 
be kindly grained, it will have greatly the ap- 
pearance of new mahogony. 

The fame effecS nearly may be produced by 
the tincture of dragon's blood, and turmeric 
root, in fpirit of wine ; by increafing or dimi- 
nifl:iing the proportion of each of which in- 
gredients, the brown ftain may be varied to a 
more red or yellow pleafure. This 
fucceeds better upon wood which has already 
fome tinge of brown, than upon whiter. 

For the dark mahogony take the infufion 
of madder made as above, except the exchang- 
ing the fuftic for two ounces of logwood : and 
when the wood to be ftained has beenfcveral 
timc$ bruihed over, and is again dry, it muft 


Of STAINING•^ 43^ 

be flightly bruftied over with water in which 
pearl afhcs have been diflblved, in the pro- 
portion of about a quarter of an ounce to a 

Any ftains of the intermediate colours may 
be made by mixing thefe ingredients, or vary- 
ing the proportion of them. 

Where thefe ftains are ufed for better kind 
of work, the wood fhould be afterwards var- 
nifhed with three or four coats of feed-lac var- 
nifh ; but for coarfe work, the varnifh of refin 
and feed-lac may be employed, or they may be 
only well rubbed over with drying oil. 

Of Jlaining wood green. 

Diflblve verdigrife in vinegar, or chryftals of 
verdigrife in water -, and, v^dth the hot folution, 
brufli over the wood till it be duly ftained. 

This may be rufhed and varnifhed as the 

. Of Jiaining wood purple. 

Brufh the wood to be ftained feveral times 
with a ftrong dcco(ftion of logwood and Brafil, 
made in the proportion of one pound of the 
logwood, and a quarter of a pound of the 
Brazil, to a gallon of water; and boiled for an 
hour or more. When the wood has been bruih- 
ed over till there be a fufficient body of colour, 
let it dry ; and then be flightly paffed over by 
a folution of one dram of pearl afties in a quart 
Ff4 ^ of 

440 Of Staining. 

of wdter: This filiation muft be cattily u^9 
as it will gradually change the colour i^om a 
brown red, which it will be originally found to 
be, to a dark blue purple ; and therefore its 
cfftdL mufl be retrained to the due point for 
producing the colour defired. . 
This may be varnifhed as the reft. 

Ofjairting vmd blach 

Brufli the wood feveral times .with the hot 
decoiftion of logwood made as above; but wkh- 
out the Brafil : then, having prepared an in- 
fufion of galls, by putting a quarter of a pound 
of powdered galls. to two quarts of water, and 
fetting them in the fun-fhine, or any other 
gentle heat, for three or four days, brufli the 
wood three or four times over with it: and 
then pafs over it again, while yet wet, with a 
folution of green vitriol in water, in the pro- 
portion of two ounces to a quart. 

The above is the cheapeft method : but a 
very fine black may be produced, by brufhing 
the wood feveral times over with a folution of 
copper in aqua fortis j and afterwards with the 
decoiSion of logwood, >^^hich muft be re- 
peated till the colour be of fufHclent foitc % 
and the greennefs, produced by the folution of 
the copper, wholly overcome, 

Thel'e blacks may be varnifhed as the other 


Of Staining. 441 

Where the ftains are defired to be very 
ftrong, as in the caie of wood intended to be 
uibd for fineering, it is in general necefiiry^ 
they fhould be foaked, and not bruihed; tQ 
render which the more pradticable the wood 
may be previoufly flit, or fa wed, into pieces 
of a proper thicknefs for inlayifrg. 

It is to be underftood alfo, that when the 
wood is above ordered to be brufhed ieveral 
times over with the tinging fubftances, it fhoul4 
be fuffered to dry betwixt each time. 


Of flaining ivory ^ bone^ i>r horn. 

Of ftaining ivory ^ bonCy or born yellow. 

BOIL them j&rft in a folution of alum, in 
the proportion of one pound to two 
quarts of water : and then prepare a tinfture 
of the French berries, by boiling half a pound 
of the berries, pounded, in a gallon of water 
with a quarter of a pound of pearl aflies. After 
this tinfture has boiled about an hour, put the 
ivory, Gfr. previoufly boiled in the alum wa- 
ter, into it ; and let them remain there half an 

If turmeric root be ufed, inftead of the 
Frenqh hemes, a brighter yellow may be ob* 


44^ Of Staining. 

tained ; but the ivory, &c. muft in that cafe 
be again dipt in alum water after it is takeiv 
out of the tinfture ; otherwife an orange co- 
loufj not a yellow, will be produced from the 
cfFeSa of the pearl aflies on the turmeric. 

Of fiaimng ivory y bone^ and horn green. 

They muft be boiled in a folution of verdi- 
grife in vinegar ; or of copper in aqua fbrtis, 
prepared as above directed, (a veflel of glais 
or earthen ware being employed for this pur- 
pofe,) till they be of the colour defired. 

Ofjlaining ivory j hone^ and horn red. 

Take ftrong lime water, prepared as for o- 
ther purpofes ; and the rafpings of Brafil wood, 
in the proportion of half a pound to a gallon. 
Let them boil for an hour ; ard then put in the 
ivory, £?r. prepared by boiling in alum water in 
the manner above direfted for die yellow ; and 
continue it there till it be fufficicntly coloured. 
If it be too crimlbn, or verge toward Ac pur- 
ple, it may be rendered more fcarlct, by dip- 


as:ain in the alum water. 


\ Of Jialning theory y hne^ and bom blue. 

Stain the ivory, &c. firft green, according to 
the manner above directed ; and then dip it in 
a felution of pearl aihes made ffarong and boiling 
hot : but it muft not be continued tooger, nor 


Of Staining. 445 

dipt ofthcr, than is neceflkry to convert the 
green to blue. 

The ivory, &c. may otherwife be boiled in 
the tinfture of indico prepared as by the dyers j 
and afterwards in the'folution of tartar made as 
is direfted for the ftaining wood. 

Ofjlaining ivory y bone^ and horn purple. 

Treat them in the fame manner as was di- 
recfted for red; except diat logwood muft be 
fubftituted in the place of Brafil wood; and 
the ufe of the alum water mud be omitted 

If a redder purple be wanted, ^nuxliireof 
the logwood and Brafil mufl be employed, in^- 
flead of the logwood alone. The proportioa 
may be equal parts; or any lefs proportion of 
the Brafil, according to the colour defired. 

Ofjlaining born to imitate tortoife Jhell. 

The horn to be flaiiicd mufl be firft prefled 
into proper plates, or fcales, or other flat form* 
The following mixture mufl then be prepared, 

^^ Take of quicklime two parts, and of li- 
" tharge one ; and temper them to the confifl- 
" ence of a fbft paile with fope-lye." 

Put this pafle over all the parts of the horn, 
except fuch as are proper to be left tranfparcnt, 
in order to the greater refemblance of me tor- 
toife fhell. The horn mufl then remain thus 
covered with the pafle till it be thoroughly dry: 


444 ^^ Staining. 

when the pafte being brufhed off, the horn will 
be found partly opake, and partly tranfparcnt, 
in the manner of tortoife (hell ; and when put 
over a foil, of the kind of latten called aflidue, 
will be fcarcely diftinguifhable from it. It re- 
quires feme degree of fancy, aind judgment, -to 
difpofe of the pafle in fuch a manner, as to 
form 1 variety of transparent parts of different 
magnitude and figure, to look like the eiFedt of 
natil^re; iind it will be ari improprement to add 
iemi-tran^rcnt parts : which may be done 
hy mixing whiting wkh fbme of die pu^e to 
weaken its operation in particolar places : by 
which foots of a rcddifh brown ^yill be pro- 
•duted ; «at, if properly interfpericd, efpccially 
x>ti the edges of the dark parts, wfil greatly in- 
crcJafe as well the betoty of the Work, as its 
fimilitilde with the real tortoife (hell. 

To fiam ivory i bonej and hortiy black. 

Proceed in the fame manner as is above di- 
•fefted for wood. 


Of Staining. 445 


Of flaining paper ^ w parchment ^ of 
various colours* 

Of fiuimng paper ^ or pardbment^ yelhw. 

PAPER may be ftained yellow by the 
tmdture of French berries prepared as ia 
p. 102 :* but a much more beautiful colour 
may be obtained by ufing the tindure of tur- 
meric, formed by infufing an ounce or more of 
the root, powdered, in a pint of fpirit of wine.' 
This may be made to give any teint of yellow 
from the lighteft ftraw to the full colour called 
French yellow ; and will be equal in bright- 
nefs even to the beft dyed filks. If yellow be 
wanted of a warmer or redder caft, annatto, or 
dragon's blood, muft be added to the tinfture. 
The beft manner of ufing thefe, and the 
following tinftures, is to fpread them even on 
the paper or parchment by means of a broad 
brufh in the manner of varnifhing. 

Of fiainiiig paper ^ or parchment^ red^ 

Paper, or parchment, may be ftained red by 
treating it in the lame manner as is direAed 
for wood p. 43 5 ;' or by red ink. It may alfo 
be ftained of a fcarlet hue by the tin<fturc df 
dragon's blood in fpirit of wine : but this wilt 
not be bright 


44^ Or Staining. 

A very fine crimfon (lain may be given to 
paper, by a tindure of the Indian lake i which 
may be made by infufing the lake Ibme dav^ 
in ipirit [of wine ; and Sien pouring off tnc 
tinfture from the dregs. 

Of fiaining paper ^ or parchment y green. 

Paper, or parchment, may be ftained green, 
by the folution of verdigrife in vinegar ; or by 
the chryftals of verdigrife diflbived in water. 
As alfo by the folution of copper in aqua fortis 
made by adding filings of copper gradually to 
the aqua fortis till no ebullition enfues : or 
Ipirit of fait may be ufed in the place of the 
aqua fortis. 

Of Jlaining papery or parchment y blue. 

A blue colour may be given to paper, or 
parchment, by ftaining it green by any of the 
abovementioned methods; and treating it after- 
wards as is diredled for the ftaining wood blpc, 
by the fame means ; or by indico, in the man- 
ner there explained likewife. 

Of Jiaining papery or parchment y orange. 

Stain the paper, or parchment, firft of a 
full yellow, by means of the tindlure of tur- 
meric as above direfted. Then brufh it over 
with a folution of fixt alkaline fait, made by 
diflblving half an ounce of pearl afties, or fak 


of tartar, in a quart of water, and filtering the 
folotion. ' 

Cfjtaining paper ^ or parchment^ putpk. 

ftiper, or parchment, may be Ifained purple 
by archal : or by the tiaiAure of logwood, ao 
cording to. the method above diredcd for ftaii>- 
ing wood. The? juice of ripe privet berries cr- 
prefled will likewife give a purple dye to paper 
or parchment. 

S E C T I O N IV. 

Of fiaining alabafler^ marble and other 
JloneSy of various colours. 

ALABASTER, marble, and other, 
may be ftained of a yellow, red, green, 
blue, purple, black, or any of the compound 
colours, by the means above given for ftaining 
wood : but it is better, when a ftrong tinge is 
wanted, to pour the tindlure, if made in wa- 
ter, boiling hot on the alabafter, ^c. fpreading 
it equally on every part, than to brufh it over 
only ; though that may be fufficient where a 
flighter dye will fuffice. When tindtures in 
fpirit of wine are ufed, they muft not be heat- 
ed) as the fpirit would evaporate, and. leave 
the tinging gums in an undiflblved ftate. 

G g Whert 

44^ Of StaininoI 

Where fiones are not pcrfediy wlute» but 
partake of brownnefs or grcyncls, the co- 
lour produced by the tinges will be propor- 
tionab^ panting in brightnefs : becaufe the 
natural colour of die flone is not hid or covered 
by thefe tinges i but combines with them: 
and, for the ianws reafbo, if the flone be of 
any of the pure colours, the refiilt will be a 
compound of fuch colour and that of &e 


I N D EX. 


ALABASTER, how to be ftalned of 
various colours, 447 

Antimony, as a white colour for enamel, 251 :— • 
as a yellow colour for enamel, 267 i*—glafs of, 
how ufcd in enamel painting, 168 

Apparatus for making colours, 12 : — for enamel 
painting, 233 : — for gilding, 370 

Arabic Gum, • 154 

Archal, oroRCHAL, , H3 

Aroentum musivium, how prepared, 402 

Arsenic, how ufed in enamel, 252, 

Ashes Ultramarine, 74 


AuRUM MosAicuM, what, 386: — ^how prepar- 
ed, 387 


Balneum mari^c, ?7 

Bellows for burning enamel in an open hearth* 


Bice, 89 

G g 2 Bidders, 

I n" D E X- 

Binders in the formation of crayons, Vfhzif i88 
Bistre, 117 

Black, Lamp, 129 i—ivory^ 129 : — blue^ 131 
Blue colours, 6y : — Pruffiany 77 :— ^ cendresy or 

Sanders blue, . 85 

Body in colours, what, 5 :-^in the compofition of 

crayons, of what to be formed, 184 

Boiler for making colours, 24 

Bone, how to be ftained of various colours, 441 
Borax, as an enamel flux, 245 

Bowles white glafs^ as an enamel ground^ 283 
Breaking f^/£7«rj, what, 4 

Bricks, as a colour in enamel, 269 

Brightness of f^/c?«rj, what, 4 

Bronzing, what, and how to be performed, 104 
Brown colours, 114: — pinky 114: — oker^ 218 
Burning enamel, or glafs, what, 232 :— enamel 

grounds, particular manner of, 302 : — enamel 

paintings, 308 : — ^paintings on glafs, 308 

Burnishino, how performed in ^lding» 383 

Calcination, what, and how performed, 33 

Calcined antimony, 251 :— iwrz/^orn, 255:— 
copper^ 259 : — iron, 255:'^Jihery 259: — /i», 248 
Calking, what, 333 : —how performed, 242 
Camera obscura, its Ufe in drawing, 339 

Carmine, 54 

Casts from large fubjefts, 349 : — from fmall ani- 
mals or vegetables, 356 :•— from medals or other 
fmall fubjeds, 359 

Ceruse or white lead, 123 

Chrystals ofverdigrife (commonly called difUUcd 
verdigrife,) 105 

Cinnabar native^ 46 : — how counterfeited by the 
fadtitious, 46 


Classes of the colours, 8 

Cleaning piftures, 218 

Clear coating, (vulgarly called clear coaling,) 
what, 203 

Cloths for oil painting, what, 200 : — how beft 
prepared, 202 

Coffins for burning enamel and painted glafs, 243 
Colouring maps, prints, ^c. 227 

Colours, what, i : — ^kinds of 3 : — blacky 120 :-* 
blue^ 67 : — brown^ 114: — green^ 104: — orange^ 
m I— purple J 112 : — whiter 121 : — yellow^ 
90 :— KTompofition with the proper vehicles, 
162 : — ^proper to be ufcd with oils, 262 : — pro- 
per to be uled with water or in miniature paint- 
ing, 166:-— proper to be ufed with fize or in 
frefco painting, 1 74 : — proper to be ufed in var- 
nifli, 176 : — for enamel, of what formed, 252 :— 

— black, 300 I blue, 288 :— — brown, 

299 : — —green, 294 : orange, 296 : — 

-—red, 284 : purple, 298 : — —white, 

279 :— — yellow, 291 : — for painting on gla& 

by burning, 313 : without burning, 325 

Coolness in colours, what, 7 

Copper, its ufe and preparation for forming co- 
lours in enamel, 260 :— powder of, 403 : — cal- 
cined, 259 
Covering, as a Quality in colours, what, 5 
Crayons, general nature of, 181 : — white, 190: — 
red, 191: — blue, 195: — green, 197: — orange, 
198 :— purple, 198 :— -brown, 199 : — black and 
grey, 200 
Crocus Martis, or calcined iron, 265 
Crucibles for enamel, 243 
Cullenders for filtering, 27 
Cushion for gilding, what, 370^ 

O g 3 Designs, 



Designs, how to be more cafily made, 331 

Devices ufed in drawing, 331 

Dryers, what, 135 :— particular kinds of, 147 

pRviNGOiL, what, and how prepared, 147 

VvrcH gold^ ^S^i-^^nk^ 94 


Egg-shell white, 128 

Enamel patnting^ general nature of, 228 :— 

grounds^ of what formed, 248 : compofition 

and preparation of, 279 : how burnt, 302 :— 

colours^ of what formed-, 230 :-— -^hlack^ 300 :— 

— blue^ 288: browfiy 299 : green^ 294 : 

red^ 284 : — ^^urple, 298 : — — twii/^ 

279 :-^ — ^yellow, 291 : ^how laid, and 

burnt, 30^ :- 'inftruments of, 233 

•English pink, 95 

ev-aporation, 38 

Extract of liquorice, i2i 


Fat oil, what, 143 > — how prepared, 372 

Fattning of colours^ what, 6 : how produced, 

14.: — of oils, what, 143 

Filtration, how to be performed, 36 

Filters, 27 

Fire lute, 14 

Flake White, 121 

Flints, as a body for enamel, 247 

Fluxes in enamel painting, what, 228 : — fub- 
ftances ufed in compounding, 245 : — particular 
compofition of, 275 r-r-for painting on glafs, 313 



Flying of colours, what, 4 

Foulness of colours, what, 4 

Fresco painling, what, 137 

Furnaces for making colours, 13 : — for calcining 
Pruflian blue, 22 : — for enamelling, 234 : — ^for 
fubliming kings yellow, 20 : — for vermi- 
lion, IS 


Gall stones, 99 

Gamboge, 96 

Gilding in general, 367: — kinds of, 368: — in 

oil, 372 :•— with burnifht work, 377:— japan- 

ners, 384 :•— enamel or glafs by burning, 320 :— i. 

—without burning, 399 : — paper, vellum, and 

parchment, 300 : — leather, 398 

Glair ofeggs^ as a varnifh for pidures, 210 

Glass, as a ground for painting with vitreous co« 

lours, or by burning, 302 : — how painted with 

vitreous colours, and burnt, 318 :— how gilt by 

burning, 320 : — how gilt without burning, 399: 

'—of ontimofTf^ as an enamel colour, 268 i—of 

lead J as an enamel flux, 274 : — Venetian^ as a 

flux, 277 : — common or Bowleses wbitCy as an 

enamel ground, 283 

Glazing with colours, what, 5 

Gold, its ufe in enamel, 254 i^purple or precipi* 

tate of, 255 i—teaf^ 368 : Dutcb^ 368 : — 

powder proper for gilding glafs or enamel, 322 : 
— - — ^proper for japanners gilding, 384 \—Jhell^ 

what, 390 ; how prepared, 391 : — fize for 

japanners gilding, 384 :— —for burnifh gild- 
ings 378 
Green colours, 104: — Pruffian^ 168 : — ^fap, 107 
Grounds for oil painting, 2oi :— *for water co* 
lours, 205: — for frefco painting, 207: — for 
G g 4 enamel^ 


enamel, of what formed, 248 : compofiti<m 

and preparation of, 279 :— — how laid on and 
burnt, 302: — for japan work, 410 

Gum Arabic^ i54:-*^fi»?f«/> "^55 i-^fanderac, 160: 
— majiicj r 160 

Gum water, how prepared, 168 


Hardness of enamel, and fluxes, what, 129 

Hartshorn calcined or burnt, 125 

HoRN^ how £0 be ftained of various colours, 441 


Japanning, general nature of, 406 

Japan work^ grounds for, 410 :— — black, 419 . 

- — —blue, 416 : green, 418 : orange, 

418 : purple, 418 :.— — torcoifc ftieil, 

, 420 : yellow, 417 :— how piaintcd, 421 :— 

how varnifhed, 423 :— -how gilded, 428 ; — how 
polKhed, 4^-6 

Impressions, how to be taken from various fub- 
jefts, 361 

Indian ink, 132 

Indian red, true, 112:— common or fiftiti- 
ous, 50 

Instruments for making colours, 12 : — for en- 
amelling, 233 : — for gilding, 370 
Iron, its ufe in and preparation for forming colours 
in enamel, 263 :-~how to be caft with a fmall 
heat, 360 
Isinglass, 156 i-^^ze, bow prepared, 168 
Juice, Spanish, 12 i 
Ivory Black, 129 
Ivory, how to be ftained of various colours, 441 




Kings yellow, 9^ 

I.ACMus or LITMUS9 89 

Lake, common^ $5 >^^M^ifuLi prepared from 
Brafd wood, 60 i—Cbinefe or Inaian^ 64 i-'^^ofe 
or rofe pink^ 64 i-^^arangey 1 1 1 

Lamp black, 129 

LAC(^^ERING, what, and how performed, 42S 
IjACqver for imitating gold, 430 : — for tin, 432 : 
—for defending brals work, 43a 

Lavender, cil ofyZsz fccondary vehicle in enamel 
painting, 146 

Lead, redy 49:— w&>, 12^ :—fugar ofy 152 
Leaf gold, qualities and kinds of, 368 

Leather, how gilded, 398 

Leaves, impreflions of, 364:— how to be pre- 
fer ved for a long time, » 3^4 
Levigation, how to be performed, 40 
Light pink, 85 
Linseed oil 144 
Liquorice, extraftof, or Spanifh juice, 121 
Litmus or lacmus, 89 
Logwood wajh^ 113 
Lute, called fire lute, 14 i^^common^ 32 


Maps, how to be walhed with colours, 227 

Magnesia, its nature and ufe in enamel, 240 

Marble, how to be (lained of Various colours, 


I N D E X. 

Mastic, 160 

Masticot, 97 

Mathematical r^fwp^j, or parallelogram^ 347 
Matting, what, 381 : — how performed, 38a 
'Medals, cafts of, how to be taken, 359 : itnprelli- 

ons of, how to be made, 361 

Melting pots for enamel, 240 

Mending //<f7«rw, 216 

Mercury, its ufe in an enamel colour, 268 

Metzotinto PRINTS, how taken ofFonglafs and 

painted, 325 

Miniature painting, what, 137 

Minium, 47 : — as an enamel flux, 245 

Moilon, as a body for enamel, 247 

Muffles for burning enamel, or painted glafs, 


Naples vELLaw, 91 

Native cinnabar, 46 

Nut OIL, 145 


Off-tracing, what, 332 : — how performed, 340 

Oil, general nature of as a vehicle in painting, 

139 ; — particular kinds of, 14^ : — dryings 147 : 

'^-"of lavender^ 146 i-^n/eedj 144; — nutj 145: — 

poppy, 146 

Oker, browny 118 : — red^ 66 : — fcarlet, 47 i—yel- 



Opacity of colours, what. 


Operations fubfervient to 




. lours. 


Orange colours, ili : — lake^ 


Orchal, or Archal, 






Orpiment, common^ 98 : — r^f(/, or kings yelloWi 
90 :•— its ufc as an enamel coiourt ^ 269 

p. '^ 

Painting in oilj what, neccflary to it, 125:*— 
— how performed, 162 : — in miniature^ or with 

water colourSy what, 137 : how performed, 

166 i^^in frefcoy or with Jize^ what, 137:-=^ 
— how performed, 172 : — in varni/ht ^ffhat 
138 : — — how performed, 176 : — on glafs 
with vitreous colours, 309 : with oil co- 
lours, 325 
Pall£t for gilding,. what, 37;! 
Paper, as a ground for water colours, 209 : — ^how 
gilt, 300 : — how ftained of various colours, 448 
Pastils or crayons. 181 
Parchmen't, how gilt, 300: — how ftained, 146 
Parallelogram, or mathematical com- 
passes, what, and how ufed in drawing, 347 
Pearl White, 127 
Pictures, how to be prcferved, 208 :— how to be 
mended, 2 i 6 : — how cleaned, 218 
Pigments, what, 3 
Pink, hown, 1 14 : — Dutch^ 94 : — Englijh^ 85 2— 
light y 85 i—rofe^ or rofe lake^ 64 
Polish for gilding, 388 : — for japan work, 426: — • 
water, 207 
Poppy oil, 146 
Precipitate of ^^/i (called purple of gold,) 255 : 
— of gold in its metalline form, 322 : — of cop'^ 
per^ 262 :— — in its metalline form, 404 : — of 
tron^ 2.66 
Precipitation, what, 25 
Preserving piftures or other paintings^ 208 
Priming cloths for painting, 203 : — pap& for wa* 
. ter colours, 205 :— wood for oil painting, 203 : 
r — —lor 


-^ —for varnifh paintings, 208 : — copper plates 
for oil painting, 204:— — ^for varnifh paint- 
ing, 208 

Prints, how taken off upon ghfsy and painted, 
325 : — ^how to be walhed with colours, 227 

Prussian blue, jj :— greeny log 

Purple colours, 112: — of gold, what, and how 
prepared, 255 

Putty, or calcined tin, how prepared for ufing 
as a white colour in enaoiel painting, 248 

Red colours^ 42 : — leadj 47 :— okcr, 66 

Reduction in defigning, what, 333 : — ^kow per- 
formed, 344 
Resin, 161 
Retorts, 26 
Rou pink, 64 


Saffron, tinfture of, 103 

Salt, fixt alcaline, as an enamel flux, 245 :— 
common, as an enamel flux, 246 

Sand, as a body for enamel, 246 

Sander AC, 160 

Sanders blue, or blue de cendres^ 85 

Sap green, 107 

Scarlet oksr, 47 

Seed lac, 158 

Secondary vehicle in enamel painting, what, 230 
Senegal gum, 155 

Shell lac, 159: — —varnifh, 177 

Shell gold, 391 

Silver, its ufe in forming, and preparation for 



colours in enamel, 259 :— powders, how pre- 
pared, 402 
Silvering, how performed, 402 
Sinking of the colours, what, 20a 
Size common^ 156:— of glovers cuttings^ 156: 
'^arcbmenlj 378 :—ifinglafs^ 168 i-^-goU for 

• japanners, 384 : for burnifh gilding, 378 3 

for fiivering, 40J 

Smalt, 18 : — its ufe in enamel, 254 

Solution, what, 35 

SoFTNBSs of enamel and fluxes, what, 128 

Spanish brown^ 52: — Uquorice^ 121 : — wbitCy 127 
Spike, oil of ^ 14& 

Spirit (or oil) of turpentine^ 151 : — of wine^ as 

a vehicle for colours, 138: how rcftified to 

any degree extemporaneoufly, 425 

Staining wood black, 440: — — 45lue, 436: 

— — green, 439 : -mahogony colour, 437 : 

red, 435 : -purple, : ^yellow, 

434: — bone, ivory, or horn black, 444:— 

— blue, 443 : -green, 442 : red, 442 : 

purple, 443 : tortoife flidl, 443 :— 

paper or parchment bide, 446:— — green, 446: 

red, 445 : — —orange, 446 : purple, 

447: yellow, 445: alabafter, mai^ie, 

ana other ftones, of various colours, . 447 

SrASDifiG of colours^ what, 4 

Starch, hpw ufed for rendering water a vehicle, 

Stones, how to be ftained of various colours, 447 

Sublimation, 30 

SufcAR, and fugar candy^ how ufed for rendering 

water a vehicle for colours, 156 : — oflead^ as a 

dryer, 152 


r N D E X- 


Tartar, its ufe in forming enamel coburs, 370 

Terra vrrte, ho 

Terra DE Sienna burnt, 53 :^— unbumtt 100 

Tin, how caldned for enamel, 248 

Transparency of colours, what, 5 

Troy White, i%y 

Turmeric wajbj 103 

Turpentine, 160 i^^l or fpirit of 9 151 



Varnish, feed lac common, 444:— —finer, 424 : 

— — coarfe, 412 :—/hell lac^ ^177 :— — Maf- 

iicj 179: — compound for painting, 179 :— of 

gum Arabic for preferving pidures, 209 : — 

compound for preferving paintings, 2 1 1 ; — — 

fimpler kind of, 212: — compound in oil of 

turpentine for preferving paintings, 213 :— — 

fimpler kind of, 214 

Varnishing piflures, 208 

Vehicles, what, 2: — general nature of, 134: 

— fecondary in enamel painting, what, 230 

Vellum, as a ground for painting, 206 :-— how 

to be gilt, 300 

Venetian red, ^ 

Verdigrise, 105: — dijlilledor cbryftals of^ 105 

Verditer, g3 

Vermilion, 42 

Umbre, 119 

Vitriol green^ how calcined, 14 and 49 : — how 

precipitated, 266: — white^ 153 

Ultr amarinf., 67 : — a/hes^ 74 : — as a colour for 

enamel, 252 


t N t) E X • 

Underwork in calling, what, and how to be 
managed, 354 

Ut£nsils for making colours* 12:— for enamel 
painting, 233 : — for gilding, 370 


Warmth in colours^ what, 7 

Wash from French berries, 102 : — from turme- 
ric, 103: — from logwood, 113 

Washing with colours, what, 5 : — over, what^ 
and how to be performed, 40: — maps, prints, 
fcfr. 227 

Water colours^ what, 166: — as a vehicle, 136; 
— gumj how prepared, 1 68 : — how rendered a 
proper vehicle for colours, 136 

White colours j izii—flake^ 121: — kad^ i33i 
—pearly 127: — enameh 2/fii—SpaniJh orTroy^ 
127 : — egg'Jhellj 128 : — vitriofj 153 

Wood, how to be ftained of various colours, 434 


Yellow colours^ go i-^Ksng^ 90: — Naples^ 91: 
'^oker^ 93 : — wajh from the French berries, 

102 : from turmeric, 103 : from faf- 

fron, 109 


Zaffer, its nature and ufe in enamel, 2^3 


BOO KS |f Ii0 Pf' J. jl^ovR» at the Lamb e^ 
pofite Kathenne-Street in the Strand. 

THE Elaboratory LAID OPEN *. Of, The SeCTCtS of Mo* 
dern Chemi^ aad Phannacy revealed: Containing 
many particulars extremely neceilary to be known to aU 
PraAitionen in Medicine. OdUvo, 1758. 

Boerhaave's Medical Correspondence: Containing the 
various Symptoms of Chronical Diftempers, the Profeilbr's 
Opinion* Method of Cure, and Remedies. To which is 
aodedy his Pradice in the Hofpital of Leyden, with his 
Manner of inibufUng his Popils in the Cure of Difeafes. 
O&AVQ9 174^- 

la this Colle£Uon are contained many Letters, wrote ori^i 
Miudly in Engliih te the Dodor, by Perfons of Diffindipn, 
Uentlemen and Ladies, ^c, with his Anfwers ; fuch are 
marked •^*, the reft arc tranflated from the Latin. 

Academical Lectures on Fevers : In which the efTential 
Symptoms and Nature of the various Kinds of Fevers are 
defcribed, the immediate Caufes pointed out, with the ge- 
neral and particular Indications in the Method of Cure Tub- 
joined to each. Confirmed by the Author's fuccefsful Prac-^ 
tice of forty Years ; read in the Royal College at Paris. By 
M.J.Allruc, M.D. Oftavo, 1747. 

An Essay on Comparative Anatomy : or, A Summary 
View of the moft material Difierences in the Struflure of 
Animals ; in which the Defcriptions are all taken from real 
Difledions, and transferred by Analogy to the Human Body^ 
intermixed with many pradical Obfervations in Medicine 
and Surgery. Oftavo, 1 744. 

The New Dispensatory : Containing, i. The Theory and 
Prance of Pharmacy. 2. A Diftribution of Medicinal 
Simples, according to their Virtues and fenfible Qualities ; 
the Defcription* Ufe, and Dofe of each Article. 3. A full 
Tranflation pf the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopceias ; 
with the Ufe, Dofe, Wc. of the feveral Medicines. 4. Di- 
rediions for Extemporaneous Prefcriptions ; with a feledl 
Number of elegant Forms. 5. A Colledlion of cheap Re- 
medies for the Ufe of the Poor. The whole interfperfed 
with pra£lical Cautions and Obfervations, intended as a 
' Correftion and Improvement of Quincy . Oftavo, 1753. 

A Short Account of Mortifications, and of the fur- 
prizing Effedls of the Bark, in putting a Stop to their Pro- 
grefs, t^c. by John Douglas, Surgeon, F. R. S. Oclavo. 

The Dispensatory of the Hoyal College of Physi- 
cians, London. Tranflated into Engliih, with Remarks, 
l^c. by H. Pemberton, M. D: Profeflbr of Phyfick in 
Grefham College, and F. R. S. Odlavo, 1 749. The fe- 
cond Edition. 


kijt -^t- ^ -Md- V 

Maally in E*